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TEDWomen 2010

Tyrone Hayes + Penelope Jagessar Chaffer: The toxic baby

December 2, 2010

Filmmaker Penelope Jagessar Chaffer was curious about the chemicals she was exposed to while pregnant: Could they affect her unborn child? So she asked scientist Tyrone Hayes to brief her on one he studied closely: atrazine, a herbicide used on corn. (Hayes, an expert on amphibians, is a critic of atrazine, which displays a disturbing effect on frog development.) Onstage together at TEDWomen, Hayes and Chaffer tell their story.

Penelope Jagessar Chaffer - Filmmaker
Penelope Jagessar Chaffer made the film "Toxic Baby," exploring environmental toxins through interviews and surreal imagery. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Penelope Jagessar Chaffer: I was going to ask if there's a doctor in the house.
00:15
No, I'm just joking.
00:18
It's interesting, because it was six years ago
00:20
when I was pregnant with my first child
00:23
that I discovered
00:25
that the most commonly used preservative
00:27
in baby care products
00:29
mimics estrogen
00:31
when it gets into the human body.
00:33
Now it's very easy actually
00:35
to get a chemical compound from products
00:37
into the human body through the skin.
00:39
And these preservatives had been found
00:41
in breast cancer tumors.
00:43
That was the start of my journey
00:45
to make this film, "Toxic Baby."
00:47
And it doesn't take much time
00:49
to discover some really astonishing statistics
00:51
with this issue.
00:53
One is that you and I all have
00:55
between 30 to 50,000 chemicals
00:58
in our bodies
01:00
that our grandparents didn't have.
01:02
And many of these chemicals
01:04
are now linked to the skyrocketing incidents
01:06
of chronic childhood disease
01:09
that we're seeing across industrialized nations.
01:11
I'll show you some statistics.
01:14
So for example, in the United Kingdom,
01:16
the incidence of childhood leukemia
01:18
has risen by 20 percent just in a generation.
01:20
Very similar statistic for childhood cancer in the U.S.
01:23
In Canada, we're now looking at one in 10 Canadian children with asthma.
01:26
That's a four-fold increase.
01:30
Again, similar story around the world.
01:33
In the United States,
01:35
probably the most astonishing statistic
01:37
is a 600 percent increase
01:39
in autism and autistic spectrum disorders
01:41
and other learning disabilities.
01:44
Again, we're seeing that trend
01:46
across Europe, across North America.
01:48
And in Europe,
01:50
there's certain parts of Europe,
01:52
where we're seeing a four-fold increase
01:54
in certain genital birth defects.
01:56
Interestingly, one of those birth defects
01:59
has seen a 200 percent increase in the U.S.
02:01
So a real skyrocketing
02:04
of chronic childhood disease
02:06
that includes other things
02:08
like obesity and juvenile diabetes,
02:10
premature puberty.
02:12
So it's interesting for me,
02:14
when I'm looking for someone who can really talk to me
02:16
and talk to an audience about these things,
02:18
that probably one of the most important people in the world
02:21
who can discuss toxicity in babies
02:24
is expert in frogs.
02:27
(Laughter)
02:29
Tyrone Hayes: It was a surprise to me as well
02:31
that I would be talking about pesticides,
02:34
that I'd be talking about public health,
02:37
because, in fact, I never thought I would do anything useful.
02:41
(Laughter)
02:44
Frogs.
02:47
In fact, my involvement in the whole pesticide issue
02:50
was sort of a surprise as well
02:53
when I was approached by the largest chemical company in the world
02:55
and they asked me if I would evaluate
02:58
how atrazine affected amphibians, or my frogs.
03:00
It turns out, atrazine is the largest selling product
03:03
for the largest chemical company in the world.
03:06
It's the number one contaminant
03:08
of groundwater, drinking water, rain water.
03:10
In 2003, after my studies, it was banned in the European Union,
03:13
but in that same year,
03:16
the United States EPA re-registered the compound.
03:18
We were a bit surprised when we found out
03:20
that when we exposed frogs
03:23
to very low levels of atrazine -- 0.1 parts per billion --
03:25
that it produced animals that look like this.
03:28
These are the dissected gonads of an animal
03:31
that has two testes, two ovaries,
03:33
another large testis, more ovaries,
03:35
which is not normal ...
03:37
(Laughter)
03:39
even for amphibians.
03:41
In some cases, another species like the North American Leopard Frog
03:43
showed that males exposed to atrazine grew eggs in their testes.
03:46
And you can see these large, yolked-up eggs
03:49
bursting through the surface of this male's testes.
03:51
Now my wife tells me, and I'm sure Penelope can as well,
03:54
that there's nothing more painful than childbirth --
03:57
which that I'll never experience, I can't really argue that --
04:00
but I would guess that a dozen chicken eggs in my testicle
04:03
would probably be somewhere in the top five.
04:05
(Laughter)
04:08
In recent studies that we've published,
04:10
we've shown that some of these animals when they're exposed to atrazine,
04:12
some of the males grow up
04:14
and completely become females.
04:16
So these are actually two brothers consummating a relationship.
04:18
And not only do these genetic males mate with other males,
04:21
they actually have the capacity to lay eggs
04:24
even though they're genetic males.
04:26
What we proposed,
04:29
and what we've now generated support for,
04:31
is that what atrazine is doing
04:33
is wreaking havoc causing a hormone imbalance.
04:35
Normally the testes should make testosterone,
04:37
the male hormone.
04:39
But what atrazine does is it turns on an enzyme,
04:41
the machinery if you will, aromatase,
04:44
that converts testosterone into estrogen.
04:46
And as a result, these exposed males
04:48
lose their testosterone, they're chemically castrated,
04:50
and they're subsequently feminized
04:53
because now they're making the female hormone.
04:55
Now this is what brought me to the human-related issues.
04:57
Because it turns out
05:00
that the number one cancer in women, breast cancer,
05:02
is regulated by estrogen and by this enzyme aromatase.
05:05
So when you develop a cancerous cell in your breast,
05:08
aromatase converts androgens into estrogens,
05:10
and that estrogen turns on or promotes
05:14
the growth of that cancer
05:16
so that it turns into a tumor and spreads.
05:18
In fact, this aromatase is so important in breast cancer
05:21
that the latest treatment for breast cancer
05:24
is a chemical called letrozole,
05:27
which blocks aromatase, blocks estrogen,
05:29
so that if you developed a mutated cell, it doesn't grow into a tumor.
05:31
Now what's interesting is, of course,
05:34
that we're still using 80 million pounds of atrazine,
05:36
the number one contaminant in drinking water, that does the opposite --
05:39
turns on aromatase, increases estrogen
05:42
and promotes tumors in rats
05:44
and is associated with tumors, breast cancer, in humans.
05:46
What's interesting is, in fact,
05:50
the same company that sold us 80 million pounds of atrazine,
05:52
the breast cancer promoter,
05:54
now sells us the blocker -- the exact same company.
05:56
And so I find it interesting
05:59
that instead of treating this disease
06:01
by preventing exposure to the chemicals that promote it,
06:03
we simply respond
06:06
by putting more chemicals into the environment.
06:08
PJC: So speaking of estrogen,
06:11
one of the other compounds that Tyrone talks about in the film
06:13
is something called bisphenol A, BPA,
06:16
which has been in the news recently.
06:19
It's a plasticizer.
06:22
It's a compound that's found in polycarbonate plastic,
06:24
which is what baby bottles are made out of.
06:27
And what's interesting about BPA
06:29
is that it's such a potent estrogen
06:31
that it was actually once considered for use
06:34
as a synthetic estrogen in hormone placement therapy.
06:36
And there have been many, many, many studies that have shown
06:39
that BPA leaches from babies' bottles
06:42
into the formula, into the milk,
06:45
and therefore into the babies.
06:47
So we're dosing our babies,
06:49
our newborns, our infants,
06:51
with a synthetic estrogen.
06:53
Now two weeks ago or so,
06:55
the European Union passed a law
06:57
banning the use of BPA
06:59
in babies' bottles and sippy cups.
07:01
And for those of you who are not parents,
07:03
sippy cups are those little plastic things
07:05
that your child graduates to after using bottles.
07:07
But just two weeks before that,
07:10
the U.S. Senate refused to even debate
07:13
the banning of BPA
07:16
in babies' bottles and sippy cups.
07:18
So it really makes you realize
07:21
the onus on parents
07:23
to have to look at this and regulate this and police this
07:25
in their own lives
07:27
and how astonishing that is.
07:29
(Video) PJC: With many plastic baby bottles
07:31
now proven to leak the chemical bisphenol A,
07:34
it really shows how sometimes
07:37
it is only a parent's awareness
07:39
that stands between chemicals and our children.
07:41
The baby bottle scenario proves
07:45
that we can prevent unnecessary exposure.
07:47
However, if we parents are unaware,
07:50
we are leaving our children
07:52
to fend for themselves.
07:54
TH: And what Penelope says here
08:03
is even more true.
08:05
For those of you who don't know, we're in the middle of the sixth mass extinction.
08:07
Scientists agree now.
08:10
We are losing species from the Earth
08:12
faster than the dinosaurs disappeared,
08:14
and leading that loss are amphibians.
08:16
80 percent of all amphibians
08:18
are threatened and in come decline.
08:20
And I believe, many scientists believe
08:22
that pesticides are an important part of that decline.
08:24
In part, amphibians are good indicators and more sensitive
08:27
because they don't have protection from contaminants in the water --
08:30
no eggshells, no membranes
08:32
and no placenta.
08:34
In fact, our invention -- by "our" I mean we mammals --
08:36
one of our big inventions was the placenta.
08:39
But we also start out as aquatic organisms.
08:42
But it turns out that this ancient structure
08:44
that separates us from other animals, the placenta,
08:46
cannot evolve or adapt fast enough
08:49
because of the rate that we're generating new chemicals
08:51
that it's never seen before.
08:53
The evidence of that is that studies in rats, again with atrazine,
08:55
show that the hormone imbalance atrazine generates causes abortion.
08:58
Because maintaining a pregnancy is dependent on hormones.
09:01
Of those rats that don't abort,
09:04
atrazine causes prostate disease
09:06
in the pups so the sons
09:08
are born with an old man's disease.
09:10
Of those that don't abort,
09:12
atrazine causes impaired mammary, or breast, development
09:14
in the exposed daughters in utero,
09:16
so that their breast don't develop properly.
09:18
And as a result, when those rats grow up,
09:20
their pups experience retarded growth and development
09:22
because they can't make enough milk to nourish their pups.
09:25
So the pup you see on the bottom is affected by atrazine
09:28
that its grandmother was exposed to.
09:31
And given the life of many of these chemicals,
09:33
generations, years, dozens of years,
09:36
that means that we right now
09:39
are affecting the health
09:41
of our grandchildren's grandchildren
09:43
by things that we're putting into the environment today.
09:45
And this is not just philosophical, it's already known,
09:48
that chemicals like diethylstilbestrol and estrogen,
09:50
PCBs, DDT
09:52
cross the placenta
09:54
and effectively determine
09:56
the likelihood of developing breast cancer
09:58
and obesity and diabetes
10:00
already when the baby's in the womb.
10:02
In addition to that, after the baby's born,
10:04
our other unique invention as mammals
10:06
is that we nourish our offspring after they're born.
10:08
We already know that chemicals
10:10
like DDT and DES and atrazine
10:12
can also pass over into milk,
10:14
again, affecting our babies
10:16
even after their born.
10:18
PJC: So when Tyrone tells me
10:21
that the placenta is an ancient organ,
10:23
I'm thinking, how do I demonstrate that?
10:26
How do you show that?
10:28
And it's interesting when you make a film like this,
10:30
because you're stuck trying to visualize science
10:32
that there's no visualization for.
10:35
And I have to take a little bit of artistic license.
10:37
(Video) (Ringing)
10:45
Old man: Placenta control.
10:50
What is it?
10:52
Oh what?
10:54
(Snoring)
10:57
(Honk)
11:00
Puffuffuff, what?
11:05
Perflourooctanoic acid.
11:11
Blimey.
11:18
Never heard of it.
11:20
PJC: And neither had I actually
11:23
before I started making this film.
11:27
And so when you realize that chemicals can pass the placenta
11:29
and go into your unborn child,
11:32
it made me start to think,
11:35
what would my fetus say to me?
11:37
What would our unborn children say to us
11:40
when they have an exposure
11:43
that's happening everyday, day after day?
11:46
(Music)
11:49
(Video) Child: Today,
12:07
I had some octyphenols,
12:09
some artificial musks
12:13
and some bisphenol A.
12:16
Help me.
12:21
PJC: It's a very profound notion
12:26
to know that we as women
12:29
are at the vanguard of this.
12:31
This is our issue,
12:33
because we collect these compounds our entire life
12:35
and then we end up dumping it and dumping them
12:38
into our unborn children.
12:41
We are in effect
12:44
polluting our children.
12:46
And this was something that was really brought home to me a year ago
12:48
when I found out I was pregnant
12:52
and the first scan revealed
12:54
that my baby had a birth defect
12:56
associated with exposure
12:59
to estrogenic chemicals in the womb
13:01
and the second scan
13:03
revealed no heartbeat.
13:05
So my child's death, my baby's death,
13:07
really brought home the resonance of what I was trying to make in this film.
13:10
And it's sometimes a weird place
13:13
when the communicator becomes part of the story,
13:15
which is not what you originally intend.
13:18
And so when Tyrone talks about
13:20
the fetus being trapped in a contaminated environment,
13:23
this is my contaminated environment.
13:26
This is my toxic baby.
13:30
And that's something
13:33
that's just profound and sad,
13:36
but astonishing
13:39
because so many of us don't actually know this.
13:41
TH: One of this things that's exciting and appropriate
13:46
for me to be here at TEDWomen
13:48
is that, well, I think it was summed up best last night at dinner
13:50
when someone said, "Turn to the man at your table and tell them,
13:54
'When the revolution starts, we've got your back.'"
13:56
The truth is, women,
13:59
you've had our back on this issue for a very long time,
14:01
starting with Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring"
14:04
to Theo Colborn's "Our Stolen Future"
14:06
to Sandra Steingraber's books
14:08
"Living Downstream" and "Having Faith."
14:10
And perhaps it's the connection to our next generation --
14:13
like my wife and my beautiful daughter here about 13 years ago --
14:16
perhaps it's that connection
14:19
that makes women activists
14:21
in this particular area.
14:23
But for the men here, I want to say
14:25
it's not just women and children that are at risk.
14:27
And the frogs that are exposed to atrazine,
14:29
the testes are full of holes and spaces,
14:32
because the hormone imbalance,
14:34
instead of allowing sperm to be generated,
14:36
such as in the testis here,
14:38
the testicular tubules end up empty
14:40
and fertility goes down by as much as 50 percent.
14:42
It's not just my work in amphibians,
14:44
but similar work has been shown in fish in Europe,
14:47
holes in the testes and absence of sperm in reptiles in a group from South America
14:50
and in rats, an absence of sperm
14:53
in the testicular tubules as well.
14:55
And of course, we don't do these experiments in humans,
14:58
but just by coincidence,
15:00
my colleague has shown
15:02
that men who have low sperm count, low semen quality
15:04
have significantly more atrazine in their urine.
15:06
These are just men who live
15:09
in an agricultural community.
15:11
Men who actually work in agriculture
15:13
have much higher levels of atrazine.
15:15
And the men who actually apply atrazine
15:18
have even more atrazine in their urine,
15:20
up to levels that are 24,000 times what we know to be active
15:23
are present in the urine of these men.
15:26
Of course, most of them, 90 percent are Mexican, Mexican-American.
15:29
And it's not just atrazine they're exposed to.
15:32
They're exposed to chemicals like chloropicrin,
15:34
which was originally used as a nerve gas.
15:37
And many of these workers
15:39
have life expectancies of only 50.
15:41
It shouldn't come to any surprise that the things that happen in wildlife
15:43
are also a warning to us,
15:46
just like Rachel Carson and others have warned.
15:48
As evident in this slide from Lake Nabugabo in Uganda,
15:50
the agricultural runoff from this crop,
15:53
which goes into these buckets,
15:55
is the sole source of drinking, cooking and bathing water for this village.
15:57
Now if I told the men in this village
16:00
that the frogs have pour immune function
16:02
and eggs developing in their testes,
16:04
the connection between environmental health and public health
16:06
would be clear.
16:08
You would not drink water that you knew was having this kind of impact
16:10
on the wildlife that lived in it.
16:13
The problem is, in my village, Oakland,
16:15
in most of our villages,
16:17
we don't see that connection.
16:19
We turn on the faucet, the water comes out, we assume it's safe,
16:21
and we assume that we are masters of our environment,
16:23
rather than being part of it.
16:26
PJC: So it doesn't take much to realize
16:29
that actually this is an environmental issue.
16:31
And I kept thinking over and over again
16:34
this question.
16:37
We know so much about global warming and climate change,
16:39
and yet, we have no concept
16:42
of what I've been calling internal environmentalism.
16:44
We know what we're putting out there,
16:46
we have a sense of those repercussions,
16:48
but we are so ignorant of this sense
16:50
of what happens when we put things, or things are put
16:52
into our bodies.
16:55
And it's my feeling
16:57
and it's my urging being here
16:59
to know that, as we women move forward
17:01
as the communicators of this,
17:03
but also as the ones who carry that burden
17:05
of carrying the children, bearing the children,
17:08
we hold most of the buying power in the household,
17:11
is that it's going to be us moving forward
17:14
to carry the work of Tyrone and other scientists around the world.
17:17
And my urging is
17:20
that when we think about environmental issues
17:22
that we remember that it's not just about melting glaciers and ice caps,
17:24
but it's also about our children as well.
17:28
Thank you.
17:30
(Applause)
17:32

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Tyrone Hayes - Biologist
Tyrone Hayes studies frogs and amphibians -- and the effects on their bodies of common farming chemicals.

Why you should listen

At the University of California, Berkeley, and in ponds around the world, professor Tyrone Hayes studies frogs and other amphibians. He's become an active critic of the farm chemical atrazine, which he's found to interfere with the development of amphibians' endocrine systems.

Hayes is the subject of the chidren's book The Frog Scientist, and lectures frequently. His work was recently covered in Mother Jones.

Penelope Jagessar Chaffer - Filmmaker
Penelope Jagessar Chaffer made the film "Toxic Baby," exploring environmental toxins through interviews and surreal imagery.

Why you should listen

Penelope Jagessar Chaffer is the director and producer of the documentary/surrealist film Toxic Baby. She works to bring to light the issue of environmental chemical pollution and its effect on babies and children.

Her first British Academy Award Nomination came for her BBC4 debut, Me and My Dad, which followed her on a trip to Trinidad as she confronted her father, a magistrate who was sent to prison for bribery and corruption. After working on 2005'sShakespeare's Stories for the BBC, for which she received a BAFTA nomination, Chaffer was inspired to begin her research on Toxic Baby.

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