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TEDGlobal 2011

Josette Sheeran: Ending hunger now

ジョゼット・シーラン:今こそ飢餓のない世界を

July 14, 2011

国連世界食糧計画(WFP)の事務局長ゼット・シーランが、全員に十分な量の食料がある世界で、なぜ飢える人や餓死する人、また食料を戦争の道具にする人がいるのかを語ります。彼女は訴えます「食糧問題は個人で解決できるものではないのです。私たちが一緒に立ち上がらなければなりません。」

Josette Sheeran - Anti-hunger leader
Our generation is the first in history with enough resources to eradicate hunger worldwide. Josette Sheeran, the former head of the UN World Food Programme, shares a plan. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Well after many years working in trade and economics,
貿易と経済の仕事を
00:15
four years ago,
4年前に辞めて
00:18
I found myself working on the front lines
現在は弱い立場の人々の中で
00:20
of human vulnerability.
働いています
00:22
And I found myself in the places
そこではみんなが
00:25
where people are fighting every day to survive
必死に生きようとしても
00:27
and can't even obtain a meal.
1日何も食べられません
00:30
This red cup comes from Rwanda
この赤いカップはルワンダの
00:34
from a child named Fabian.
フェイビアンからもらいました
00:36
And I carry this around
いつも持ち歩いています
00:38
as a symbol, really, of the challenge
これは挑戦と希望の
00:40
and also the hope.
象徴なのです
00:42
Because one cup of food a day
1日カップ1杯の食物で
00:44
changes Fabian's life completely.
フェイビアンの生活は改善しました
00:46
But what I'd like to talk about today
そしてこれから話すのは
00:49
is the fact that this morning,
次の事実についてです
00:52
about a billion people on Earth --
地球上の約10億人
00:55
or one out of every seven --
つまり7人に1人が今朝も
00:57
woke up and didn't even know
このカップに食べ物を
00:59
how to fill this cup.
満たす方法が分からない
01:01
One out of every seven people.
7人に1人がです
01:03
First, I'll ask you: Why should you care?
この問題に私たちが
01:07
Why should we care?
取り組む理由は何でしょう
01:09
For most people,
たいていの人は
01:11
if they think about hunger,
飢饉といわれれば
01:13
they don't have to go far back on their own family history --
遠い昔ではなく
01:15
maybe in their own lives, or their parents' lives,
自分自身や両親
01:18
or their grandparents' lives --
祖父母の時代に
01:20
to remember an experience of hunger.
経験していることでしょう
01:22
I rarely find an audience
ほとんどの聴衆の方は
01:25
where people can go back very far without that experience.
少し遡れば飢饉の経験に行き当たります
01:27
Some are driven by compassion,
深い同情にかられて
01:30
feel it's perhaps
人道的行為が必要と
01:32
one of the fundamental acts of humanity.
感じる人もいます
01:34
As Gandhi said,
ガンジーも言っています
01:36
"To a hungry man, a piece of bread is the face of God."
「飢えた者に一切れのパンを」とね
01:38
Others worry about peace and security,
また世界の平和と安全を
01:42
stability in the world.
心配する人たちもいます
01:45
We saw the food riots in 2008,
2008年に食糧暴動が起きたのは
01:47
after what I call the silent tsunami of hunger
飢餓という「静かな津波」が地球を襲い
01:50
swept the globe when food prices doubled overnight.
一夜で食料の値段が倍になったからです
01:53
The destabilizing effects of hunger
歴史的にみても飢餓は
01:56
are known throughout human history.
社会を不安定にする要因です
01:59
One of the most fundamental acts of civilization
ですから文明社会の条件として
02:01
is to ensure people can get enough food.
十分な食糧確保が必要なのです
02:04
Others think about Malthusian nightmares.
マルサスの悪夢を懸念する人は
02:07
Will we be able to feed a population
人口が90億になる数十年後に
02:11
that will be nine billion in just a few decades?
食料が足りるか心配します
02:14
This is not a negotiable thing, hunger.
空腹は他のことでは
02:17
People have to eat.
埋め合わせできません
02:19
There's going to be a lot of people.
多くの人は飢餓の解決を
02:21
This is jobs and opportunity all the way up and down the value chain.
食糧のバリューチェーンの仕事と考えるでしょう
02:23
But I actually came to this issue
しかしこの問題について
02:27
in a different way.
私は違う立場です
02:29
This is a picture of me and my three children.
私と3人の子供たちです
02:32
In 1987, I was a new mother
1987年に最初の子供を
02:35
with my first child
出産しました
02:37
and was holding her and feeding her
子供を抱いて授乳中に
02:39
when an image very similar to this
テレビでこれに似た
02:42
came on the television.
映像を目にしました
02:45
And this was yet another famine in Ethiopia.
エチオピアはその数年前から
02:48
One two years earlier
飢饉が続き
02:51
had killed more than a million people.
100万人以上が死んでいました
02:53
But it never struck me as it did that moment,
しかしその姿を見てはじめて
02:56
because on that image
私はショックを受けました
02:59
was a woman trying to nurse her baby,
赤ん坊を育てる母親に
03:01
and she had no milk to nurse.
ミルクがないのです
03:03
And the baby's cry really penetrated me,
その赤ん坊の泣き声が
03:07
as a mother.
私の心をえぐりました
03:10
And I thought, there's nothing more haunting
泣いている子供に
03:12
than the cry of a child
食事を与えられないのは
03:14
that cannot be returned with food --
どれほど恐ろしいことでしょう
03:16
the most fundamental expectation of every human being.
ヒトの基本的な欲求です
03:21
And it was at that moment
まさにこのときに
03:24
that I just was filled
この問題へ怒りを持って
03:26
with the challenge and the outrage
誰でも分かっている解決方法に
03:29
that actually we know how to fix this problem.
挑戦しようと決めました
03:32
This isn't one of those rare diseases
飢餓は治療法がわからない
03:34
that we don't have the solution for.
まれな難病ではありません
03:36
We know how to fix hunger.
解決法は分かっています
03:39
A hundred years ago, we didn't.
100年前は無理でしたが
03:41
We actually have the technology and systems.
今はテクノロジーが発達しています
03:43
And I was just struck
飢饉という現象は
03:46
that this is out of place.
もう時代遅れなのです
03:49
At our time in history, these images are out of place.
私たちの時代にあってはならない
03:51
Well guess what?
実際はどうでしょう
03:54
This is last week in northern Kenya.
北部ケニアで先週撮影された写真
03:56
Yet again,
またもや
03:59
the face of starvation
大規模な飢餓に
04:01
at large scale
直面しています
04:03
with more than nine million people
900万人以上の人が
04:05
wondering if they can make it to the next day.
翌日の生活を心配しています
04:08
In fact,
実際に
04:11
what we know now
今この瞬間にも
04:13
is that every 10 seconds
10秒に1人の子供が
04:15
we lose a child to hunger.
餓死しているのです
04:17
This is more
この死者数は
04:19
than HIV/AIDS,
エイズや
04:21
malaria and tuberculosis combined.
マラリアや結核の合計以上
04:24
And we know that the issue
ただし飢餓の解決には
04:27
is not just production of food.
食料の生産だけでは不十分です
04:29
One of my mentors in life
ノーマン・ボーローグ氏は
04:32
was Norman Borlaug, my hero.
私も尊敬しています
04:34
But today I'm going to talk about access to food,
しかし食料へのアクセスも大切です
04:37
because actually this year and last year
実際に今年や去年
04:40
and during the 2008 food crisis,
2008年の食糧危機のときも
04:43
there was enough food on Earth
世界には一人あたり
04:45
for everyone to have 2,700 kilocalories.
2700キロカロリー分の食物がありました
04:47
So why is it
それなのになぜ
04:50
that we have a billion people
10億の人々には
04:53
who can't find food?
食物がないのでしょう
04:55
And I also want to talk about
また私たちには
04:57
what I call our new burden of knowledge.
知ったゆえの責任があります
04:59
In 2008,
2008年に
05:01
Lancet compiled all the research
『ランセット』誌の調査で
05:03
and put forward the compelling evidence
明らかになったのは
05:06
that if a child in its first thousand days --
胎児から2歳になるまでの
05:10
from conception to two years old --
最初の1000日間で
05:13
does not have adequate nutrition,
十分な栄養が与えられないと
05:16
the damage is irreversible.
後遺症として
05:18
Their brains and bodies will be stunted.
脳や体に発達障害が残ります
05:20
And here you see a brain scan of two children --
2人の子供の脳の写真です
05:23
one who had adequate nutrition,
栄養が足りている子供と
05:26
another, neglected
育児放棄された
05:28
and who was deeply malnourished.
ひどい栄養失調の子供です
05:30
And we can see brain volumes
ご覧の通り 脳の容積が
05:32
up to 40 percent less
40パーセントぐらい
05:34
in these children.
小さくなっています
05:37
And in this slide
またこちらの子供は
05:39
you see the neurons and the synapses of the brain
脳内の神経やシナプスが
05:41
don't form.
形成されていません
05:44
And what we know now is this has huge impact on economies,
このことが経済に大きな影響を生じることも
05:46
which I'll talk about later.
後ほどお話します
05:49
But also the earning potential of these children
こうした子供たちは生涯の収入が
05:51
is cut in half in their lifetime
普通の人の半分ほどです
05:54
due to the stunting
それも人生の初期の
05:57
that happens in early years.
発達障害が原因なのです
05:59
So this burden of knowledge drives me.
この事も私の活動の動機です
06:01
Because actually we know how to fix it
私たちには飢餓を解決する方法が
06:04
very simply.
分かっているのです
06:07
And yet, in many places,
それなのに世界中で
06:09
a third of the children,
子供の3人に1人が
06:11
by the time they're three
3歳になるまでに
06:13
already are facing a life of hardship
飢餓という苦しみに
06:15
due to this.
直面しています
06:18
I'd like to talk about
これから みなさんに
06:20
some of the things I've seen on the front lines of hunger,
飢餓の現場で見たことと
06:22
some of the things I've learned
経済や貿易の知識や
06:24
in bringing my economic and trade knowledge
民間企業の経験から
06:27
and my experience in the private sector.
学んだことをお話します
06:30
I'd like to talk about where the gap of knowledge is.
知識の差についての話もします
06:34
Well first, I'd like to talk about the oldest nutritional method on Earth,
先ずは昔からの栄養の与え方である
06:37
breastfeeding.
授乳の話をします
06:40
You may be surprised to know
驚く事に
06:42
that a child could be saved every 22 seconds
最初の6ヶ月を母乳で育てれば
06:45
if there was breastfeeding in the first six months of life.
22秒に1人の子供を救えます
06:48
But in Niger, for example,
しかしニジェールでは
06:53
less than seven percent of the children
わずか7パーセント以下の
06:56
are breastfed
子供たちしか
06:58
for the first six months of life, exclusively.
最初の6ヶ月を母乳で育てられません
07:00
In Mauritania, less than three percent.
モーリタニアでは3パーセント以下です
07:03
This is something that can be transformed with knowledge.
この状況は知識があれば変えられます
07:07
This message, this word, can come out
知識を広めましょう
07:11
that this is not an old-fashioned way of doing business;
母乳で育てるのは時代遅れではなく
07:13
it's a brilliant way
子供の命を救う
07:16
of saving your child's life.
優れた方法なのです
07:18
And so today we focus on not just passing out food,
ですから食料を届けるだけでなく
07:20
but making sure the mothers have enough enrichment,
母乳について母親に知ってもらうことにも
07:23
and teaching them about breastfeeding.
私たちは力を入れています
07:26
The second thing I'd like to talk about:
次に 考えてみて下さい
07:29
If you were living in a remote village somewhere,
あなたがへき地の村に暮らし
07:31
your child was limp,
足の不自由な子供を抱え
07:33
and you were in a drought, or you were in floods,
干ばつや洪水などで
07:35
or you were in a situation where there wasn't adequate diversity of diet,
食物が十分ではないとしたら
07:38
what would you do?
どうしますか
07:41
Do you think you could go to the store
お店に行って
07:43
and get a choice of power bars, like we can,
栄養バーの棚から選んで
07:45
and pick the right one to match?
不足を補えますか
07:48
Well I find parents out on the front lines
飢餓に直面している親達は
07:50
very aware their children are going down for the count.
子供が動けなくなるのは分かっています
07:53
And I go to those shops, if there are any,
お店があればそこに行くし
07:56
or out to the fields to see what they can get,
作物が実る畑なら収穫もします
07:59
and they cannot obtain the nutrition.
でも実際は栄養をとるために
08:02
Even if they know what they need to do, it's not available.
必要な行動ができません
08:05
And I'm very excited about this,
私たちが取り組んでいる
08:08
because one thing we're working on
興味深い活動があります
08:10
is transforming the technologies
食品産業で使われている
08:13
that are very available
科学技術を
08:16
in the food industry
伝統的な作物向けに
08:18
to be available for traditional crops.
転換して利用する事です
08:20
And this is made with chickpeas, dried milk
これはヒヨコマメと粉末ミルクに
08:23
and a host of vitamins,
ビタミンを加え
08:26
matched to exactly what the brain needs.
脳に必要な栄養が入った
08:28
It costs 17 cents for us to produce this
17セントでつくれる
08:30
as, what I call, food for humanity.
「人道的な食物」です
08:33
We did this with food technologists
インドとパキスタンの
08:36
in India and Pakistan --
食糧技術者3人と協力して
08:38
really about three of them.
開発しました
08:41
But this is transforming
そしてこれを食べた
08:43
99 percent of the kids who get this.
99パーセントの子供は
08:45
One package, 17 cents a day --
毎日1袋17セントで
08:47
their malnutrition is overcome.
栄養不良から脱しました
08:50
So I am convinced
豊かな国の
08:52
that if we can unlock the technologies
科学技術が自由に使えれば
08:54
that are commonplace in the richer world
食物の改良ができると
08:57
to be able to transform foods.
確信したのです
09:00
And this is climate-proof.
厳しい気候にも耐え
09:02
It doesn't need to be refrigerated, it doesn't need water,
冷蔵や水などの
09:04
which is often lacking.
必要はありません
09:06
And these types of technologies,
こうした科学技術が
09:08
I see, have the potential
飢餓と栄養失調を
09:10
to transform the face of hunger and nutrition, malnutrition
現場から根絶する可能性を
09:12
out on the front lines.
秘めているのです
09:15
The next thing I want to talk about is school feeding.
次に学校給食の話をします
09:18
Eighty percent of the people in the world
世界の8割の人は
09:20
have no food safety net.
食糧が保障されていません
09:22
When disaster strikes --
ひとたび悲惨な出来事が―
09:24
the economy gets blown, people lose a job,
経済破綻や失業の増加
09:27
floods, war, conflict,
洪水や戦争などの対立
09:30
bad governance, all of those things --
政策の失敗などが起これば
09:32
there is nothing to fall back on.
頼るものはありません
09:34
And usually the institutions --
教会や寺院などにも
09:36
churches, temples, other things --
大体の場合において
09:38
do not have the resources
安心できるだけの
09:40
to provide a safety net.
蓄えがありません
09:42
What we have found working with the World Bank
世界銀行との仕事では
09:44
is that the poor man's safety net,
貧しい人の食事を保障するには
09:46
the best investment, is school feeding.
学校給食がよいと知りました
09:48
And if you fill the cup
このカップを
09:50
with local agriculture from small farmers,
地元の農家の作物で満たせれば
09:52
you have a transformative effect.
変化を起こす効果があります
09:55
Many kids in the world can't go to school
物乞いで食料を得ていて
09:57
because they have to go beg and find a meal.
学校へ行けない子供たちも
10:00
But when that food is there,
学校で食事がでれば
10:02
it's transformative.
状況は変わります
10:04
It costs less than 25 cents a day to change a kid's life.
その費用は1日25セント以下です
10:06
But what is most amazing is the effect on girls.
特に少女への影響が大きいです
10:09
In countries where girls don't go to school
少女が学校へ行かない国では
10:12
and you offer a meal to girls in school,
学校で食事をだすことで
10:16
we see enrollment rates
男女の入学者比率が
10:19
about 50 percent girls and boys.
半分ずつになり
10:21
We see a transformation in attendance by girls.
少女たちの出席率も向上しました
10:23
And there was no argument,
親からの反対はありません
10:26
because it's incentive.
むしろ奨励されました
10:28
Families need the help.
家族も助かります
10:30
And we find that if we keep girls in school later,
学校に行く少女は
10:32
they'll stay in school until they're 16,
16歳になるまで残り
10:34
and won't get married if there's food in school.
食糧のために結婚したりしません
10:36
Or if they get an extra ration of food
週末には多めに食べ物を
10:39
at the end of the week --
与えるようにすると
10:41
it costs about 50 cents --
50 セントかかりますが
10:43
will keep a girl in school,
少女たちは学校に通い
10:45
and they'll give birth to a healthier child,
健康な子供を産みます
10:47
because the malnutrition is sent
逆に栄養失調の状況は
10:49
generation to generation.
親から子へ受け継がれます
10:52
We know that there's boom and bust cycles of hunger.
飢餓が繰り返し訪れることは
10:55
We know this.
みんな知っています
10:57
Right now on the Horn of Africa, we've been through this before.
現在はアフリカの角で飢餓が起きています
10:59
So is this a hopeless cause?
では救いようがないかと言えば
11:02
Absolutely not.
それは違います
11:04
I'd like to talk about what I call our warehouses for hope.
これから「希望の倉庫」の話をします
11:08
Cameroon, northern Cameroon, boom and bust cycles of hunger
北部カメルーンではここ数十年
11:11
every year for decades.
毎年の飢餓に見舞われています
11:14
Food aid coming in every year
食料が不足する時期には
11:16
when people are starving during the lean seasons.
毎年のように食糧援助が届けられます
11:19
Well two years ago,
2年前に私たちは
11:23
we decided, let's transform the model of fighting hunger,
今までの飢餓との闘い方を変えました
11:25
and instead of giving out the food aid, we put it into food banks.
食糧を配らずに食料銀行に預け
11:29
And we said, listen,
こう言ったのです
11:32
during the lean season, take the food out.
「この食糧で不足を補い
11:34
You manage, the village manages these warehouses.
この倉庫は村で経営し
11:36
And during harvest, put it back with interest,
収穫の時期には利息をつけて
11:39
food interest.
食物で返しなさい
11:41
So add in five percent, 10 percent more food.
5から10パーセント多く戻すのです」
11:43
For the past two years,
この2年間で
11:47
500 of these villages where these are
参加した村の500ほどが
11:49
have not needed any food aid -- they're self-sufficient.
自給できるようになり
11:51
And the food banks are growing.
「食糧銀行」は広まっています
11:53
And they're starting school feeding programs for their children
子供の学校給食から始めた
11:55
by the people in the village.
村の人々ですが
11:58
But they've never had the ability
彼らには基本的な施設などを
12:00
to build even the basic infrastructure
構築する能力すら
12:02
or the resources.
ありませんでした
12:04
I love this idea that came from the village level:
村の人たちのアイディアで
12:06
three keys to unlock that warehouse.
倉庫を開ける鍵を3つにしました
12:08
Food is gold there.
食料は黄金と同じだからです
12:11
And simple ideas can transform the face,
単純な発想で状況は変えられるのです
12:13
not of small areas,
小さな地域だけでなく
12:16
of big areas of the world.
より広い地域でも同じです
12:18
I'd like to talk about what I call digital food.
「デジタル食糧」について話します
12:20
Technology is transforming
科学技術によって
12:24
the face of food vulnerability
飢饉になっている場所での
12:27
in places where you see classic famine.
食糧不足を変えられます
12:29
Amartya Sen won his Nobel Prize
アマルティア・セン氏は
12:31
for saying, "Guess what, famines happen in the presence of food
「目の前の食料を買えないので飢餓が生じる」と解明し
12:33
because people have no ability to buy it."
ノーベル賞を受けました
12:37
We certainly saw that in 2008.
2008年の食糧価格高騰も
12:40
We're seeing that now in the Horn of Africa
アフリカの角地帯では
12:42
where food prices are up 240 percent in some areas
この一年で食糧価格が
12:44
over last year.
2.4倍に上昇したので
12:47
Food can be there and people can't buy it.
目の前の食物を買えないのです
12:49
Well this picture -- I was in Hebron in a small shop, this shop,
これはヘブロンの商店
12:51
where instead of bringing in food,
私たちは食糧を持ち込むのではなく
12:55
we provide digital food, a card.
アラビア語で「いただきます」と書かれた
12:58
It says "bon appetit" in Arabic.
カードを配りました
13:01
And the women can go in and swipe
女性たちは店に行ってカードを通し
13:04
and get nine food items.
9つの食料をもらいます
13:07
They have to be nutritious,
それらは栄養価が高くて
13:09
and they have to be locally produced.
地元でつくられた食物です
13:11
And what's happened in the past year alone
昨年だけの成果で
13:13
is the dairy industry --
このカードで購入する
13:15
where this card's used for milk and yogurt
ミルクやヨーグルトや卵などを
13:17
and eggs and hummus --
提供した酪農家では
13:20
the dairy industry has gone up 30 percent.
30パーセント売り上げが伸び
13:22
The shopkeepers are hiring more people.
商店の雇用も増えました
13:25
It is a win-win-win situation
ウィン・ウィン・ウィンで
13:27
that starts the food economy moving.
食糧経済が回り始めたのです
13:29
We now deliver food in over 30 countries
現在では30カ国以上で
13:32
over cell phones,
携帯電話による
13:35
transforming even the presence of refugees in countries,
食糧配給を行い 難民たちの状況まで
13:38
and other ways.
変えているのです
13:42
Perhaps most exciting to me
ビル・ゲイツやバフェットが
13:44
is an idea that Bill Gates, Howard Buffett and others
強く支持している考え方で
13:46
have supported boldly,
興味深いアイディアがあります
13:49
which is to ask the question:
こんな問いかけです
13:51
What if, instead of looking at the hungry as victims --
飢餓の人を犠牲者ではなく
13:53
and most of them are small farmers
小規模農家で
13:56
who cannot raise enough food or sell food
家計を支える十分な食物を
13:58
to even support their own families --
生産できないと考えたら?
14:01
what if we view them as the solution,
人々を飢餓と闘うための
14:03
as the value chain to fight hunger?
バリューチェーンと考えたら?
14:06
What if from the women in Africa
アフリカの女性達が
14:08
who cannot sell any food --
食物を売れないのは
14:13
there's no roads, there's no warehouses,
道もないし倉庫もない
14:15
there's not even a tarp to pick the food up with --
収穫物を入れる袋もないからですが
14:17
what if we give the enabling environment
女性たちが食糧を
14:20
for them to provide the food
他の場所の空腹な子供に
14:22
to feed the hungry children elsewhere?
提供できたらどうでしょう?
14:24
And Purchasing for Progress today is in 21 countries.
現在21カ国で「進歩への購入」をしています
14:27
And guess what?
これは何でしょう
14:30
In virtually every case,
ほとんどの場合
14:32
when poor farmers are given a guaranteed market --
貧しい農民も市場が保証されれば
14:34
if you say, "We will buy 300 metric tons of this.
つまり「これを300トン買い
14:37
We'll pick it up. We'll make sure it's stored properly." --
収穫して適切に保管しよう」と言われれば
14:40
their yields have gone up two-, three-, fourfold
収量が何倍にも増えるものです
14:43
and they figure it out,
こうした保証は
14:46
because it's the first guaranteed opportunity they've had in their life.
農民にとって初めてのことです
14:48
And we're seeing people transform their lives.
人々の生活が変わってきました
14:51
Today, food aid, our food aid --
現在では私たちの
14:54
huge engine --
莫大な食糧援助の
14:57
80 percent of it is bought in the developing world.
8割が途上国で調達されています
14:59
Total transformation
食料が必要な人の生活を
15:02
that can actually transform the very lives that need the food.
完全に変えるものです
15:04
Now you'd ask, can this be done at scale?
どのくらいの規模でできるのでしょうか?
15:08
These are great ideas, village-level ideas.
村レベルでしか適用できないのでしょうか?
15:11
Well I'd like to talk about Brazil,
数年前に旅をした
15:14
because I've taken a journey to Brazil over the past couple of years,
ブラジルの話をしましょう
15:16
when I read that Brazil was defeating hunger
どこよりも飢餓を減らしたと
15:19
faster than any nation on Earth right now.
書かれていました
15:21
And what I've found is,
実際に現地の政府は
15:23
rather than investing their money in food subsidies
食糧購入の助成金ではなく
15:25
and other things,
学校給食に
15:27
they invested in a school feeding program.
お金をかけていました
15:29
And they require that a third of that food
3分の1の材料は地元の
15:31
come from the smallest farmers who would have no opportunity.
小規模農家の作物としました
15:33
And they're doing this at huge scale
この大規模な活動は
15:36
after President Lula declared his goal
ルーラ大統領が国民に約束した
15:38
of ensuring everyone had three meals a day.
1日3回の食事を実現するためでした
15:41
And this zero hunger program
「空腹ゼロ」の政策に
15:44
costs .5 percent of GDP
GDPの0.5パーセントをかけて
15:48
and has lifted many millions of people
何百万もの人々が空腹と貧困から
15:51
out of hunger and poverty.
抜け出すことができました
15:56
It is transforming the face of hunger in Brazil,
ブラジルでは飢餓の状況が変わり
15:58
and it's at scale, and it's creating opportunities.
好機も生まれています
16:01
I've gone out there; I've met with the small farmers
実際に会った小規模農家は
16:04
who have built their livelihoods
給食制度による
16:07
on the opportunity and platform
販売市場を通じて
16:09
provided by this.
生計を立てていました
16:11
Now if we look at the economic imperative here,
同情だけではなく
16:14
this isn't just about compassion.
経済的必然性も考えましょう
16:16
The fact is studies show
研究によると
16:19
that the cost of malnutrition and hunger --
栄養失調と飢餓により
16:21
the cost to society,
社会が負担する
16:24
the burden it has to bear --
毎年の費用は
16:26
is on average six percent,
GDPの6パーセントから
16:28
and in some countries up to 11 percent,
高いところでは
16:30
of GDP a year.
11パーセントになります
16:32
And if you look at the 36 countries
栄養失調が深刻な
16:35
with the highest burden of malnutrition,
36カ国を合計すれば
16:38
that's 260 billion lost from a productive economy
2600億の経済的損失が
16:40
every year.
毎年生じています
16:43
Well, the World Bank estimates
世界銀行の試算によると
16:45
it would take about 10 billion dollars --
全世界の栄養失調問題に
16:47
10.3 --
取り組むには
16:49
to address malnutrition in those countries.
103億ドルかかります
16:51
You look at the cost-benefit analysis,
費用対効果の分析から
16:53
and my dream is to take this issue,
この問題を考えましょう
16:55
not just from the compassion argument,
同情的な議論ではなく
16:58
but to the finance ministers of the world,
世界の経済大臣に対し
17:01
and say we cannot afford
全ての人類の
17:03
to not invest
適切な栄養のために
17:05
in the access to adequate, affordable nutrition
投資しないわけには
17:07
for all of humanity.
いかないと伝えましょう
17:10
The amazing thing I've found
驚いたことに
17:13
is nothing can change on a big scale
リーダーの決定がなければ
17:16
without the determination of a leader.
大規模に変化しないのです
17:19
When a leader says, "Not under my watch,"
リーダーの「手に負えなく」なった時に
17:21
everything begins to change.
全てが変わり始めるのです
17:24
And the world can come in
そして他の国が介入して
17:26
with enabling environments and opportunities to do this.
問題と取り組む環境が整うのです
17:28
And the fact that France
フランスのG20では
17:31
has put food at the center of the G20
食糧問題が重要な議題として
17:33
is really important.
取上げられました
17:35
Because food is one issue
食糧問題は個々人や
17:37
that cannot be solved person by person, nation by nation.
個々の国では解決できません
17:39
We have to stand together.
国際的な団結が必要です
17:42
And we're seeing nations in Africa.
アフリカの国々では
17:44
WFP's been able to leave 30 nations
WFPは30カ国から撤退しました
17:46
because they have transformed
これらの国で飢餓の状況を
17:49
the face of hunger in their nations.
変えたからです
17:51
What I would like to offer here is a challenge.
挑戦して欲しい事があります
17:53
I believe we're living at a time in human history
人類史上において現代は
17:58
where it's just simply unacceptable
子供が目覚めたとき
18:01
that children wake up
カップ一杯の食物もない事を
18:04
and don't know where to find a cup of food.
許してはいけない時代です
18:06
Not only that,
そしてまた
18:08
transforming hunger
飢餓を変えるのは
18:10
is an opportunity,
私たちの心を変える
18:12
but I think we have to change our mindsets.
ひとつの機会なのです
18:14
I am so honored to be here
光栄な事に今日は
18:17
with some of the world's top innovators and thinkers.
世界の優秀な人々と同席できたので
18:19
And I would like you to join with all of humanity
みなさんに参加して欲しいのです
18:23
to draw a line in the sand
砂に線を引いて
18:27
and say, "No more.
「もうこれ以上は
18:29
No more are we going to accept this."
認められない」と言って下さい
18:31
And we want to tell our grandchildren
孫に話せる時代にしましょう
18:33
that there was a terrible time in history
歴史をさかのぼれば
18:35
where up to a third of the children
子供たちの3分の1が
18:37
had brains and bodies that were stunted,
脳や体が萎縮していたが
18:39
but that exists no more.
今はそんな事はなくなったと
18:41
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
18:43
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:45
Translator:Chieko Tamakawa
Reviewer:Natsuhiko Mizutani

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Josette Sheeran - Anti-hunger leader
Our generation is the first in history with enough resources to eradicate hunger worldwide. Josette Sheeran, the former head of the UN World Food Programme, shares a plan.

Why you should listen

When Josette Sheeran was the executive director of the United Nations World Food Programme, based in Rome, she oversaw the largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger around the globe. Every year, the program feeds more than 90 million people, including victims of war and natural disasters, families affected by HIV/AIDS, and schoolchildren in poor communities.

Sheeran believes that hunger and poverty must and can be solved through both immediate actions and long-term policies. At the Millennium Development Goal Summit in 2010, she outlined 10 ways the world can end hunger. They include providing school meals, connecting small farmers to markets, empowering women and building the resiliency of vulnerable communities.

Sheeran has a long history of helping others. Prior to joining the UN in 2007, Sheeran was the Under Secretary for Economic, Energy and Agricultural Affairs at the US Department of State, where she frequently focused on economic diplomacy to help emerging nations move toward self-sufficiency and prosperity. She put together several initiatives to bring US aid to the Middle East. She also served as Deputy US Trade Representative, helping African nations develop their trade capacity.

She says: "I think we can, in our lifetime, win the battle against hunger because we now have the science, technology, know-how, and the logistics to be able to meet hunger where it comes. Those pictures of children with swollen bellies will be a thing of history."

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