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Stephanie Busari: How fake news does real harm

Stephanie Busari: Cómo las noticias falsas hacen realmente daño

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El 14 de abril de 2014, la organización terrorista Boko Haram secuestró a más de 200 estudiantes de la ciudad de Chibok, Nigeria. En todo el mundo, el crimen se plasmó en el lema #BringBackOurGirls, pero en Nigeria, los funcionarios del gobierno calificaron el crimen como un engaño, confundiendo y retrasando cualquier esfuerzo para rescatar a las niñas. En esta poderosa charla, la periodista Stephanie Busari señala la tragedia de Chibok para explicar el peligro mortal de las noticias falsas y lo que podemos hacer para detenerlas.

- Journalist
Stephanie Busari is a journalist and editor at CNN International Digital. Full bio

Quiero contarles una historia
sobre una chica.
00:13
I want to tell you a story about a girl.
Pero no puedo decirles
su verdadero nombre.
00:16
But I can't tell you her real name.
Así que vamos a llamarla Hadiza.
00:19
So let's just call her Hadiza.
Hadiza tiene 20 años.
00:21
Hadiza is 20.
Es tímida,
00:23
She's shy,
pero tiene una hermosa sonrisa
que ilumina su rostro.
00:24
but she has a beautiful smile
that lights up her face.
Pero tiene dolores constantemente
00:28
But she's in constant pain.
y probablemente tomará medicación
por el resto de su vida.
00:32
And she will likely be on medication
for the rest of her life.
¿Quieren saber por qué?
00:37
Do you want to know why?
Hadiza es una chica de Chibok,
00:39
Hadiza is a Chibok girl,
y el 14 de abril de 2014, fue secuestrada
00:42
and on April 14, 2014, she was kidnapped
por los terroristas de Boko Haram.
00:46
by Boko Haram terrorists.
Logró escapar, sin embargo,
00:48
She managed to escape, though,
saltando del camión
que llevaba a las chicas.
00:51
by jumping off the truck
that was carrying the girls.
Pero al saltar, se quebró ambas piernas
00:54
But when she landed,
she broke both her legs,
y tuvo que gatear cuerpo a tierra
para esconderse en los arbustos.
00:57
and she had to crawl on her tummy
to hide in the bushes.
Me dijo que estaba aterrorizada
de que Boko Haram regresara a por ella.
01:00
She told me she was terrified
that Boko Haram would come back for her.
Ella era una de 57 muchachas que
escaparían saltando de los coches ese día.
01:05
She was one of 57 girls who would escape
by jumping off trucks that day.
Esta historia, con razón, causó
un escándalo en todo el mundo.
01:10
This story, quite rightly, caused ripples
01:12
around the world.
Personas como Michelle Obama, Malala
y otros levantaron sus voces en protesta,
01:14
People like Michelle Obama,
Malala and others
01:17
lent their voices in protest,
y casi al mismo tiempo...
yo estaba en Londres en ese momento...
01:19
and at about the same time --
I was living in London at the time --
Me enviaron de Londres a Abuja
para cubrir el Foro Económico Mundial
01:23
I was sent from London to Abuja
to cover the World Economic Forum
que Nigeria estaba organizando
por primera vez.
01:27
that Nigeria was hosting
for the first time.
Pero cuando llegamos, estaba claro
que solo había una historia en la ciudad.
01:30
But when we arrived, it was clear
that there was only one story in town.
Presionamos al gobierno,
hicimos preguntas difíciles
01:35
We put the government under pressure.
01:37
We asked tough questions
about what they were doing
sobre lo que estaban haciendo
para traer de vuelta a estas chicas.
01:40
to bring these girls back.
Comprensiblemente,
01:42
Understandably,
no estaban demasiado felices
con nuestra línea de preguntas,
01:44
they weren't too happy
with our line of questioning,
y digamos que recibimos
una buena parte de "hechos alternativos".
01:46
and let's just say we received
our fair share of "alternative facts."
(Risas)
01:50
(Laughter)
Nigerianos influyentes nos estaban
diciendo que éramos ingenuos,
01:53
Influential Nigerians
were telling us at the time
01:56
that we were naïve,
que no entendíamos
la situación política en Nigeria.
01:58
we didn't understand
the political situation in Nigeria.
Pero también nos dijeron
02:02
But they also told us
que la historia de las chicas de Chibok
02:05
that the story of the Chibok girls
era una broma.
02:07
was a hoax.
Tristemente, esta teoría
del engaño ha persistido,
02:10
Sadly, this hoax narrative has persisted,
y todavía hay gente en Nigeria hoy
02:12
and there are still people
in Nigeria today
que cree que las chicas de Chibok
nunca fueron secuestradas.
02:15
who believe that the Chibok girls
were never kidnapped.
Sin embargo, estaba hablando
con personas como estas
02:18
Yet I was talking to people like these --
- padres devastados -
02:22
devastated parents,
que nos decían que el día que
Boko Haram secuestró a sus hijas,
02:24
who told us that on the day
Boko Haram kidnapped their daughters,
siguieron por el bosque
de Sambisa a los camiones
02:28
they ran into the Sambisa Forest
after the trucks carrying their daughters.
que se llevaron a sus hijas.
Estaban armados con machetes,
02:32
They were armed with machetes,
but they were forced to turn back
pero se vieron obligados a retroceder
porque Boko Haram tenía armas de fuego.
02:36
because Boko Haram had guns.
Durante dos años, inevitablemente,
la agenda del día fue cambiando
02:39
For two years, inevitably,
the news agenda moved on,
y durante dos años,
02:43
and for two years,
no supimos mucho sobre las chicas de Chibok.
02:44
we didn't hear much
about the Chibok girls.
Todos supusieron que estaban muertas.
02:47
Everyone presumed they were dead.
Pero en abril del año pasado,
02:50
But in April last year,
pude obtener este video.
02:52
I was able to obtain this video.
Esta es una foto del video
02:55
This is a still from the video
que Boko Haram filmó
como una prueba de vida,
02:56
that Boko Haram filmed as a proof of life,
y a través de una fuente,
he obtenido este video.
03:00
and through a source,
I obtained this video.
Pero antes de poder publicarlo,
tuve que viajar al noreste de Nigeria
03:04
But before I could publish it,
03:05
I had to travel
to the northeast of Nigeria
para hablar con los padres y verificarlo.
03:08
to talk to the parents, to verify it.
No tuve que esperar demasiado
tiempo para la confirmación.
03:11
I didn't have to wait
too long for confirmation.
Una de las madres, cuando vio el video,
03:15
One of the mothers,
when she watched the video, told me
me dijo que si ella pudiera
meter la mano en el portátil
03:18
that if she could have reached
into the laptop
y sacar así a su hija, lo haría.
03:21
and pulled our her child from the laptop,
Lo habría hecho.
03:25
she would have done so.
Quienes en el público son padres, como yo,
03:28
For those of you who are parents,
like myself, in the audience,
pueden imaginar la angustia
03:31
you can only imagine the anguish
que sentía esa madre.
03:34
that that mother felt.
Este video pondría en marcha
las negociaciones con Boko Haram.
03:37
This video would go on to kick-start
negotiation talks with Boko Haram.
Un senador nigeriano me dijo
que gracias a este video
03:44
And a Nigerian senator told me
that because of this video
accedieron a esas conversaciones,
03:48
they entered into those talks,
porque habían supuesto mucho tiempo
que las chicas de Chibok estaban muertas.
03:50
because they had long presumed
that the Chibok girls were dead.
Veintiuna chicas fueron liberadas
en octubre del año pasado.
03:54
Twenty-one girls were freed
in October last year.
Por desgracia,
casi 200 siguen desaparecidas.
03:59
Sadly, nearly 200 of them
still remain missing.
Debo confesar que no he sido
una observadora distante
04:03
I must confess that I have not been
a dispassionate observer
al cubrir esta historia.
04:07
covering this story.
Me pongo furiosa cuando recuerdo
las oportunidades desperdiciadas
04:09
I am furious when I think
about the wasted opportunities
para rescatar a estas chicas.
04:14
to rescue these girls.
Me pongo furiosa cuando pienso
en lo que me han dicho los padres,
04:15
I am furious when I think about
what the parents have told me,
que si fueran hijas
de los ricos y los poderosos,
04:19
that if these were daughters
of the rich and the powerful,
se habrían encontrado mucho antes.
04:22
they would have been found much earlier.
Y me pone furiosa
04:26
And I am furious
que la teoría del engaño
04:28
that the hoax narrative,
- creo firmemente que
causó grandes retrasos -
04:30
I firmly believe,
04:32
caused a delay;
04:34
it was part of the reason
for the delay in their return.
fuera parte de la razón del retraso
del regreso de las chicas.
Esto ilustra el peligro mortal
de las noticias falsas.
04:38
This illustrates to me
the deadly danger of fake news.
Entonces, ¿qué podemos hacer al respecto?
04:43
So what can we do about it?
Hay gente muy inteligente,
04:45
There are some very smart people,
ingenieros inteligentes
en Google y Facebook,
04:47
smart engineers at Google and Facebook,
que están tratando
04:50
who are trying to use technology
to stop the spread of fake news.
de usar tecnología para detener
la propagación de noticias falsas.
Pero más allá de eso, creo que
todo el mundo aquí presente... tú y yo...
04:55
But beyond that, I think
everybody here -- you and I --
tenemos un papel que jugar en esto.
05:00
we have a role to play in that.
Somos los que compartimos el contenido.
05:02
We are the ones who share the content.
Somos los que compartimos
las historias en línea.
05:04
We are the ones who share
the stories online.
En estos tiempos, todos somos editores,
05:07
In this day and age, we're all publishers,
y tenemos una responsabilidad.
05:10
and we have responsibility.
En mi trabajo como periodista,
05:13
In my job as a journalist,
compruebo, verifico.
05:15
I check, I verify.
Confío en mi instinto,
pero hago preguntas difíciles.
05:17
I trust my gut, but I ask tough questions.
¿Por qué esta persona
me está contando esta historia?
05:21
Why is this person telling me this story?
¿Qué tiene que ganar
al compartir esta información?
05:24
What do they have to gain
by sharing this information?
¿Tiene una agenda oculta?
05:28
Do they have a hidden agenda?
Realmente creo que todos debemos
empezar a hacernos preguntas más difíciles
05:30
I really believe that we must all start
to ask tougher questions
sobre la información
que descubrimos en línea.
05:36
of information that we discover online.
La investigación muestra que algunos
ni siquiera leen más allá de los titulares
05:41
Research shows that some of us
don't even read beyond headlines
antes de compartir historias.
05:47
before we share stories.
¿Quién ha hecho eso?
05:49
Who here has done that?
Sé que yo sí.
05:51
I know I have.
Pero ¿y si...
05:54
But what if
dejamos de tomar la información
que descubrimos al pie de la letra?
05:57
we stopped taking information
that we discover at face value?
¿Qué pasa si nos detenemos
a pensar las consecuencias
06:02
What if we stop to think
about the consequence
de la información que transmitimos
06:05
of the information that we pass on
y su potencial para incitar
violencia u odio?
06:08
and its potential to incite
violence or hatred?
¿Y si nos detenemos a pensar
en las consecuencias en la vida real
06:12
What if we stop to think
about the real-life consequences
de la información que compartimos?
06:17
of the information that we share?
Muchas gracias por escuchar.
06:20
Thank you very much for listening.
(Aplausos)
06:21
(Applause)
Translated by Denise R Quivu
Reviewed by Sebastian Betti

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About the Speaker:

Stephanie Busari - Journalist
Stephanie Busari is a journalist and editor at CNN International Digital.

Why you should listen

Stephanie Busari moved to Lagos from London in July 2016 to pioneer CNN's first digital and multimedia bureau. She also reports on-air in breaking news situations for CNN International.

In April 2016 Busari exclusively obtained the "proof of life" video that showed that the missing Chibok schoolgirls who were kidnapped in Nigeria in 2014 were still alive. She was also an instrumental member of the CNN team that won a Peabody Award in May 2015 for the network's coverage of the missing girls. Busari recently won a Gracie Award for her persistence in covering this story, and she's also a previous recipient of the Outstanding Woman in the Media Awards.

Busari is a passionate community activist who curated TEDxBrixton for three years before she left London. She founded TEDxBrixton in 2013 driven by a desire to bring disparate elements of her community together and to create a platform for those who wouldn't normally have one to share their ideas worth spreading.

A passionate and adept public speaker, Busari is regularly invited to share her insights and host panels. She has spoken at UN Women, Said Business School, Oxford, Africa Gathering among others.

Over a 15-year career, Busari has worked as a news reporter, entertainment and features writer, court reporter and columnist, and she has been published in many of the UK and international media's most influential outlets, such as the BBC and Daily Mirror.

During a six-month stint in Northern Ireland in 2003, Busari spent time in some of the worst affected areas of "The Troubles" and secured interviews with a crucifixion victim, government ministers and paramilitaries. While there, she also launched and edited an award-winning lifestyle column.

A native Yoruba speaker, Busari also speaks fluent French and is currently learning Hausa.  

More profile about the speaker
Stephanie Busari | Speaker | TED.com