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TEDxPSU

Ali Carr-Chellman: Gaming to re-engage boys in learning

October 21, 2010

In her talk, Ali Carr-Chellman pinpoints three reasons boys are tuning out of school in droves, and lays out her bold plan to re-engage them: bringing their culture into the classroom, with new rules that let boys be boys, and video games that teach as well as entertain.

Ali Carr-Chellman - Instructional designer
Ali Carr-Chellman is an instructional designer and author who studies the most effective ways to teach kids and to make changes at school. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
So I'm here to tell you
00:15
that we have a problem with boys,
00:17
and it's a serious problem with boys.
00:19
Their culture isn't working in schools,
00:21
and I'm going to share with you
00:24
ways that we can think about overcoming that problem.
00:26
First, I want to start by saying, this is a boy,
00:29
and this is a girl,
00:32
and this is probably stereotypically
00:34
what you think of as a boy and a girl.
00:36
If I essentialize gender for you today,
00:38
then you can dismiss what I have to say.
00:40
So I'm not going to do that. I'm not interested in doing that.
00:42
This is a different kind of boy and a different kind of girl.
00:44
So the point here is that not all boys
00:48
exist within these rigid boundaries
00:50
of what we think of as boys and girls,
00:52
and not all girls exist within those rigid boundaries
00:55
of what we think of as girls.
00:57
But, in fact, most boys tend to be a certain way,
00:59
and most girls tend to be a certain way.
01:02
And the point is that, for boys,
01:04
the way that they exist and the culture that they embrace
01:07
isn't working well in schools now.
01:10
How do we know that?
01:12
The Hundred Girls Project
01:14
tells us some really nice statistics.
01:16
For example, for every 100 girls that are suspended from school,
01:19
there are 250 boys that are suspended from school.
01:22
For every 100 girls who are expelled from school,
01:25
there are 335 boys who are expelled from school.
01:28
For every 100 girls in special education,
01:31
there are 217 boys.
01:33
For every 100 girls with a learning disability,
01:35
there are 276 boys.
01:37
For every 100 girls
01:40
with an emotional disturbance diagnosed,
01:42
we have 324 boys.
01:44
And by the way, all of these numbers are significantly higher
01:46
if you happen to be black,
01:49
if you happen to be poor,
01:51
if you happen to exist in an overcrowded school.
01:53
And if you are a boy,
01:57
you're four times as likely
01:59
to be diagnosed with ADHD --
02:01
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
02:03
Now there is another side to this.
02:06
And it is important that we recognize
02:09
that women still need help in school,
02:12
that salaries are still significantly lower,
02:14
even when controlled for job types,
02:16
and that girls have continued to struggle
02:19
in math and science for years.
02:21
That's all true.
02:23
Nothing about that prevents us
02:25
from paying attention to the literacy needs
02:27
of our boys between ages three and 13.
02:29
And so we should.
02:31
In fact, what we ought to do is take a page from their playbook,
02:33
because the initiatives and programs
02:36
that have been set in place
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for women in science and engineering and mathematics
02:40
are fantastic.
02:42
They've done a lot of good
02:44
for girls in these situations,
02:46
and we ought to be thinking about
02:48
how we can make that happen for boys too
02:50
in their younger years.
02:52
Even in their older years,
02:54
what we find is that there's still a problem.
02:56
When we look at the universities,
02:58
60 percent of baccalaureate degrees are going to women now,
03:00
which is a significant shift.
03:03
And in fact, university administrators
03:05
are a little uncomfortable about the idea
03:07
that we may be getting close to 70 percent
03:09
female population in universities.
03:11
This makes university administrators very nervous,
03:13
because girls don't want to go to schools that don't have boys.
03:16
And so we're starting to see the establishment
03:21
of men centers and men studies
03:24
to think about how do we engage men
03:26
in their experiences in the university.
03:28
If you talk to faculty, they may say,
03:30
"Ugh. Yeah, well, they're playing video games,
03:32
and they're gambling online all night long,
03:35
and they're playing World of Warcraft,
03:38
and that's affecting
03:40
their academic achievement."
03:42
Guess what?
03:45
Video games are not the cause.
03:47
Video games are a symptom.
03:49
They were turned off a long time
03:51
before they got here.
03:53
So let's talk about why they got turned off
03:56
when they were between the ages of three and 13.
03:58
There are three reasons that I believe
04:01
that boys are out of sync
04:03
with the culture of schools today.
04:05
The first is zero tolerance.
04:07
A kindergarten teacher I know,
04:10
her son donated all of his toys to her,
04:12
and when he did, she had to go through
04:15
and pull out all the little plastic guns.
04:18
You can't have plastic knives and swords and axes
04:22
and all that kind of thing
04:24
in a kindergarten classroom.
04:26
What is it that we're afraid that this young man is going to do with this gun?
04:28
I mean, really.
04:31
But here he stands as testament
04:33
to the fact that you can't roughhouse on the playground today.
04:36
Now I'm not advocating for bullies.
04:39
I'm not suggesting
04:41
that we need to be allowing guns and knives into school.
04:43
But when we say
04:46
that an Eagle Scout in a high school classroom
04:48
who has a locked parked car in the parking lot
04:50
and a penknife in it
04:52
has to be suspended from school,
04:54
I think we may have gone a little too far with zero tolerance.
04:56
Another way that zero tolerance lives itself out is in the writing of boys.
04:59
In a lot of classrooms today
05:02
you're not allowed to write about anything that's violent.
05:04
You're not allowed to write about anything
05:06
that has to do with video games -- these topics are banned.
05:08
Boy comes home from school, and he says,
05:11
"I hate writing."
05:13
"Why do you hate writing, son? What's wrong with writing?"
05:15
"Now I have to write what she tells me to write."
05:17
"Okay, what is she telling you to write?"
05:20
"Poems. I have to write poems.
05:23
And little moments in my life.
05:25
I don't want to write that stuff."
05:27
"All right. Well, what do you want to write? What do you want to write about?"
05:29
"I want to write about video games. I want to write about leveling-up.
05:32
I want to write about this really interesting world.
05:35
I want to write about a tornado that comes into our house
05:37
and blows all the windows out
05:40
and ruins all the furniture and kills everybody."
05:42
"All right. Okay."
05:44
You tell a teacher that,
05:46
and they'll ask you, in all seriousness,
05:48
"Should we send this child to the psychologist?"
05:51
And the answer is no, he's just a boy.
05:54
He's just a little boy.
05:57
It's not okay to write these kinds of things
06:00
in classrooms today.
06:02
So that's the first reason:
06:04
zero tolerance policies and the way they're lived out.
06:06
The next reason that boys' cultures are out of sync with school cultures:
06:08
there are fewer male teachers.
06:11
Anybody who's over 15 doesn't know what this means,
06:13
because in the last 10 years,
06:16
the number of elementary school classroom teachers
06:18
has been cut in half.
06:20
We went from 14 percent
06:22
to seven percent.
06:24
That means that 93 percent of the teachers
06:26
that our young men get in elementary classrooms
06:28
are women.
06:30
Now what's the problem with this?
06:32
Women are great. Yep, absolutely.
06:34
But male role models for boys
06:36
that say it's all right to be smart --
06:39
they've got dads, they've got pastors,
06:41
they've got Cub Scout leaders,
06:43
but ultimately, six hours a day, five days a week
06:45
they're spending in a classroom,
06:48
and most of those classrooms
06:50
are not places where men exist.
06:52
And so they say, I guess this really isn't a place for boys.
06:54
This is a place for girls.
06:57
And I'm not very good at this,
06:59
so I guess I'd better
07:01
go play video games or get into sports, or something like that,
07:03
because I obviously don't belong here.
07:06
Men don't belong here, that's pretty obvious.
07:08
So that may be a very direct way
07:10
that we see it happen.
07:12
But less directly,
07:14
the lack of male presence in the culture --
07:16
you've got a teachers' lounge,
07:19
and they're having a conversation
07:21
about Joey and Johnny who beat each other up on the playground.
07:23
"What are we going to do with these boys?"
07:26
The answer to that question changes depending on who's sitting around that table.
07:28
Are there men around that table?
07:31
Are there moms who've raised boys around that table?
07:33
You'll see, the conversation changes
07:36
depending upon who's sitting around the table.
07:38
Third reason that boys are out of sync with school today:
07:40
kindergarten is the old second grade, folks.
07:43
We have a serious compression of the curriculum happening out there.
07:46
When you're three, you better be able to write your name legibly,
07:50
or else we'll consider it a developmental delay.
07:52
By the time you're in first grade,
07:55
you should be able to read paragraphs of text
07:57
with maybe a picture, maybe not,
08:00
in a book of maybe 25 to 30 pages.
08:02
If you don't, we're probably going to be putting you
08:04
into a Title 1 special reading program.
08:06
And if you ask Title 1 teachers, they'll tell you
08:08
they've got about four or five boys for every girl that's in their program,
08:10
in the elementary grades.
08:13
The reason that this is a problem
08:15
is because the message that boys are getting
08:18
is "you need to do
08:21
what the teacher asks you to do all the time."
08:23
The teacher's salary depends
08:26
on "No Child Left Behind" and "Race to the Top"
08:29
and accountability and testing
08:31
and all of this.
08:33
So she has to figure out a way
08:35
to get all these boys through this curriculum --
08:37
and girls.
08:40
This compressed curriculum is bad
08:42
for all active kids.
08:44
And what happens is,
08:47
she says, "Please, sit down,
08:49
be quiet, do what you're told, follow the rules,
08:52
manage your time, focus,
08:55
be a girl."
08:57
That's what she tells them.
08:59
Indirectly, that's what she tells them.
09:01
And so this is a very serious problem. Where is it coming from?
09:04
It's coming from us.
09:06
(Laughter)
09:08
We want our babies to read when they are six months old.
09:11
Have you seen the ads?
09:14
We want to live in Lake Wobegon
09:16
where every child is above average,
09:18
but what this does to our children is really not healthy.
09:21
It's not developmentally appropriate,
09:24
and it's particularly bad for boys.
09:26
So what do we do?
09:28
We need to meet them where they are.
09:30
We need to put ourselves into boy culture.
09:32
We need to change the mindset
09:35
of acceptance in boys in elementary schools.
09:38
More specifically, we can do some very specific things.
09:42
We can design better games.
09:45
Most of the educational games that are out there today
09:47
are really flashcards.
09:49
They're glorified drill and practice.
09:51
They don't have the depth, the rich narrative
09:53
that really engaging video games have,
09:56
that the boys are really interested in.
09:58
So we need to design better games.
10:00
We need to talk to teachers and parents
10:02
and school board members and politicians.
10:04
We need to make sure that people see that we need more men in the classroom.
10:06
We need to look carefully at our zero tolerance policies.
10:09
Do they make sense?
10:11
We need to think about
10:13
how to uncompress this curriculum if we can,
10:15
trying to bring boys back into a space
10:18
that is comfortable for them.
10:20
All of those conversations need to be happening.
10:22
There are some great examples out there
10:24
of schools --
10:26
the New York Times just talked about a school recently.
10:28
A game designer from the New School
10:30
put together a wonderful video gaming school.
10:33
But it only treats a few kids,
10:36
and so this isn't very scalable.
10:39
We have to change the culture and the feelings
10:41
that politicians and school board members and parents have
10:43
about the way we accept and what we accept
10:46
in our schools today.
10:48
We need to find more money for game design.
10:51
Because good games, really good games, cost money,
10:53
and World of Warcraft has quite a budget.
10:55
Most of the educational games do not.
10:57
Where we started:
10:59
my colleagues -- Mike Petner, Shawn Vashaw, myself --
11:01
we started by trying to look at the teachers' attitudes
11:04
and find out how do they really feel about gaming,
11:06
what do they say about it.
11:08
And we discovered
11:10
that they talk about the kids in their school,
11:12
who talk about gaming,
11:14
in pretty demeaning ways.
11:16
They say, "Oh, yeah. They're always talking about that stuff.
11:18
They're talking about their little action figures
11:21
and their little achievements or merit badges,
11:23
or whatever it is that they get.
11:26
And they're always talking about this stuff."
11:28
And they say these things as if it's okay.
11:30
But if it were your culture,
11:32
think of how that might feel.
11:34
It's very uncomfortable to be on the receiving end
11:36
of that kind of language.
11:38
They're nervous about anything
11:40
that has anything to do with violence
11:42
because of the zero tolerance policies.
11:44
They are sure that parents and administrators will never accept anything.
11:46
So we really need to think about looking at teacher attitudes
11:49
and finding ways to change the attitudes
11:52
so that teachers are much more open
11:55
and accepting of boy cultures in their classrooms.
11:57
Because, ultimately, if we don't,
12:00
then we're going to have boys who leave elementary school saying,
12:02
"Well I guess that was just a place for girls.
12:05
It wasn't for me.
12:07
So I've got to do gaming, or I've got to do sports."
12:09
If we change these things, if we pay attention to these things,
12:12
and we re-engage boys in their learning,
12:15
they will leave the elementary schools saying, "I'm smart."
12:17
Thank you.
12:20
(Applause)
12:22

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Ali Carr-Chellman - Instructional designer
Ali Carr-Chellman is an instructional designer and author who studies the most effective ways to teach kids and to make changes at school.

Why you should listen

A former third-grade teacher, Ali Carr-Chellman realized that traditional elementary classrooms weren't for her, in part because she was frustrated by the lack of innovation, agility, and readiness to change in traditional schools. She's now an instructional designer, author and educator, working on how to change and innovate within schools to make education work better for more kids. She teaches at Penn State University in the College of Education, working primarily with doctoral-level students to help produce the next generation of faculty with inspired research ideas and methods. Carr-Chellman also teaches online courses focused on helping practicing teachers learn how to improve their own instructional design practices and how to improve their classrooms.

Her recent research projects include "Bring Back the Boys," looking at ways gaming can be used to re-engage boys in their elementary education. Another projects asks prisoners and homeless people to think about how to reform schools, bringing new voices to the policy-making table.






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