sponsored links
TEDxMidAtlantic

Diana Laufenberg: How to learn? From mistakes

ダイアナ・ローファンバーグ「失敗に学ぶ」

November 5, 2010

ダイアナ・ローファンバーグが、失敗に学ぶ重要な洞察を交え、彼女が教育について学んだ三つのことをお話します。

Diana Laufenberg - Educator
For over 15 years Diana has been a secondary social studies teacher in Wisconsin, Kansas, Arizona and Pennsylvania. Full bio

sponsored links
Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I have been teaching for a long time,
私は教育界に長く従事しています
00:15
and in doing so
教育を通じて 子供と
00:18
have acquired a body of knowledge about kids and learning
学習に関する知識体系を学びました
00:20
that I really wish more people would understand
より多くの方に生徒たちの可能性について
00:23
about the potential of students.
理解をしていただきたいと思います
00:26
In 1931, my grandmother --
写真左下に見えている
00:29
bottom left for you guys over here --
私の祖母は1931年に
00:31
graduated from the eighth grade.
8年を卒業しました
00:33
She went to school to get the information
情報を得るために学校に行っていました
00:35
because that's where the information lived.
学校が情報源だったからです
00:37
It was in the books; it was inside the teacher's head;
本の中 先生の頭の中など
00:39
and she needed to go there to get the information,
情報を得るには学校へ行く必要がありました
00:41
because that's how you learned.
これが当時の学習でした
00:44
Fast-forward a generation:
少し時代を遡って見ましょう
00:46
this is the one-room schoolhouse, Oak Grove,
これは私の父が通っていたオークグローブの
00:48
where my father went to a one-room schoolhouse.
教室が1つしかない学校です
00:50
And he again had to travel to the school
彼も学校に行っては先生から
00:52
to get the information from the teacher,
情報を集めてはの頭の中の
00:54
stored it in the only portable memory he has, which is inside his own head,
揮発性メモリーに入れては持ち帰る
00:56
and take it with him,
この手の作業が必要でした
00:59
because that is how information was being transported
当時はこうして世界中で先生から学生に
01:01
from teacher to student and then used in the world.
情報伝達が行われていたからです
01:04
When I was a kid,
私が子供の頃は皆
01:07
we had a set of encyclopedias at my house.
自宅に百科事典のセットを持っていました
01:09
It was purchased the year I was born,
私の事典は私の生まれ年に購入したもので
01:11
and it was extraordinary,
多いに役立ちました
01:13
because I did not have to wait to go to the library to get to the information.
情報収集にも図書館に行く必要がありませんでした
01:15
The information was inside my house
情報源は家の中にありました
01:18
and it was awesome.
素敵でした
01:20
This was different
これは私の前の世代の
01:22
than either generation had experienced before,
経験とは異なっており
01:24
and it changed the way I interacted with information
小さなところでも私の情報との
01:26
even at just a small level.
関わり方に影響していました
01:28
But the information was closer to me.
情報は私の身近にあって
01:30
I could get access to it.
いつでもアクセスが可能でした
01:32
In the time that passes
私が高校生だった頃と
01:34
between when I was a kid in high school
私が教育に従事し始めた―
01:36
and when I started teaching,
時の間に 遂に
01:38
we really see the advent of the Internet.
インターネットがその幕を開けました
01:40
Right about the time that the Internet gets going
学習教材として
01:42
as an educational tool,
インターネットが普及すると同時に
01:44
I take off from Wisconsin
私はウィスコンシンを離れ
01:46
and move to Kansas, small town Kansas,
カンザスに引っ越しました
01:48
where I had an opportunity to teach
そこの小さく愛らしい町の
01:50
in a lovely, small-town,
カンザス学区で
01:52
rural Kansas school district,
教師になりました
01:54
where I was teaching my favorite subject,
そこで私の大好きな教科
01:56
American government.
米国政府の教鞭をとりました
01:58
My first year -- super gung-ho -- going to teach American government,
1年目 やる気に満ち溢れていました
02:00
loved the political system.
私は政治システムが大好きでした
02:03
Kids in the 12th grade:
12年生の子供達はそれほど
02:05
not exactly all that enthusiastic
米国の政体について
02:07
about the American government system.
興味を示しませんでしたけどね
02:09
Year two: learned a few things -- had to change my tactic.
2年目 少し学習して作戦を変更しました
02:11
And I put in front of them an authentic experience
実経験の場を提供して
02:14
that allowed them to learn for themselves.
自発的な学習を促しました
02:16
I didn't tell them what to do or how to do it.
目的も方法も告げませんでした
02:19
I posed a problem in front of them,
彼らにちょっとした課題を与えました
02:21
which was to put on an election forum for their own community.
彼らの自治体の選挙フォーラムの運営です
02:23
They produced flyers. They called offices.
彼らはチラシを作り 事務所に問い合わせ
02:27
They checked schedules. They were meeting with secretaries.
スケジュールを確認し 秘書たちと話をして
02:29
They produced an election forum booklet
候補者をよりよく知ってもらおうと
02:31
for the entire town to learn more about their candidates.
選挙フォーラムの冊子を作成しました
02:33
They invited everyone into the school
彼らは夕方のある
02:35
for an evening of conversation
ディスカッションに皆を招待しました
02:37
about government and politics
政府や政治に始まり
02:39
and whether or not the streets were done well,
道路の建設計画のよしあし―
02:41
and really had this robust experiential learning.
について話し合う体験学習です
02:43
The older teachers -- more experienced --
私より経験のある高齢の先生は
02:46
looked at me and went,
私を見てこう言いました
02:48
"Oh, there she is. That's so cute. She's trying to get that done."
「あら かわいい 頑張ってるわ」
02:50
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:53
"She doesn't know what she's in for."
「なにをしていいのか分からないのね」
02:55
But I knew that the kids would show up,
しかし子供達が成果をあげてくれることを
02:57
and I believed it,
知っていましたし 信じていました
02:59
and I told them every week what I expected out of them.
私の期待することを毎週彼らに話しました
03:01
And that night, all 90 kids --
その夜90人全ての生徒が
03:04
dressed appropriately, doing their job, owning it.
正装し彼らの職務を全うしました
03:06
I had to just sit and watch.
私はただ座って眺めていただけです
03:09
It was theirs. It was experiential. It was authentic.
すばらしい実体験の機会となりました
03:11
It meant something to them.
彼らに何かを残せたことでしょう
03:13
And they will step up.
こうして彼らは成長していくのです
03:15
From Kansas, I moved on to lovely Arizona,
私はカンザスから美しいアリゾナへ
03:17
where I taught in Flagstaff for a number of years,
引越しフラッグスタッフで数年教えました
03:20
this time with middle school students.
今回の相手は中学生でした
03:23
Luckily, I didn't have to teach them American government.
幸運にも今回は政体の授業ではなく
03:25
Could teach them the more exciting topic of geography.
もっとおもしろい地理を教えることになりました
03:27
Again, "thrilled" to learn.
今回も学ぶことにわくわくしていました
03:30
But what was interesting
しかし私のこのアリゾナでの
03:34
about this position I found myself in in Arizona,
仕事で面白いと感じた点は
03:36
was I had this really
公立の中学校で
03:39
extraordinarily eclectic group of kids to work with
驚くほど多種多様な子供達と
03:41
in a truly public school,
一緒に過ごせたことです
03:43
and we got to have these moments where we would get these opportunities.
こういった体験は皆さんもされるべきです
03:45
And one opportunity
私達は
03:48
was we got to go and meet Paul Rusesabagina,
ポール・ルセサバギナという
03:50
which is the gentleman
『ホテル・ルワンダ』のモデルになった
03:53
that the movie "Hotel Rwanda" is based after.
男性と話す機会がありました 彼は
03:55
And he was going to speak at the high school next door to us.
隣の高校でスピーチすることになっていました
03:57
We could walk there. We didn't even have to pay for the buses.
バスに乗る必要もなく歩いていける距離で
03:59
There was no expense cost. Perfect field trip.
費用もかからない絶好の遠足でした
04:01
The problem then becomes
しかし問題が浮上してきました
04:04
how do you take seventh- and eighth-graders to a talk about genocide
7、8年の生徒に集団殺害の話をし
04:06
and deal with the subject in a way
どうすれば彼らは責任と敬意を
04:08
that is responsible and respectful,
持ってこの問題を理解できるでしょうか
04:10
and they know what to do with it.
何をすべきか諭すことが出来るでしょうか
04:12
And so we chose to look at Paul Rusesabagina
そこでポール・ルセサバギナを
04:14
as an example of a gentleman
人生をかけて問題解決に取り組む
04:16
who singularly used his life to do something positive.
模範的な男性の例として取り上げ
04:18
I then challenged the kids to identify
子供達に人生の中 話の中
04:22
someone in their own life, or in their own story, or in their own world,
もしくは世界で何か類似した活動をしている
04:24
that they could identify that had done a similar thing.
人物を探してその人物についての
04:27
I asked them to produce a little movie about it.
簡易動画プレゼンを課しました
04:29
It's the first time we'd done this.
これは初めての試みで 誰もパソコン上での
04:31
Nobody really knew how to make these little movies on the computer,
動画作成の経験などありませんでした しかし
04:33
but they were into it. And I asked them to put their own voice over it.
やる気を感じたので 自らの意見も入れるよう指示しました
04:35
It was the most awesome moment of revelation
自分の声で周りに
04:39
that when you ask kids to use their own voice
語りかけることは 実は
04:44
and ask them to speak for themselves,
子供達も望んでいることであって
04:47
what they're willing to share.
私に大きな発見をさせてくれました
04:49
The last question of the assignment is:
最後の課題の質問はこうです
04:51
how do you plan to use your life
あなたの人生を他の人に役立てるには
04:53
to positively impact other people?
どのような計画を立てますか?
04:55
The things that kids will say
子供達に発言の機会を与え
04:57
when you ask them and take the time to listen
こちらが聞く耳をもった時には子供達は
04:59
is extraordinary.
素晴しいことを言うものです
05:02
Fast-forward to Pennsylvania, where I find myself today.
私が今いるペンシルベニアまで話を早送りしましょう
05:05
I teach at the Science Leadership Academy,
私はサイエンスリーダーシップアカデミーという
05:08
which is a partnership school between the Franklin Institute
フランクリンインスティチュートとフィラデルフィアの学区との
05:10
and the school district of Philadelphia.
提携校で教えています
05:13
We are a nine through 12 public school,
私たちは公立校12のうち9番目ですが
05:15
but we do school quite differently.
他校とはだいぶ異なっています
05:18
I moved there primarily
当初私の理解する子供達の
05:21
to be part of a learning environment
学習方法を立証できる学習環境に
05:23
that validated the way that I knew that kids learned,
身を置くためここに移動しました
05:25
and that really wanted to investigate
過去のパラダイムや
05:27
what was possible
私の祖母 父 私が
05:29
when you are willing to let go
学校にいた当時の
05:31
of some of the paradigms of the past,
情報不足を過去のものとして
05:33
of information scarcity when my grandmother was in school
忘れ去れるなら 情報があふれかえる今日
05:35
and when my father was in school and even when I was in school,
私は目の前にある可能性を
05:38
and to a moment when we have information surplus.
調査したいと考えました
05:41
So what do you do when the information is all around you?
情報に囲まれていったい何をしますか?
05:43
Why do you have kids come to school
情報源としての役割をもう
05:46
if they no longer have to come there to get the information?
果たさない学校になぜ子供達を通わすのでしょうか?
05:48
In Philadelphia we have a one-to-one laptop program,
フィラデルフィアでは「ノートパソコン1人1台プログラム」を
05:51
so the kids are bringing in laptops with them everyday,
実施し 生徒が常にノートパソコンを携帯し
05:54
taking them home, getting access to information.
情報へのアクセスを常に確保しています
05:57
And here's the thing that you need to get comfortable with
そして生徒達に情報獲得の道具を
06:00
when you've given the tool
与える際には 折り合いを
06:03
to acquire information to students,
つけなくてはいけないことがあります
06:05
is that you have to be comfortable with this idea
子供達に学習過程の段階で
06:07
of allowing kids to fail
間違いを犯してしまうことを
06:09
as part of the learning process.
容認するということです
06:11
We deal right now in the educational landscape
「答えは常に一つ文化」に溺れる
06:14
with an infatuation
私たちが相手にしているのは
06:16
with the culture of one right answer
正しくマークされるべき回答欄がある
06:18
that can be properly bubbled on the average multiple choice test,
選択式問題にあふれた教育システムです
06:20
and I am here to share with you:
皆さんにもご理解頂きたいです
06:23
it is not learning.
これは学習のあるべき姿ではありません
06:25
That is the absolute wrong thing to ask,
子供達に間違いをしてはいけないと
06:27
to tell kids to never be wrong.
言うことそれ自体が間違いです
06:30
To ask them to always have the right answer
常に正解を求めることは彼らの
06:32
doesn't allow them to learn.
学習動機を高めることになりません
06:35
So we did this project,
これは私たちが始めた
06:37
and this is one of the artifacts of the project.
プロジェクトの作品の1つです
06:39
I almost never show them off
人には滅多に見せないんです
06:41
because of the issue of the idea of failure.
失敗という問題点がありますからね
06:43
My students produced these info-graphics
年末に行った授業で
06:45
as a result of a unit that we decided to do at the end of the year
生徒達は原油流出事故に関する
06:47
responding to the oil spill.
ポスターを作製しました
06:50
I asked them to take the examples that we were seeing
私は彼らにマスメディア上に溢れる
06:52
of the info-graphics that existed
このような図表を手に取り
06:55
in a lot of mass media,
どんな要素が興味をそそるか考察させ
06:57
and take a look at what were the interesting components of it,
米国史に残るこの人災について
06:59
and produce one for themselves
彼らの手でポスターを
07:02
of a different man-made disaster from American history.
作るよう指示しました
07:04
And they had certain criteria to do it.
彼らにも判断する能力はありましたが
07:06
They were a little uncomfortable with it,
初の試みで皆どうしていいのか
07:08
because we'd never done this before, and they didn't know exactly how to do it.
確信が持てず 少し躊躇していました
07:10
They can talk -- they're very smooth,
もちろん彼らは話せますし
07:12
and they can write very, very well,
文章作成能力も十分です しかし
07:14
but asking them to communicate ideas in a different way
いつもと違うコミュニケーションの
07:16
was a little uncomfortable for them.
方法に少し戸惑っていたようです
07:19
But I gave them the room to just do the thing.
そこでこの作業専用に部屋を用意し
07:22
Go create. Go figure it out.
「ここでポスターを作ろうよ」
07:25
Let's see what we can do.
「できることを考えてみよう」と促しました
07:27
And the student that persistently
根気強く視覚にこだわった
07:29
turns out the best visual product did not disappoint.
ある生徒の作品は皆に気に入られました
07:31
This was done in like two or three days.
作業には2、3日程かかりました
07:34
And this is the work of the student that consistently did it.
これは生徒達が協力して作り上げた作品です
07:36
And when I sat the students down, I said, "Who's got the best one?"
生徒を座らせて「誰の作品が一番?」と問うと
07:39
And they immediately went, "There it is."
全員すぐに「これー」といって
07:42
Didn't read anything. "There it is."
内容も読まずに「これー」でした
07:44
And I said, "Well what makes it great?"
私は聞きました「どこがいいのかな?」
07:46
And they're like, "Oh, the design's good, and he's using good color.
すると「デザインがいいし 色使いが上手
07:48
And there's some ... " And they went through all that we processed out loud.
それからね...」
07:50
And I said, "Go read it."
そこで「読んでみて」というと
07:53
And they're like, "Oh, that one wasn't so awesome."
彼らは「あぁ これあんまりよくないね」と
07:55
And then we went to another one --
言って別のところに行きました
07:58
it didn't have great visuals, but it had great information --
視覚的にはパッとしないが情報に富むものです
08:00
and spent an hour talking about the learning process,
この学習過程について1時間話し合いました
08:02
because it wasn't about whether or not it was perfect,
なぜならこれは作品が完璧か否か
08:05
or whether or not it was what I could create.
何が作れるのかという種の話でなく
08:07
It asked them to create for themselves,
自ら何を作りたいかを問うものだったからです
08:09
and it allowed them to fail,
生徒たちに失敗させ 考察を促し
08:12
process, learn from.
失敗からの学習機会を与えました
08:14
And when we do another round of this in my class this year,
今年同じ活動をもう一度やる時には
08:16
they will do better this time,
彼らはより円滑に作業できるでしょう
08:18
because learning
学習というものは
08:20
has to include an amount of failure,
失敗を包括しているべきだからです
08:22
because failure is instructional
失敗することが学習に
08:25
in the process.
つながるからです
08:27
There are a million pictures
ここには百万もの写真があって
08:29
that I could click through here,
慎重に選ぶ必要がありました
08:32
and had to choose carefully -- this is one of my favorites --
これは私のお気に入りの1つです
08:34
of students learning,
生徒たちの学習
08:37
of what learning can look like
学習のありかたを考える際
08:39
in a landscape where we let go of the idea
生徒が情報獲得のために学校へ
08:41
that kids have to come to school to get the information,
来るべきという考えを取り払い
08:44
but instead, ask them what they can do with it.
情報の活用法を問いましょう
08:46
Ask them really interesting questions.
本当に興味の持てる質問をしてください
08:48
They will not disappoint.
そうすれば彼らは裏切りません
08:50
Ask them to go to places,
外に連れ出してください
08:52
to see things for themselves,
彼ら自身の目で見て
08:54
to actually experience the learning,
実際に体験したり
08:56
to play, to inquire.
遊びを通じて 考えるのです
08:58
This is one of my favorite photos,
これもお気に入りの1枚です
09:01
because this was taken on Tuesday,
これは火曜日に撮られたものです
09:03
when I asked the students to go to the polls.
私が投票に行くよう指示した日です
09:05
This is Robbie, and this was his first day of voting,
この子はロビー この日は初めての投票で
09:07
and he wanted to share that with everybody and do that.
皆と共有したかったようです
09:10
But this is learning too,
しかしこれも学習ですね
09:12
because we asked them to go out into real spaces.
外の現実世界に出るように言っていますから
09:14
The main point
要点は我々が
09:20
is that, if we continue to look at education
教育を学校に足を運び
09:22
as if it's about coming to school
情報収集することとみなし
09:25
to get the information
経験からの学習―
09:28
and not about experiential learning,
学生の発言権や
09:30
empowering student voice and embracing failure,
失敗からの学習を見逃すことは
09:32
we're missing the mark.
学習の趣旨に反するということです
09:35
And everything that everybody is talking about today
そして我々の提案とは
09:37
isn't possible if we keep having an educational system
これらの価値を重視できない教育システムが
09:39
that does not value these qualities,
存在する限り実現不可能なのです
09:42
because we won't get there with a standardized test,
「答えは常に一つ文化」や標準化された
09:45
and we won't get there with a culture of one right answer.
テストが障害となるからです
09:47
We know how to do this better,
改善法を理解した今こそ
09:49
and it's time to do better.
改革の時なのです
09:51
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:53
Translator:Takahiro Shimpo
Reviewer:Mina Kiyuna

sponsored links

Diana Laufenberg - Educator
For over 15 years Diana has been a secondary social studies teacher in Wisconsin, Kansas, Arizona and Pennsylvania.

Why you should listen

A farm kid from Wisconsin, Diana Laufenberg has taught all grade levels from 7-12 in Social Studies. Laufenberg most recently taught at the Science Leadership Academy (SLA), one of Philadelphia’s newer high schools, in partnership with the Franklin Institute.

In 2013, Laufenberg partnered with Chris Lehmann to start Inquiry Schools, a new non-profit working to create and support learning environments that are inquiry-driven and project-based and which utilize modern technology. She currently serves as the Executive Director and Lead Teacher for Inquiry Schools.

Read Laufenberg's evolving page of links on "Embracing Failure" >>

sponsored links

If you need translations, you can install "Google Translate" extension into your Chrome Browser.
Furthermore, you can change playback rate by installing "Video Speed Controller" extension.

Data provided by TED.

This website is owned and operated by Tokyo English Network.
The developer's blog is here.