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TED2011

Roger Ebert: Remaking my voice

March 4, 2011

When film critic Roger Ebert lost his lower jaw to cancer, he lost the ability to eat and speak. But he did not lose his voice. In a moving talk from TED2011, Ebert and his wife, Chaz, with friends Dean Ornish and John Hunter, come together to tell his remarkable story.

Roger Ebert - Film critic and blogger
After losing the power to speak, legendary film critic Roger Ebert went on to write about creativity, race, politics and culture -- and film, just as brilliantly as ever. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Roger Ebert: These are my words, but this is not my voice.
00:15
This is Alex, the best computer voice
00:18
I've been able to find,
00:20
which comes as standard equipment on every Macintosh.
00:22
For most of my life,
00:25
I never gave a second thought to my ability to speak.
00:27
It was like breathing.
00:30
In those days, I was living in a fool's paradise.
00:32
After surgeries for cancer
00:35
took away my ability to speak, eat or drink,
00:37
I was forced to enter this virtual world
00:40
in which a computer does some of my living for me.
00:42
For several days now,
00:45
we have enjoyed brilliant and articulate speakers here at TED.
00:47
I used to be able to talk like that.
00:50
Maybe I wasn't as smart,
00:52
but I was at least as talkative.
00:54
I want to devote my talk today
00:56
to the act of speaking itself,
00:58
and how the act of speaking or not speaking
01:00
is tied so indelibly to one's identity
01:02
as to force the birth of a new person
01:04
when it is taken away.
01:06
However, I've found that listening to a computer voice
01:08
for any great length of time
01:10
can be monotonous.
01:12
So I've decided to recruit some of my TED friends
01:14
to read my words aloud for me.
01:17
I will start with my wife, Chaz.
01:19
Chaz Ebert: It was Chaz who stood by my side
01:25
through three attempts to reconstruct my jaw
01:27
and restore my ability to speak.
01:31
Going into the first surgery
01:34
for a recurrence of salivary cancer
01:36
in 2006,
01:38
I expected to be out of the hospital
01:40
in time to return to my movie review show,
01:43
'Ebert and Roeper at the Movies.'
01:45
I had pre-taped enough shows
01:48
to get me through six weeks of surgery
01:50
and recuperation.
01:53
The doctors took a fibula bone from my leg
01:55
and some tissue from my shoulder
01:58
to fashion into a new jaw.
02:00
My tongue, larynx and vocal cords
02:04
were still healthy and unaffected.
02:07
(Laughter)
02:09
(Laughter)
02:12
CE: I was optimistic,
02:23
and all was right with the world.
02:25
The first surgery was a great success.
02:27
I saw myself in the mirror
02:30
and I looked pretty good.
02:32
Two weeks later, I was ready to return home.
02:35
I was using my iPod
02:38
to play the Leonard Cohen song
02:40
'I'm Your Man'
02:42
for my doctors and nurses.
02:44
Suddenly, I had an episode of catastrophic bleeding.
02:47
My carotid artery had ruptured.
02:51
Thank God I was still in my hospital room
02:54
and my doctors were right there.
02:57
Chaz told me
03:01
that if that song hadn't played for so long,
03:03
I might have already been in the car, on the way home,
03:05
and would have died right there and then.
03:08
So thank you, Leonard Cohen,
03:11
for saving my life.
03:13
(Applause)
03:16
There was a second surgery --
03:20
which held up for five or six days
03:22
and then it also fell apart.
03:24
And then a third attempt,
03:27
which also patched me back together pretty well,
03:29
until it failed.
03:32
A doctor from Brazil said
03:36
he had never seen anyone survive
03:38
a carotid artery rupture.
03:41
And before I left the hospital,
03:44
after a year of being hospitalized,
03:47
I had seven ruptures
03:50
of my carotid artery.
03:52
There was no particular day
03:54
when anyone told me
03:56
I would never speak again;
03:58
it just sort of became obvious.
04:00
Human speech
04:03
is an ingenious manipulation of our breath
04:05
within the sound chamber of our mouth
04:08
and respiratory system.
04:11
We need to be able to hold and manipulate that breath
04:14
in order to form sounds.
04:17
Therefore, the system
04:20
must be essentially airtight
04:22
in order to capture air.
04:25
Because I had lost my jaw,
04:28
I could no longer form a seal,
04:30
and therefore my tongue
04:32
and all of my other vocal equipment
04:34
was rendered powerless.
04:37
Dean Ornish: At first for a long time,
04:41
I wrote messages in notebooks.
04:43
Then I tried typing words on my laptop
04:45
and using its built in voice.
04:47
This was faster,
04:49
and nobody had to try to read my handwriting.
04:51
I tried out various computer voices that were available online,
04:53
and for several months I had a British accent,
04:56
which Chaz called Sir Lawrence."
04:58
(Laughter)
05:00
"It was the clearest I could find.
05:02
Then Apple released the Alex voice,
05:04
which was the best I'd heard.
05:06
It knew things like the difference
05:08
between an exclamation point and a question mark.
05:10
When it saw a period, it knew how to make a sentence
05:12
sound like it was ending instead of staying up in the air.
05:14
There are all sorts of html codes you can use
05:18
to control the timing and inflection of computer voices,
05:20
and I've experimented with them.
05:23
For me, they share a fundamental problem: they're too slow.
05:25
When I find myself in a conversational situation,
05:28
I need to type fast and to jump right in.
05:31
People don't have the time or the patience
05:35
to wait for me to fool around with the codes
05:37
for every word or phrase.
05:39
But what value do we place on the sound of our own voice?
05:41
How does that affect who you are as a person?
05:44
When people hear Alex speaking my words,
05:47
do they experience a disconnect?
05:49
Does that create a separation or a distance
05:51
from one person to the next?
05:53
How did I feel not being able to speak?
05:56
I felt, and I still feel,
05:58
a lot of distance from the human mainstream.
06:00
I've become uncomfortable when I'm separated from my laptop.
06:02
Even then, I'm aware that most people have little patience
06:06
for my speaking difficulties.
06:08
So Chaz suggested finding a company that could make a customized voice
06:11
using my TV show voice
06:14
from a period of 30 years.
06:16
At first I was against it.
06:18
I thought it would be creepy
06:20
to hear my own voice coming from a computer.
06:22
There was something comforting about a voice that was not my own.
06:24
But I decided then to just give it a try.
06:27
So we contacted a company in Scotland
06:29
that created personalized computer voices.
06:31
They'd never made one from previously-recorded materials.
06:34
All of their voices had been made by a speaker
06:37
recording original words in a control booth.
06:39
But they were willing to give it a try.
06:41
So I sent them many hours of recordings of my voice,
06:43
including several audio commentary tracks
06:46
that I'd made for movies on DVDs.
06:48
And it sounded like me, it really did.
06:51
There was a reason for that; it was me.
06:53
But it wasn't that simple.
06:56
The tapes from my TV show weren't very useful
06:58
because there were too many other kinds of audio involved --
07:01
movie soundtracks, for example, or Gene Siskel arguing with me --
07:04
(Laughter)
07:07
and my words often had a particular emphasis
07:09
that didn't fit into a sentence well enough.
07:11
I'll let you hear a sample of that voice.
07:14
These are a few of the comments I recorded for use
07:16
when Chaz and I appeared on the Oprah Winfrey program.
07:19
And here's the voice we call Roger Jr.
07:22
or Roger 2.0.
07:24
Roger 2.0: Oprah, I can't tell you how great it is
07:27
to be back on your show.
07:29
We have been talking for a long time,
07:32
and now here we are again.
07:35
This is the first version of my computer voice.
07:37
It still needs improvement,
07:40
but at least it sounds like me
07:42
and not like HAL 9000.
07:44
When I heard it the first time,
07:47
it sent chills down my spine.
07:49
When I type anything,
07:52
this voice will speak whatever I type.
07:54
When I read something, it will read in my voice.
07:56
I have typed these words in advance,
07:59
as I didn't think it would be thrilling
08:02
to sit here watching me typing.
08:04
The voice was created by a company in Scotland
08:06
named CereProc.
08:09
It makes me feel good
08:11
that many of the words you are hearing were first spoken
08:13
while I was commenting on "Casablanca"
08:16
and "Citizen Kane."
08:19
This is the first voice they've created for an individual.
08:22
There are several very good voices available for computers,
08:25
but they all sound like somebody else,
08:28
while this voice sounds like me.
08:31
I plan to use it on television, radio
08:34
and the Internet.
08:37
People who need a voice should know
08:39
that most computers already come with built-in speaking systems.
08:42
Many blind people use them
08:45
to read pages on the Web to themselves.
08:47
But I've got to say, in first grade,
08:50
they said I talked too much,
08:52
and now I still can.
08:54
(Laughter)
08:56
Roger Ebert: As you can hear, it sounds like me,
08:59
but the words jump up and down.
09:02
The flow isn't natural.
09:04
The good people in Scotland are still improving my voice,
09:06
and I'm optimistic about it.
09:09
But so far, the Apple Alex voice
09:11
is the best one I've heard.
09:13
I wrote a blog about it
09:15
and actually got a comment from the actor who played Alex.
09:17
He said he recorded many long hours in various intonations
09:20
to be used in the voice.
09:23
A very large sample is needed.
09:25
John Hunter: All my life I was a motormouth.
09:28
Now I have spoken my last words,
09:31
and I don't even remember for sure
09:34
what they were.
09:36
I feel like the hero of that Harlan Ellison story
09:38
titled "I Have No Mouth and I Must Scream."
09:41
On Wednesday, David Christian explained to us
09:45
what a tiny instant the human race represents
09:48
in the time-span of the universe.
09:51
For almost all of its millions and billions of years,
09:53
there was no life on Earth at all.
09:56
For almost all the years of life on Earth,
09:59
there was no intelligent life.
10:02
Only after we learned to pass knowledge
10:04
from one generation to the next,
10:06
did civilization become possible.
10:08
In cosmological terms,
10:10
that was about 10 minutes ago.
10:12
Finally came mankind's most advanced and mysterious tool,
10:15
the computer.
10:19
That has mostly happened in my lifetime.
10:21
Some of the famous early computers
10:24
were being built in my hometown of Urbana,
10:26
the birthplace of HAL 9000.
10:29
When I heard the amazing talk
10:32
by Salman Khan on Wednesday,
10:34
about the Khan Academy website
10:36
that teaches hundreds of subjects to students all over the world,
10:38
I had a flashback.
10:41
It was about 1960.
10:43
As a local newspaper reporter still in high school,
10:46
I was sent over to the computer lab of the University of Illinois
10:49
to interview the creators
10:52
of something called PLATO.
10:54
The initials stood for Programmed Logic
10:56
for Automated Teaching Operations.
10:58
This was a computer-assisted instruction system,
11:02
which in those days ran on a computer named ILLIAC.
11:05
The programmers said it could assist students in their learning.
11:08
I doubt, on that day 50 years ago,
11:12
they even dreamed of what Salman Khan has accomplished.
11:15
But that's not the point.
11:19
The point is PLATO was only 50 years ago,
11:21
an instant in time.
11:24
It continued to evolve and operated in one form or another
11:26
on more and more sophisticated computers,
11:29
until only five years ago.
11:32
I have learned from Wikipedia
11:34
that, starting with that humble beginning,
11:36
PLATO established forums, message boards,
11:39
online testing,
11:42
email, chat rooms,
11:44
picture languages, instant messaging,
11:46
remote screen sharing
11:49
and multiple-player games.
11:51
Since the first Web browser was also developed in Urbana,
11:54
it appears that my hometown
11:57
in downstate Illinois
11:59
was the birthplace
12:01
of much of the virtual, online universe we occupy today.
12:03
But I'm not here from the Chamber of Commerce.
12:06
(Laughter)
12:08
I'm here as a man who wants to communicate.
12:10
All of this has happened in my lifetime.
12:13
I started writing on a computer back in the 1970s
12:16
when one of the first Atech systems was installed
12:19
at the Chicago Sun-Times.
12:22
I was in line at Radio Shack
12:25
to buy one of the first Model 100's.
12:27
And when I told the people in the press room at the Academy Awards
12:30
that they'd better install some phone lines for Internet connections,
12:33
they didn't know what I was talking about.
12:36
When I bought my first desktop,
12:39
it was a DEC Rainbow.
12:41
Does anybody remember that?"
12:43
(Applause)
12:45
"The Sun Times sent me to the Cannes Film Festival
12:48
with a portable computer the size of a suitcase
12:50
named the Porteram Telebubble.
12:54
I joined CompuServe
12:56
when it had fewer numbers
12:58
than I currently have followers on Twitter.
13:00
(Laughter)
13:02
CE: All of this has happened
13:06
in the blink of an eye.
13:08
It is unimaginable
13:10
what will happen next.
13:12
It makes me incredibly fortunate
13:14
to live at this moment in history.
13:17
Indeed, I am lucky to live in history at all,
13:19
because without intelligence and memory
13:22
there is no history.
13:25
For billions of years,
13:27
the universe evolved
13:29
completely without notice.
13:31
Now we live in the age of the Internet,
13:33
which seems to be creating a form of global consciousness.
13:36
And because of it,
13:39
I can communicate
13:41
as well as I ever could.
13:43
We are born into a box
13:45
of time and space.
13:47
We use words and communication
13:50
to break out of it
13:52
and to reach out to others.
13:54
For me, the Internet began
13:57
as a useful tool
13:59
and now has become something I rely on
14:01
for my actual daily existence.
14:04
I cannot speak;
14:07
I can only type so fast.
14:09
Computer voices
14:12
are sometimes not very sophisticated,
14:14
but with my computer,
14:17
I can communicate more widely
14:19
than ever before.
14:21
I feel as if my blog,
14:23
my email, Twitter and Facebook
14:26
have given me a substitute
14:29
for everyday conversation.
14:31
They aren't an improvement,
14:34
but they're the best I can do.
14:36
They give me a way to speak.
14:38
Not everybody has the patience
14:41
of my wife, Chaz.
14:44
But online,
14:48
everybody speaks at the same speed.
14:49
This whole adventure
14:54
has been a learning experience.
14:56
Every time there was a surgery that failed,
14:58
I was left with a little less flesh and bone.
15:01
Now I have no jaw left at all.
15:04
While harvesting tissue from both my shoulders,
15:07
the surgeries left me with back pain
15:10
and reduced my ability to walk easily.
15:12
Ironic that my legs are fine,
15:16
and it's my shoulders that slow up my walk.
15:18
When you see me today,
15:21
I look like the Phantom of the Opera.
15:23
But no you don't.
15:25
(Laughter)
15:27
(Applause)
15:29
It is human nature to look at someone like me
15:39
and assume I have lost some of my marbles.
15:42
People --
15:46
(Applause)
15:57
People talk loudly --
16:03
I'm so sorry.
16:05
Excuse me.
16:07
(Applause)
16:09
People talk loudly and slowly to me.
16:13
Sometimes they assume I am deaf.
16:17
There are people who don't want to make eye contact.
16:20
Believe me, he didn't mean this as --
16:24
anyway, let me just read it.
16:26
(Laughter)
16:28
You should never let your wife read something like this.
16:33
(Laughter)
16:36
It is human nature
16:40
to look away from illness.
16:42
We don't enjoy a reminder
16:45
of our own fragile mortality.
16:47
That's why writing on the Internet
16:50
has become a lifesaver for me.
16:52
My ability to think and write
16:54
have not been affected.
16:57
And on the Web, my real voice finds expression.
16:59
I have also met many other disabled people
17:02
who communicate this way.
17:05
One of my Twitter friends
17:08
can type only with his toes.
17:10
One of the funniest blogs on the Web
17:12
is written by a friend of mine
17:14
named Smartass Cripple.
17:16
(Laughter)
17:18
Google him and he will make you laugh.
17:20
All of these people are saying, in one way or another,
17:23
that what you see
17:25
is not all you get.
17:27
So I have not come here to complain.
17:29
I have much to make me happy and relieved.
17:32
I seem, for the time being,
17:35
to be cancer-free.
17:37
I am writing as well as ever.
17:39
I am productive.
17:41
If I were in this condition at any point
17:43
before a few cosmological instants ago,
17:46
I would be as isolated as a hermit.
17:49
I would be trapped inside my head.
17:52
Because of the rush of human knowledge,
17:54
because of the digital revolution,
17:57
I have a voice,
17:59
and I do not need to scream.
18:01
RE: Wait. I have one more thing to add.
18:05
A guy goes into a psychiatrist.
18:10
The psychiatrist says, "You're crazy."
18:12
The guy says, "I want a second opinion."
18:15
The psychiatrist says, "All right, you're ugly."
18:18
(Laughter)
18:22
You all know the test for artificial intelligence -- the Turing test.
18:25
A human judge has a conversation
18:29
with a human and a computer.
18:31
If the judge can't tell the machine apart from the human,
18:33
the machine has passed the test.
18:36
I now propose a test for computer voices -- the Ebert test.
18:39
If a computer voice can successfully tell a joke
18:43
and do the timing and delivery as well as Henny Youngman,
18:46
then that's the voice I want.
18:49
(Applause)
18:51

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Roger Ebert - Film critic and blogger
After losing the power to speak, legendary film critic Roger Ebert went on to write about creativity, race, politics and culture -- and film, just as brilliantly as ever.

Why you should listen

By any measure, Roger Ebert was a legend. The first person to win a Pulitzer for film criticism, as film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times, he was best known for his decades-long reign as the co-host of Sneak Previews, a TV show with fellow Chicago critic Gene Siskel. For 23 years and three title changes (finally settling on Siskel and Ebert and the Movies) the two critics offered smart, short-form film criticism that guided America's moviegoing. After Gene Siskel died in 1999, Ebert kept on with critic Richard Roeper. (And he was also the co-screenwriter of the Russ Meyer cult classic Beyond the Valley of the Dolls, a fact that astounded more than a few young film students.)

In 2006, Ebert began treatment for thyroid cancer. He told the story of his many surgeries and setbacks in an immensely-worth-reading Esquire story in 2010. Enduring procedure after procedure, he eventually lost the lower part of his jaw -- and with it his ability to eat and speak. Turning to his blog and to Twitter, he found a new voice for his film work and his sparkling thoughts on ... just about everything. He tried his hand as an Amazon affiliate, became a finalist in the New Yorker caption contest, and started a controversy or two. In 2013 Ebert passed away from cancer at the age of 70.

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