09:53
TEDWomen 2010

Liza Donnelly: Drawing on humor for change

ライザ・ドネリー「ユーモアに『変化』を託す」

Filmed:

漫画家としてニューヨーカー誌に連載をもつライザ・ドネリーが現代の生活を描いた才能あふれる愉快な作品を紹介しながら、ユーモアの力でいかにして女性が決まり事を打ち破るかについて語ります。

- Cartoonist
New Yorker cartoonist Liza Donnelly tackles global issues with humor, intelligence and sarcasm. Her latest project supports the United Nations initiative Cartooning For Peace. Full bio

(Laughter)
(すべての始まり)
00:17
I was afraid of womanhood.
以前は女性らしさに抵抗がありました
00:24
Not that I'm not afraid now,
今も無いわけではありませんが
00:27
but I've learned to pretend.
そう見せない柔軟性を身につけました
00:29
I've learned to be flexible.
(不安は立派な動機)
00:31
In fact, I've developed some interesting tools
不安を解消できる格好のツールを
00:33
to help me deal with this fear.
磨き上げてきましたので
00:35
Let me explain.
それを ご紹介します
00:37
Back in the '50s and '60s, when I was growing up,
1950年代から60年代
00:39
little girls were supposed to be kind and thoughtful
幼い頃 女の子に求められたのは
00:41
and pretty and gentle and soft,
優しさ 思いやり かわいさ 穏やかさ 柔和さでした
00:43
and we were supposed to fit into roles
陰の役に徹することが
00:46
that were sort of shadowy --
当たり前でした ところが --
00:48
really not quite clear what we were supposed to be.
何を目指すのかは あいまいでした
00:50
(Laughter)
(どんな大人?ちゃんとした人?ダメな人?)
00:52
There were plenty of role models all around us.
手本にできる人はたくさんいました
00:56
We had our mothers, our aunts, our cousins, our sisters,
母 叔母 いとこ 姉妹もそうですし
00:58
and of course, the ever-present media
メディアも映像や言葉で
01:01
bombarding us with images and words,
女性のあるべき姿を
01:03
telling us how to be.
刷り込み続けていました
01:06
Now my mother was different.
ところが 私の母は変わった人で
01:09
She was a homemaker,
主婦なのに 外で
01:11
but she and I didn't go out and do girlie things together,
女の子らしい経験もさせてくれず
01:13
and she didn't buy me pink outfits.
ピンクの服も買ってくれませんでした
01:15
Instead, she knew what I needed, and she bought me a book of cartoons.
代わりに 欲しかった漫画を買ってくれました
01:17
And I just ate it up.
私は夢中になって
01:20
I drew, and I drew,
絵を描いて描いて 描き続けました
01:22
and since I knew that humor was acceptable in my family,
家族はユーモア好きでしたから
01:24
I could draw, do what I wanted to do,
描きたいままに描くことができました
01:27
and not have to perform, not have to speak --
自己主張も会話も不要でした
01:29
I was very shy --
内気な性格は 今でも続いています
01:31
and I could still get approval.
それが漫画家としての一歩です
01:33
I was launched as a cartoonist.
(女らしさや失敗を避けていいわけじゃない)
01:36
Now when we're young,
人は小さい頃に 決まり事を悟ります
01:40
we don't always know. We know there are rules out there,
(結婚したら私はあの女の人 トミーはあの男の人になるの)
01:42
but we don't always know --
ですが いつも決まり事に
01:45
we don't perform them right,
従うわけではありません
01:47
even though we are imprinted at birth
生まれた時から
01:49
with these things,
刷り込まれているとしてもです
01:51
and we're told
世界で一番重要とされている
01:54
what the most important color in the world is.
お決まりの色(ピンク)
01:56
We're told what shape we're supposed to be in.
お決まりの形
01:59
(Laughter)
(大きい服ですが お客様もです)
02:02
We're told what to wear --
お決まりの服装
02:05
(Laughter)
(ああいうの着たほうがいいかな?)
02:07
-- and how to do our hair --
お決まりの髪型
02:09
(Laughter)
(政治家のサラ・ペイリンみたいな髪型で でも彼女みたいな印象にはしないで)
02:11
-- and how to behave.
お決まりの行動にも従いません
02:16
Now the rules that I'm talking about
ここで言う決まり事は
02:19
are constantly being monitored by the culture.
絶えず社会の目にさらされて
02:21
We're being corrected,
修正を受け続けているものです
02:23
and the primary policemen are women,
その監視役に最適なのは女性です
02:25
because we are the carriers of the tradition.
女性が伝統の継承者だからです
02:28
We pass it down from generation to generation.
代々 女性が決まり事を受け継いでいるのです
02:30
Not only that --
何か押しつけられていると
02:34
we always have this vague notion
ぼんやり感じ続けている
02:36
that something's expected of us.
だけではなくて --
02:38
And on top of all off these rules,
(ずっと押しつけられている気がするのはなぜ?)
02:40
they keep changing.
その内容も変わり続けています
02:43
(Laughter)
(何も気にならないことが気になる)
02:45
We don't know what's going on half the time,
現状を把握していないこともよくありますけど
02:49
so it puts us in a very tenuous position.
それが女性の立場を危うくします
02:52
(Laughter)
(服装 振る舞い 話し方 歩き方)
02:55
Now if you don't like these rules,
そんな決まり事が嫌いな人は
02:57
and many of us don't --
多いと思います
02:59
I know I didn't, and I still don't,
もちろん決まり事に従うことも多く
03:01
even though I follow them half the time,
無意識に従うこともありますが
03:04
not quite aware that I'm following them --
私は昔からずっと嫌いです
03:06
what better way than to change them [than] with humor?
嫌なら ユーモアで変えるのが一番です(ユーモア)
03:08
Humor relies on the traditions of a society.
ユーモアは社会の伝統に依存します(伝統)
03:13
It takes what we know, and it twists it.
知識にひねりを加えたり
03:16
It takes the codes of behavior and the codes of dress,
振る舞いや服装の決まり事を
03:19
and it makes it unexpected,
思いもよらないものに変えて
03:21
and that's what elicits a laugh.
笑いを誘うのです
03:23
Now what if you put together women and humor?
女性とユーモアを組み合わせたらどうなるか?
03:25
I think you can get change.
変化が生まれます
03:28
Because women are on the ground floor,
女性は有利です
03:30
and we know the traditions so well,
伝統をよく把握していますから
03:32
we can bring a different voice to the table.
新たな声を届けることができます
03:34
Now I started drawing
私が漫画を描き始めた頃
03:36
in the middle of a lot of chaos.
社会は混沌としていました
03:38
I grew up not far from here in Washington D.C.
ワシントンD.C.からそう遠くない所で
03:40
during the Civil Rights movement, the assassinations,
公民権運動 暗殺事件 ウォーターゲート事件
03:42
the Watergate hearings and then the feminist movement,
女性解放運動を見て育った私は
03:45
and I think I was drawing,
目の前の状況を把握しよう
03:48
trying to figure out what was going on.
という気持ちで描き続けていました
03:50
And then also my family was in chaos,
家族にも混乱がありましたから
03:52
and I drew to try to bring my family together --
家族をつなぎ止める思いもありました
03:55
(Laughter)
(パパとママのために 一緒に来てあげたの)
03:58
-- try to bring my family together with laughter.
一緒に笑いたくて描いていたのです
04:03
It didn't work.
でもダメでした
04:06
My parents got divorced, and my sister was arrested.
両親は離婚して 姉妹は逮捕されました
04:08
But I found my place.
でも私は居場所を見つけました
04:11
I found that I didn't have to wear high heels,
ハイヒールを履かなくていいと気付き
04:13
I didn't have to wear pink,
ピンクの服を着なくていいと気付き
04:15
and I could feel like I fit in.
それが自分に合っていると感じました
04:17
Now when I was a little older, in my 20s,
少し成長して20代になると
04:20
I realized there are not many women in cartooning.
女性の漫画家が多くないことに気付いて
04:23
And I thought, "Well, maybe I can break
「漫画界の見えない壁を崩せるはず」
04:26
the little glass ceiling of cartooning,"
と思ったら本当に崩せました
04:28
and so I did. I became a cartoonist.
(誰でも壁を破れる日はいつ?)
04:30
And then I thought -- in my 40s I started thinking,
40代には こう考え始めました
04:32
"Well, why don't I do something?
「何かしたほうがいいんじゃない?
04:35
I always loved political cartoons,
ずっと政治風刺漫画が好きだったし
04:37
so why don't I do something with the content of my cartoons
作品を使って何かしたら?
04:39
to make people think about the stupid rules that we're following
女性を縛るくだらない決まり事について
04:42
as well as laugh?"
笑いを交えて 考えてもらったら?」
04:45
Now my perspective
(黒で目が引き立つね)
04:48
is a particularly --
私の見方は
04:50
(Laughter)
特に
04:52
-- my perspective is a particularly American perspective.
アメリカ人的な見方です
04:54
I can't help it. I live here.
ここに暮らす以上 それは避けられません
04:56
Even though I've traveled a lot,
旅行は何度もしていますが
04:59
I still think like an American woman.
アメリカ人女性っぽい思考のままです
05:01
But I believe that the rules that I'm talking about
でも この決まり事というのは
05:03
are universal, of course --
世界共通です
05:05
that each culture has its different codes of behavior
文化が違えば 振る舞いも違い
05:07
and dress and traditions,
服装や伝統も違いますが
05:10
and each woman has to deal with these same things
どこの女性も アメリカ人と同じ問題に
05:12
that we do here in the U.S.
立ち向かわないといけないのです
05:14
Consequently, we have.
(見て あのアンテナいけてる)
05:16
Women, because we're on the ground, we know the tradition.
女性は伝統に通じているから有利で
05:18
We have amazing antennae.
アンテナの感度もいいのです
05:21
Now my work lately
最近は 世界中の漫画家と
05:24
has been to collaborate with international cartoonists,
共同作業をしています
05:26
which I so enjoy,
とても楽しく
05:28
and it's given me a greater appreciation
漫画のもつ力を
05:31
for the power of cartoons
一層深く感じることができます
05:33
to get at the truth,
真実をとらえる力
05:35
to get at the issues quickly and succinctly.
問題を素早く簡潔にとらえる力
05:39
And not only that, it can get to the viewer
見る者に訴える力を感じます
05:42
through not only the intellect, but through the heart.
知性だけでなく心にも訴える力です
05:44
My work also has allowed me to collaborate
制作を通じて世界中の女性漫画家と
05:47
with women cartoonists from across the world --
力を合わせることができます
05:50
countries such as Saudi Arabia,
サウジアラビア
05:52
Iran, Turkey,
イラン トルコ
05:54
Argentina, France --
アルゼンチン フランス
05:56
and we have sat together and laughed
みんなで座って 笑って 話して
05:58
and talked and shared our difficulties.
問題を共有するのです
06:00
And these women are working so hard to get their voices heard
どの国の女性も とても困難な環境の中で
06:02
in some very difficult circumstances.
懸命に自分の声を届けようとしています
06:05
But I feel blessed to be able to work with them.
こういった女性たちと協力し合えるのは幸せです
06:08
And we talk about
女性が危うい立場にあり
06:12
how women have such strong perceptions,
伝統の継承者となっている状況で
06:14
because of our tenuous position
女性が変革の請負人として
06:16
and our role as tradition-keepers,
高い潜在能力を持てることを
06:18
that we can have the great potential
強く自覚させるにはどうしたらいいのか
06:21
to be change-agents.
それを話し合っています
06:24
And I think, I truly believe,
(ご飯の話はやめて革命についてつぶやけたらなあ)
06:26
that we can change this thing
笑いを添えて 一歩ずつ
06:29
one laugh at a time.
変えていけると信じています
06:31
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
06:33
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:35
Translated by Satoshi Tatsuhara
Reviewed by Takahiro Shimpo

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About the Speaker:

Liza Donnelly - Cartoonist
New Yorker cartoonist Liza Donnelly tackles global issues with humor, intelligence and sarcasm. Her latest project supports the United Nations initiative Cartooning For Peace.

Why you should listen

When Liza Donnelly joined The New Yorker in 1982, she was the youngest cartoonist on staff and one of only three women at the time to draw cartoons for the magazine. She’s still there. In 2005, Donnelly wrote the definitive book about her colleagues: Funny Ladies: The New Yorker’s Greatest Women Cartoonists and Their Cartoons. She’s been part of many other books, including Sex and Sensibility, Cartoon Marriage (about her life with fellow New Yorker cartoonist Michael Maslin) and a popular series of dinosaur books for kids. Her latest is Women on Men.

In 2007, Donnelly joined the United Nations initiative Cartooning for Peace. She travels worldwide to speak out about freedom of speech, world peace, and other global issues. Along with her New Yorker cartoons, Donnelly writes a column for Forbes, and draws a weekly political cartoon for Medium. She's a founding member of the US branch of the international organization FECO, and has taught at Vassar College and The School of Visual Arts. She received an honorary PhD from the University of Connecticut and is a cultural envoy for the US State Department, traveling to speak about women's rights, freedom of expression and cartoons.

More profile about the speaker
Liza Donnelly | Speaker | TED.com