16:45
TEDWomen 2010

Hanna Rosin: New data on the rise of women

ハンナ・ロージン:女性上昇の新データ

Filmed:

ハンナ・ロージンが、大学の卒業率などのいくつかの重要な測定において、女性が事実男性を上回ることを示す驚異的な新しいデータをご覧に入れます。このような傾向は、米国のみならずグローバルな、「男性の終焉」信号なのでしょうか? 恐らく違うでしょう -- しかし深く議論する価値のある重要な社会的変化を指し示します。

- Journalist
Hanna Rosin isn’t afraid to shine a skeptical spotlight on people’s cherished ideals, whether it’s politically correct dogma or the conservative Christian agenda. Full bio

We are now going through an amazing and unprecedented moment
男性と女性の力関係が急速に変化するという
00:15
where the power dynamics between men and women
今までには無かった驚くべきことを
00:18
are shifting very rapidly,
今の我々は体験しています
00:20
and in many of the places where it counts the most,
そして重要な殆どの場所で
00:23
women are, in fact, taking control of everything.
女性がすべてを支配しつつあるのです
00:25
In my mother's day, she didn't go to college.
私の母親が若い頃、彼女は大学に行きませんでした
00:28
Not a lot of women did.
ほとんどの女性がそうでした
00:30
And now, for every two men who get a college degree,
今では大学を2人の男性が卒業するのに対して
00:32
three women will do the same.
女性は3人卒業します
00:35
Women, for the first time this year,
今年は女性が史上初めて米国労働市場の
00:37
became the majority of the American workforce.
過半数を占めるようになりました
00:39
And they're starting to dominate lots of professions --
彼女達は多くの職業に就き始めています
00:41
doctors, lawyers,
医者 弁護士
00:44
bankers, accountants.
銀行家 会計士
00:46
Over 50 percent of managers are women these days,
昨今では管理職の50%以上が女性です
00:48
and in the 15 professions
次の10年間で
00:51
projected to grow the most in the next decade,
最も成長が見込まれる15の職種のうち、
00:53
all but two of them are dominated by women.
13において女性が多数を占めています
00:55
So the global economy is becoming a place
驚くべきことに
00:57
where women are more successful than men,
世界経済において
00:59
believe it or not,
女性は男性よりも成功しているのです
01:01
and these economic changes
これらの経済的変化は、私たちの文化に
01:03
are starting to rapidly affect our culture --
急速に影響を及ぼしつつあります
01:05
what our romantic comedies look like,
ロマンティックコメディーや
01:07
what our marriages look like,
結婚生活
01:09
what our dating lives look like,
デートのしかた
01:11
and our new set of superheroes.
そして新しいスーパーヒーロー
01:13
For a long time, this is the image of American manhood that dominated --
長い間、これが一般的なアメリカ人男性のイメージでした
01:15
tough, rugged,
タフで無骨、
01:18
in control of his own environment.
自分の周りを支配できる
01:20
A few years ago, the Marlboro Man was retired
マルボロ男は数年前に定年となり
01:22
and replaced by this
とって変わったのが
01:24
much less impressive specimen,
全然印象に残らないこの人
01:26
who is a parody of American manhood,
アメリカ的男らしさのパロディです
01:28
and that's what we have in our commercials today.
今の我々はこういう人をコマーシャルで見ているのです
01:30
The phrase "first-born son"
第一子は男児、という言葉は
01:33
is so deeply ingrained in our consciousness
私たちの意識に深く根付いていますが、
01:35
that this statistic alone shocked me.
だからこそこの統計には驚かされました
01:38
In American fertility clinics,
米国の不妊治療クリニックでは
01:40
75 percent of couples
75%のカップルが
01:42
are requesting girls and not boys.
男児ではなく女児を希望しているのです
01:44
And in places where you wouldn't think,
韓国やインド、中国など
01:46
such as South Korea, India and China,
非常に家父長的な社会だと
01:48
the very strict patriarchal societies
思われる様な地域でも
01:51
are starting to break down a little,
少しずつ状況は変化しており、
01:53
and families are no longer
家族はもはやそれほど強く
01:55
strongly preferring first-born sons.
長男を望んではいないのです
01:57
If you think about this, if you just open your eyes to this possibility
考えてみてください 可能性に目を開いて
02:00
and start to connect the dots,
点と点を結んでいくと
02:03
you can see the evidence everywhere.
証拠はいたるところにあります
02:05
You can see it in college graduation patterns,
大学の卒業式
02:07
in job projections,
雇用情勢
02:09
in our marriage statistics,
婚姻に関する統計
02:11
you can see it in the Icelandic elections, which you'll hear about later,
アイスランド選挙でも
02:13
and you can see it on South Korean surveys on son preference,
韓国の男児優先に関する調査にも見られる様に
02:16
that something amazing and unprecedented
前例の無い驚くべきことが
02:19
is happening with women.
女性に起こっています
02:21
Certainly this is not the first time that we've had great progress with women.
女性の大きな躍進は今に始まったことではありません
02:23
The '20s and the '60s also come to mind.
20年代や60年代にもありました
02:26
But the difference is that, back then,
しかしその頃は、
02:29
it was driven by a very passionate feminist movement
己の欲望を映し出そうとする非常に情熱的な女性解放運動により
02:31
that was trying to project its own desires,
突き動かされたものでした
02:34
whereas this time, it's not about passion,
今回は情熱ではなく
02:36
and it's not about any kind of movement.
運動の類でもありません
02:38
This is really just about the facts
単に私たちが今いる
02:40
of this economic moment that we live in.
経済社会でしかないのです
02:42
The 200,000-year period
男性が先導件を握っていた
02:44
in which men have been top dog
20万年におよぶ時代は
02:46
is truly coming to an end, believe it or not,
まさに終日を迎えようとしています
02:48
and that's why I talk about the "end of men."
ですから男性の終わりについてお話しします
02:51
Now all you men out there,
世の男性諸君、
02:54
this is not the moment where you tune out or throw some tomatoes,
無視を決め込んだり、トマトを投げつける時ではありません
02:56
because the point is that this
なぜならこれは
02:59
is happening to all of us.
我々みんなに関係することだからです
03:01
I myself have a husband and a father
私には夫も父もいます
03:03
and two sons whom I dearly love.
それに二人の愛する息子
03:06
And this is why I like to talk about this,
だからこそ話すのです
03:08
because if we don't acknowledge it,
私たちが受け入れなければ
03:10
then the transition will be pretty painful.
移行は非常に辛いものになるでしょう
03:12
But if we do take account of it,
しかしそれを考慮すると、
03:14
then I think it will go much more smoothly.
はるかに楽に進むでしょう
03:16
I first started thinking about this about a year and a half ago.
私が男性の終わりについて考えるようになったのは一年半前です
03:19
I was reading headlines about the recession just like anyone else,
皆さんと同じように不況の見出しを読んでいて、
03:22
and I started to notice a distinct pattern --
明らかなパターンに気づきました
03:25
that the recession was affecting men
不況は女性陣よりも
03:27
much more deeply than it was affecting women.
男性陣に対して与える影響が大きい
03:30
And I remembered back to about 10 years ago
10年ほど前に スーザン・ファルディの
03:32
when I read a book by Susan Faludi
本で読んだことを思い出しました
03:34
called "Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man,"
「硬直:アメリカ男性の裏切り」という本で、
03:37
in which she described how hard the recession had hit men,
不況が男性に与えた打撃について書いています
03:40
and I started to think about
そこで私は、今回の不況で
03:43
whether it had gotten worse this time around in this recession.
状況は更に悪くなったのか考えてみました
03:45
And I realized that two things were different this time around.
今までとは2つの点で違うことに気がつきました
03:48
The first was that
1つ目は
03:51
these were no longer just temporary hits
不況が男性に与えた打撃は
03:53
that the recession was giving men --
もはや一時的なものではなく
03:55
that this was reflecting a deeper
世界経済のもっと根本的な
03:57
underlying shift in our global economy.
変化を反映しているということです
03:59
And second, that the story was no longer
2つ目に、この難局は
04:01
just about the crisis of men,
男性だけではなく
04:03
but it was also about what was happening to women.
女性にも及んでいるということです
04:05
And now look at this second set of slides.
さて、次のスライドを見てみましょう
04:07
These are headlines about what's been going on with women in the next few years.
過去、そしてこの先数年で何が女性に起こるかの見出しで、
04:09
These are things we never could have imagined a few years ago.
数年前には想像すらできなかったものです
04:12
Women, a majority of the workplace.
女性、労働力の過半数
04:15
And labor statistics: women take up most managerial jobs.
労働統計:女性が殆どの管理職を占める
04:17
This second set of headlines --
別の見出しでは、
04:20
you can see that families and marriages are starting to shift.
家族や結婚のありかたが変わりつつあるのが見て取れます
04:22
And look at that last headline --
最後の見出しを見てください:
04:25
young women earning more than young men.
若い女性が同年代の男性より稼いでいる
04:27
That particular headline comes to me from a market research firm.
この見出しは市場調査会社からもたらされたもので、
04:29
They were basically asked by one of their clients
住んでいる近所に将来家を買おうとしていた
04:32
who was going to buy houses in that neighborhood in the future.
顧客の依頼によるものでした
04:35
And they expected that it would be young families,
今まで通り、近所は若い家族か、
04:38
or young men, just like it had always been.
男性だろうと考えていたのですが、
04:40
But in fact, they found something very surprising.
ふたを開けてみると、驚くことに、
04:42
It was young, single women
若い独身女性が
04:44
who were the major purchasers of houses in the neighborhood.
近所にある家の主な買い手だったのです
04:46
And so they decided, because they were intrigued by this finding,
この結果に興味を持ったこの会社は
04:49
to do a nationwide survey.
全国的な調査を行うことにしました
04:52
So they spread out all the census data,
国勢調査のデータを調べてみると、
04:54
and what they found, the guy described to me as a shocker,
結果はショッキングなもので、
04:56
which is that in 1,997
2000あるコミュニティのうち
04:59
out of 2,000 communities,
1997のコミュニティで
05:02
women, young women,
女性、若い女性が
05:04
were making more money than young men.
若い男性よりも収入が多いことが判明したのです
05:06
So here you have a generation of young women
これら若い世代の女性は
05:08
who grow up thinking of themselves
彼女達自身が周辺の男性より
05:10
as being more powerful earners
多くの稼ぎを得ると思いながら
05:12
than the young men around them.
育つことになります
05:14
Now, I've just laid out the picture for you,
ここまでは皆さんに現状をお見せしただけで
05:16
but I still haven't explained to you why this is happening.
何故こうなっているのかは説明していません
05:19
And in a moment, I'm going to show you a graph,
これからグラフをお見せしますが、
05:22
and what you'll see on this graph --
そのグラフでは
05:24
it begins in 1973,
1973年に女性が労働市場に
05:26
just before women start flooding the workforce,
進出し始めてから、
05:28
and it brings us up to our current day.
現在までの様子を表します
05:30
And basically what you'll see
ここで見られるのは
05:33
is what economists talk about
経済学者の言う
05:35
as the polarization of the economy.
経済の両極化というものです
05:37
Now what does that mean?
さて、これは何を意味するのか?
05:39
It means that the economy is dividing into high-skill, high-wage jobs
経済は高スキルで高収入の仕事と
05:41
and low-skill, low-wage jobs --
低スキルで低収入の仕事に二分化され
05:44
and that the middle, the middle-skill jobs,
それらの中間にある、中程のスキルで
05:46
and the middle-earning jobs, are starting to drop out of the economy.
中程の収入が得られる仕事は、経済から消えようとしています
05:49
This has been going on for 40 years now.
こうしたことは過去40年の間起こっていますが、
05:52
But this process is affecting men
この過程で男性の方が女性より
05:54
very differently than it's affecting women.
非常に大きな影響を受けています
05:56
You'll see the women in red, and you'll see the men in blue.
ここでは女性が赤、男性は青で表記されています
05:58
You'll watch them both drop out of the middle class,
中間の数が大きく減っているのが分かりますが、
06:01
but see what happens to women and see what happens to men.
女性に何が起きたのか、男性に何が起きたのか見てください
06:04
There we go.
どうでしょう
06:08
So watch that. You see them both drop out of the middle class.
見て分かる通り、男性と女性の両方で中間部分が減っています
06:10
Watch what happens to the women. Watch what happens to the men.
女性に何が起こるのか、男性に何が起こるのか
06:13
The men sort of stagnate there,
男性はここで止まりますが、
06:16
while the women zoom up in those high-skill jobs.
女性は高いスキルの仕事へと急上昇します
06:18
So what's that about?
どういうことでしょう?
06:20
It looks like women got some power boost on a video game,
女性はテレビゲームでパワーアップしたのか、
06:22
or like they snuck in some secret serum into their birth-control pills
もしくは避妊ピルに聖なる血清でも入れて
06:25
that lets them shoot up high.
急成長したのか
06:28
But of course, it's not about that.
勿論そういうことではありません
06:30
What it's about is that the economy has changed a lot.
これは経済が大きく変わったからです
06:32
We used to have a manufacturing economy,
過去の社会は製造業を基本にしており、
06:35
which was about building goods and products,
商品や製品を造っていました
06:37
and now we have a service economy
今はサービス業や情報社会、
06:39
and an information and creative economy.
創造性のある社会の時代です
06:42
Those two economies require very different skills,
これら二つの経済ではかなり違うスキルが要求されます
06:44
and as it happens, women have been much better
そして女性はたまたま男性よりも、
06:47
at acquiring the new set of skills than men have been.
これら新しいスキルを身につけることに長けていたのです
06:49
It used to be that you were
以前であれば
06:52
a guy who went to high school
高校を卒業し、
06:54
who didn't have a college degree,
大学の学位を持たない男性でも、
06:56
but you had a specific set of skills,
特定のスキルと
06:58
and with the help of a union,
組合の助力により、
07:00
you could make yourself a pretty good middle-class life.
中流階級の生活をおくる事ができました
07:02
But that really isn't true anymore.
現状は全く異なるものです
07:04
This new economy is pretty indifferent
新しい経済において
07:06
to size and strength,
これまで男性を支えてきた大きさや
07:08
which is what's helped men along all these years.
強さはあまり重要ではありません
07:10
What the economy requires now
今の経済に必要なのは
07:12
is a whole different set of skills.
全く違うスキルです
07:14
You basically need intelligence,
まずは知性が必要になります
07:16
you need an ability to sit still and focus,
じっと座って集中できること
07:18
to communicate openly,
オープンなやり取りができること
07:21
to be able to listen to people
人の話が聞けること
07:23
and to operate in a workplace that is much more fluid than it used to be,
そして流動的な職場環境で機能できること
07:25
and those are things that women do extremely well,
これらが女性の得意分野なのは
07:28
as we're seeing.
周知のことです
07:30
If you look at management theory these days,
最近の経営管理論をひも解けば、
07:32
it used to be that our ideal leader
過去の理想的なリーダーとは
07:34
sounded something like General Patton, right?
パットン将軍のような人でしたね
07:36
You would be issuing orders from above.
上から命令を下す
07:38
You would be very hierarchical.
階級意識が高い
07:40
You would tell everyone below you what to do.
何をするかの指示を部下全員に下す
07:42
But that's not what an ideal leader is like now.
今日の理想的リーダーは違います
07:44
If you read management books now,
今日の経営管理論を読めば、
07:46
a leader is somebody who can foster creativity,
リーダーとは想像力を育める人で、
07:48
who can get his -- get the employees -- see, I still say "his" --
彼の -- まだ「彼」って言ってしまったわね --
07:51
who can get the employees to talk to each other,
従業員同士に会話させ、
07:54
who can basically build teams and get them to be creative.
創造的なチームを作る人のことです
07:56
And those are all things that women do very well.
女性の方がこれらの役を非常に上手くこなすのです
07:59
And then on top of that, that's created a kind of cascading effect.
その上、それは連鎖的な効果をもたらします
08:02
Women enter the workplace at the top,
女性が職場の上位を占め、
08:05
and then at the working class,
そしてその下で
08:07
all the new jobs that are created
かつては家庭の主婦が
08:09
are the kinds of jobs that wives used to do for free at home.
無給でやっていた仕事が新たに創造されます
08:11
So that's childcare,
保育や、
08:14
elder care and food preparation.
老人介護に食事の準備
08:16
So those are all the jobs that are growing,
これらは今後大きな需要が見込まれ、
08:18
and those are jobs that women tend to do.
女性が就きやすい仕事です
08:20
Now one day it might be
いつの日か、母親が
08:22
that mothers will hire an out-of-work,
鉄工所勤めをしていた無職の
08:24
middle-aged, former steelworker guy
中年男性を、ベビーシッターとして
08:27
to watch their children at home,
雇う日が来るかもしれません
08:29
and that would be good for the men, but that hasn't quite happened yet.
男性にとっても良いことですが、まだこれは先の話でしょう
08:31
To see what's going to happen, you can't just look at the workforce that is now,
これから起こることを知るには、現状の労働人口だけでなく
08:34
you have to look at our future workforce.
未来の労働人口に目を向ける必要があります
08:37
And here the story is fairly simple.
単純なことです
08:40
Women are getting college degrees
女性は大学の資格をとる率が
08:43
at a faster rate than men.
男性よりも高い
08:45
Why? This is a real mystery.
なぜ?これは謎です
08:47
People have asked men, why don't they just go back to college,
なぜ大学、地域の短期大学に通い直して
08:49
to community college, say, and retool themselves,
新しいスキルを身につけないのかと
08:52
learn a new set of skills?
男性に訊いて分かったのが、
08:54
Well it turns out that they're just very uncomfortable doing that.
そんなことはしたく無いということでした
08:56
They're used to thinking of themselves as providers,
彼らには自分は扶養する人という固定観念があり
08:59
and they can't seem to build the social networks
大学に行くのに必要な社会的繋がりを
09:01
that allow them to get through college.
持てないようなのです
09:03
So for some reason
どういう訳か
09:05
men just don't end up going back to college.
男性は大学に戻らないのです
09:07
And what's even more disturbing
若い男性に起こっていることには
09:09
is what's happening with younger boys.
もっと不安になります
09:11
There's been about a decade of research
ここ10年ほどの調査に
09:13
about what people are calling the "boy crisis."
男子の危機と呼ばれるものがあります
09:15
Now the boy crisis is this idea
男子の危機というのは
09:17
that very young boys, for whatever reason,
どういった理由であれ、学校にいる
09:19
are doing worse in school than very young girls,
同年の女子より出来が悪いというものです
09:22
and people have theories about that.
人々は理論をもっています
09:25
Is it because we have an excessively verbal curriculum,
口頭での課程があまりにも多いので
09:27
and little girls are better at that than little boys?
女の子のほうが優位なのか
09:29
Or that we require kids to sit still too much,
それとも大人しく座っているようにと要求しすぎるので
09:31
and so boys initially feel like failures?
男子は劣っているように感じてしまうのか
09:34
And some people say it's because,
そのために男子は中学卒業時から
09:36
in 9th grade, boys start dropping out of school.
落ちこぼれ出すと言う人もいます
09:38
Because I'm writing a book about all this, I'm still looking into it,
現在これに関する本を書いており、まだ調査中なので
09:40
so I don't have the answer.
答えはまだ見つかっていませんが、
09:43
But in the mean time, I'm going to call on the worldwide education expert,
今のところは、教育世界権威である
09:45
who's my 10-year-old daughter, Noa,
10歳の娘、ノアに
09:48
to talk to you about
クラスにいる男子の
09:50
why the boys in her class do worse.
出来が悪い理由を話してもらいます
09:52
(Video) Noa: The girls are obviously smarter.
(ビデオ) ノア:女の子は明らかに賢いわ
09:55
I mean they have much larger vocabulary.
彼女達の方が語彙が多いし
09:57
They learn much faster.
学習が速い
10:00
They are more controlled.
真面目でもある
10:02
On the board today for losing recess tomorrow, only boys.
休み時間無しのリストには、男子の名前だけ
10:04
Hanna Rosin: And why is that?
ハンナ・ロージン:何故なの?
10:07
Noa: Why? They were just not listening to the class
ノア:だって男の子は何も聞いてないもの
10:09
while the girls sat there very nicely.
女の子はちゃんと座っていられるのに
10:11
HR: So there you go.
ハンナ:そんなわけで
10:13
This whole thesis really came home to me
カンザスシティーにある
10:15
when I went to visit a college in Kansas City --
働く人の為の大学を訪れた時に
10:17
working-class college.
この話を痛感することになりました
10:20
Certainly, when I was in college, I had certain expectations about my life --
大学に居たころ、私が思い描いていた将来像は、
10:22
that my husband and I would both work,
私も夫も共働きで、一緒に
10:25
and that we would equally raise the children.
子育てを行うものでした
10:28
But these college girls
しかし私の見た女子大生達は
10:30
had a completely different view of their future.
全く違う未来図を持っていました
10:32
Basically, the way they said it to me is
基本的にはこうです
10:34
that they would be working 18 hours a day,
彼女達は1日18時間働き
10:37
that their husband would maybe have a job,
夫は働いているかも知れないけれど、
10:39
but that mostly he would be at home taking care of the kiddies.
多分家にいて子供の面倒をみているというもの
10:41
And this was kind of a shocker to me.
私にはショックでした
10:44
And then here's my favorite quote from one of the girls:
その女子大生の言葉で、私の大好きなのが
10:46
"Men are the new ball and chain."
「男性こそが新たな足枷」
10:48
(Laughter)
(笑い)
10:51
Now you laugh,
皆さん笑っていますが、
10:54
but that quote has kind of a sting to it, right?
この言葉には刺があります
10:56
And I think the reason it has a sting
刺があるのは
10:58
is because thousands of years of history
痛みを感じることなく
11:00
don't reverse themselves
何千年もの歴史を
11:02
without a lot of pain,
覆すことはできないからです
11:04
and that's why I talk about
だからこそ我々は
11:06
us all going through this together.
皆でこれを乗り越えるのです
11:08
The night after I talked to these college girls,
女子大生と話をした夜に、
11:11
I also went to a men's group in Kansas,
カンザスの男性グループにも会いに行きました
11:13
and these were exactly the kind of victims of the manufacturing economy
彼らはまさに、先ほど述べた産業社会の
11:15
which I spoke to you about earlier.
犠牲者達でした
11:18
They were men who had been contractors,
彼らは請負業者や
11:20
or they had been building houses
大工たちで
11:22
and they had lost their jobs after the housing boom,
住宅ブームの後に職を失い、
11:24
and they were in this group because they were failing to pay their child support.
子供の養育費を支払うことができなくなり、グループに参加していたのです
11:26
And the instructor was up there in the class
クラスにはインストラクターがいて
11:29
explaining to them all the ways
この新しい時代にいかにして
11:31
in which they had lost their identity in this new age.
彼らのアイデンティティが失われたかを説明していました
11:33
He was telling them they no longer had any moral authority,
彼らの道徳的権威はなくなり
11:36
that nobody needed them for emotional support anymore,
誰も彼らを心の支えとしておらず、
11:39
and they were not really the providers.
扶養者でもないことを言い渡します
11:41
So who were they?
では彼らは一体誰なのでしょう?
11:43
And this was very disheartening for them.
これは彼らを非常に落胆させました
11:45
And what he did was he wrote down on the board
インストラクターは黒板にこうも書きました
11:47
"$85,000,"
8万5千ドル
11:49
and he said, "That's her salary,"
「これが彼女の年収」と言い、
11:51
and then he wrote down "$12,000."
黒板に1万2千ドルと書いて
11:53
"That's your salary.
「これがあなたの年収
11:56
So who's the man now?" he asked them.
さてどっちがボスだ?」と尋ねます
11:58
"Who's the damn man?
「いったいボスは誰だ?
12:00
She's the man now."
今じゃ彼女がボスなんだ」
12:02
And that really sent a shudder through the room.
部屋中が震撼しました
12:04
And that's part of the reason I like to talk about this,
私がここで話すことは
12:06
because I think it can be pretty painful,
かなり辛いものですが、
12:08
and we really have to work through it.
皆で協力しなければなりません
12:10
And the other reason it's kind of urgent
他にも、事は急を要しており、
12:12
is because it's not just happening in the U.S.
これは米国だけではなく
12:14
It's happening all over the world.
世界中で起きているのです
12:16
In India, poor women are learning English
インドで成長しつつある
12:18
faster than their male counterparts
新しいコールセンターのスタッフになるために
12:20
in order to staff the new call centers
インドの貧しい女性は男性よりも
12:22
that are growing in India.
速く英語を習得します
12:24
In China, a lot of the opening up of private entrepreneurship
中国では多くの新規事業が立ち上がっていますが、
12:26
is happening because women are starting businesses,
女性が起こした事業の数は
12:29
small businesses, faster than men.
男性のそれを上回っています
12:31
And here's my favorite example, which is in South Korea.
私のお気に入りの例は韓国で、
12:33
Over several decades,
何十年にも渡り韓国は
12:36
South Korea built one of the most patriarchal societies we know about.
強力な家父長的社会を形成してきました
12:38
They basically enshrined the second-class status of women
実質上、女性は民法で二流の地位に
12:41
in the civil code.
いることになっています
12:45
And if women failed to birth male children,
女性は男児を産めないと、
12:47
they were basically treated like domestic servants.
家庭で奴隷のような扱いを受けてきました
12:49
And sometimes family would pray to the spirits to kill off a girl child
男児を授かるかもしれないといって、女児が死ぬよう
12:52
so they could have a male child.
家族が祈祷する場合もあります
12:55
But over the '70s and '80s,
70年代から80年代にかけて
12:57
the South Korea government decided they wanted to rapidly industrialize,
韓国政府は急速な工業化を目指し、
12:59
and so what they did was,
行った事は、
13:02
they started to push women into the workforce.
女性を労働市場に駆り立てたのです
13:04
Now they've been asking a question since 1985:
1985年からされている質問は
13:06
"How strongly do you prefer a first-born son?"
「どれほど第一子に男児を望みますか?」
13:09
And now look at the chart.
チャートを見てください
13:11
That's from 1985 to 2003.
1985年から2003年までです
13:13
How much do you prefer a first-born son?
どれほど第一子に男児を望みますか?
13:16
So you can see that these economic changes
経済の変化が
13:18
really do have a strong effect on our culture.
文化に及ぼす影響を見て取れます
13:20
Now because we haven't fully processed this information,
まだ完全に情報を処理できていませんが、
13:23
it's kind of coming back to us in our pop culture
ポップカルチャーにおいては、
13:26
in these kind of weird and exaggerated ways,
ステレオタイプの変化という
13:28
where you can see that the stereotypes are changing.
奇妙に誇張された流れを見る事ができます
13:31
And so we have on the male side
男性側には
13:34
what one of my colleagues likes to call the "omega males" popping up,
モテない上に仕事も無いという負け犬の男性で、
13:36
who are the males who are romantically challenged losers
「オメガ男性」と私の同僚に
13:39
who can't find a job.
呼ばれている男性が出現しています
13:41
And they come up in lots of different forms.
彼らの役には色々あり、
13:43
So we have the perpetual adolescent.
永遠の思春期にいる男性
13:46
We have the charmless misanthrope.
可愛くも無い人間嫌い
13:49
Then we have our Bud Light guy
そして幸せな怠け者の
13:52
who's the happy couch potato.
バドライト (ビール) 男
13:54
And then here's a shocker: even America's most sexiest man alive,
驚くべき事に、アメリカに生存する最もセクシーな男性、
13:56
the sexiest man alive
この最もセクシーな男性でさえ
13:59
gets romantically played these days in a movie.
最近の映画ではロマンティックな役を演じるのです
14:01
And then on the female side, you have the opposite,
それとは反対に女性側では、
14:03
in which you have these crazy superhero women.
とんでもないスーパーヒーロー・ウーマン
14:06
You've got Lady Gaga.
レーディー・ガガや
14:09
You've got our new James Bond, who's Angelina Jolie.
新しいジェームス・ボンドのアンジェリーナ・ジョリー
14:12
And it's not just for the young, right?
若い人だけではありません
14:15
Even Helen Mirren can hold a gun these days.
今日ではヘレン・ミレンでさえ銃を持ちます
14:18
And so it feels like we have to move from this place
これら大げさ過ぎるイメージから、
14:21
where we've got these uber-exaggerated images
もう少し普通に感じられるところまで
14:24
into something that feels a little more normal.
物事を置き換えてみるべきでしょう
14:27
So for a long time in the economic sphere,
経済の分野においては長い間
14:30
we've lived with the term "glass ceiling."
「ガラスの天井」がありました
14:32
Now I've never really liked this term.
この言葉はあまり好きではありません
14:34
For one thing, it puts men and women
1つには、上位にいる
14:36
in a really antagonistic relationship with one another,
心なき男性が作ったこの天井により、
14:38
because the men are these devious tricksters up there
男女間の関係が
14:41
who've put up this glass ceiling.
敵対的なものになってしまったのです
14:43
And we're always below the glass ceiling, the women.
そして我々女性はいつもガラスの下階に追いやられます
14:45
And we have a lot of skill and experience,
私達にはたくさんのスキルと経験があるのですが、
14:48
but it's a trick, so how are you supposed to prepare
どうすればこの見えない障害を
14:51
to get through that glass ceiling?
突き破ることができるでしょう
14:53
And also, "shattering the glass ceiling" is a terrible phrase.
それにガラスを打ち壊すというのも野蛮な言葉です
14:55
What crazy person
一体どこの誰が
14:58
would pop their head through a glass ceiling?
ガラスに頭を打ち付けようとするでしょう?
15:00
So the image that I like to think of,
私の考えるイメージというのは
15:02
instead of glass ceiling,
ガラスの天井ではなく
15:04
is the high bridge.
高い橋
15:06
It's definitely terrifying to stand at the foot of a high bridge,
高い橋の裾に立つには勿論恐怖を覚えますが、
15:08
but it's also pretty exhilarating,
かなり爽快でもあります
15:11
because it's beautiful up there,
橋の頂上は美しく、
15:13
and you're looking out on a beautiful view.
そこからの眺めも素晴らしいでしょう
15:15
And the great thing is there's no trick like with the glass ceiling.
しかもそこにはガラスの天井のような仕掛けはありません
15:18
There's no man or woman standing in the middle
途中で女性や男性が立ちふさがって
15:21
about to cut the cables.
ケーブルを切るなんてこともありません
15:23
There's no hole in the middle that you're going to fall through.
落ちてしまう様な穴も橋の途中にはありません
15:25
And the great thing is that you can take anyone along with you.
素晴らしいことに、誰でも同伴することができます
15:27
You can bring your husband along.
あなたの夫を同伴してもいいし
15:30
You can bring your friends, or your colleagues,
友達や同僚、ベビーシッターと
15:32
or your babysitter to walk along with you.
一緒に渡ってもいいのです
15:34
And husbands can drag their wives across, if their wives don't feel ready.
妻の心の準備ができていない場合、夫が引きずって渡る事もできます
15:36
But the point about the high bridge
この高い橋で重要なことは、
15:39
is that you have to have the confidence
あたな自身が橋の上にいる
15:41
to know that you deserve to be on that bridge,
資格があると確信し、
15:43
that you have all the skills and experience you need
必要なスキルや経験を全て備えており、
15:45
in order to walk across the high bridge,
橋を渡ることができると確信すること
15:48
but you just have to make the decision
あとは最初の一歩を踏み出す為の
15:51
to take the first step and do it.
決断を下すのみ
15:53
Thanks very much.
有難うございました
15:55
(Applause)
(拍手)
15:57
Translated by Kayo Mizutani
Reviewed by Akira KAKINOHANA

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About the Speaker:

Hanna Rosin - Journalist
Hanna Rosin isn’t afraid to shine a skeptical spotlight on people’s cherished ideals, whether it’s politically correct dogma or the conservative Christian agenda.

Why you should listen

Hanna Rosin is the sort of journalist who dares to articulate what people are thinking – only they hadn’t realized it yet. Born in Israel and raised in Queens, the co-founder of women’s site DoubleX (an offshoot of Slate) and contributing editor at the Atlantic Monthly is probably best known for the furor raised by her article titled (not by her) “The End of Men”—which asserts that the era of male dominance has come to an end as women gain power in the postindustrial economy. A similar furor greeted her well-researched piece “The Case Against Breastfeeding,” which questioned the degree to which scientific evidence supports breast-feeding’s touted benefits.

Rosin has covered religion and politics for the Washington Post and contributes to such publications as the New Yorker and the New Republic. Her book God’s Harvard: A Christian College on a Mission to Save America peers into the inner workings of Patrick Henry College, a seven-year school for evangelical Christians aspiring to political and cultural influence. 

More profile about the speaker
Hanna Rosin | Speaker | TED.com