04:47
TED2011

Philip Zimbardo: The demise of guys?

フィリップ・ジンバルド 「男の消滅?」

Filmed:

心理学者フィリップ・ジンバルドは問いかけます。「なぜ男子は苦労しているのか?」 彼はいくつかの統計(女子より低い卒業率、社交性や人間関係についての心配事)を見せてその理由を述べます。そして、あなたの助けを求めています!この話を聞いた後に、以下のURLで10個ほどの質問に答えていただきたいです。http://on.ted.com/PZSurvey

- Psychologist
Philip Zimbardo was the leader of the notorious 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment -- and an expert witness at Abu Ghraib. His book The Lucifer Effect explores the nature of evil; now, in his new work, he studies the nature of heroism. Full bio

So today, I want us to reflect
では男の消滅について
00:15
on the demise of guys.
真剣に考えてみましょう
00:17
Guys are flaming out academically;
男は学業で失敗します
00:19
they're wiping out socially with girls
女との交際もしませんし
00:21
and sexually with women.
セックスもしません
00:23
Other than that, there's not much of a problem.
他には特に問題もないのですが
00:25
So what's the data?
データを見てみましょう
00:28
So the data on dropping out is amazing.
退学のデータは顕著です
00:30
Boys are 30 percent more likely than girls
男子は女子より30%も
00:32
to drop out of school.
多く退学するようです
00:34
In Canada, five boys drop out for every three girls.
カナダでは女子3人に対し男子5人です
00:36
Girls outperform boys now at every level,
小学校から大学院まで全て
00:39
from elementary school to graduate school.
女子の方が優秀なのです
00:41
There's a 10 percent differential
あるデータによると
00:43
between getting BA's and all graduate programs,
文学士や他の大学院プログラムでは
00:45
with guys falling behind girls.
男子は女子に10%も劣っています
00:48
Two-thirds of all students in special ed. remedial programs are guys.
特別補習講座を受けている学生の3分の2が男子です
00:51
And as you all know,
ご存じの通り
00:55
boys are five times more likely than girls
男子は女子より5倍も多く
00:57
to be labeled as having attention deficit disorder --
多動性障害と診断されます
00:59
and therefore we drug them with Ritalin.
そのため彼らにリタリンを投与します
01:01
What's the evidence of wiping out?
失敗の兆候は何でしょうか
01:04
First, it's a new fear of intimacy.
まずは触れ合いへの恐れです
01:06
Intimacy means physical, emotional connection
触れ合いが意味するものは他人との
01:08
with somebody else --
物理的・感情的な関わりで
01:11
and especially with somebody of the opposite sex
特に曖昧で矛盾的でリン光を発するような
01:13
who gives off ambiguous, contradictory,
性的合図を出している
01:16
phosphorescent signals.
異性との関わりです
01:18
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:20
And every year there's research done
毎年研究が行われいて
01:24
on self-reported shyness among college students.
大学生が自白する内気具合を調べています
01:26
And we're seeing a steady increase among males.
男子ではそれが上昇傾向です
01:29
And this is two kinds.
これは2種類あります
01:31
It's a social awkwardness.
それは社会的不適応です
01:33
The old shyness was a fear of rejection.
昔の内気は拒絶への恐れでした
01:35
It's a social awkwardness like you're a stranger in a foreign land.
見知らぬ土地にいるようです
01:37
They don't know what to say, they don't know what to do,
言うべき事もするべき事もわかりません
01:39
especially one-on-one [with the] opposite sex.
特に1対1で異性と対面する場合です
01:42
They don't know the language of face contact,
彼らは対面して話す方法を知りません
01:45
the non-verbal and verbal set of rules
心置きなく他人と話したり
01:48
that enable you to comfortably talk to somebody else,
他人に耳を傾けるためのルールを
01:50
listen to somebody else.
彼らは知らないのです
01:53
There's something I'm developing here called social intensity syndrome,
私は社会的強度症候群について研究していて
01:55
which tries to account for why guys really prefer
男が女との交配よりも
01:58
male bonding over female mating.
男同士での集まりを好む原因を探っています
02:00
It turns out, from earliest childhood,
結果として 幼少期から
02:03
boys, and then men,
少年期そして成人期と
02:05
prefer the company of guys --
彼らは男友達を好むことが
02:07
physical company.
わかりました
02:09
And there's actually a cortical arousal we're looking at,
そして実際に皮質性の刺激があるのです
02:11
because guys have been with guys
男はいつも男同士でいます
02:14
in teams, in clubs, in gangs, in fraternities,
チーム・クラブ・ギャング・フラタニティ等で
02:16
especially in the military, and then in pubs.
特に軍隊やパブではそれが目に見えます
02:19
And this peaks at Super Bowl Sunday
スーパーボウルの日は顕著で
02:22
when guys would rather be in a bar with strangers,
男は見知らぬ人とバーで過ごします
02:24
watching a totally overdressed Aaron Rodgers of the Green Bay Packers,
彼らは寝室でジェニファー・ロペスの全裸を見るより
02:27
rather than Jennifer Lopez totally naked in the bedroom.
パッカーズの防具姿のアーロンを見たいのです
02:31
The problem is they now prefer
問題なのは彼らが現在
02:34
[the] asynchronistic Internet world
実社会での自然な繋がりより
02:36
to the spontaneous interaction
非同期なネットの世界を
02:38
in social relationships.
好むのです
02:40
What are the causes? Well, it's an unintended consequence.
原因は予期せぬ結果でした
02:42
I think it's excessive Internet use in general, excessive video gaming,
それはインターネットやゲームのやり過ぎや
02:45
excessive new access to pornography.
過剰なまでのアダルトサイトへのアクセスだと思います
02:48
The problem is these are arousal addictions.
皮質性中毒が問題となっています
02:52
Drug addiction, you simply want more.
薬物中毒は量の問題ですが
02:55
Arousal addiction, you want different.
皮質性中毒は種類の問題で
02:57
Drugs, you want more of the same -- different.
量は解決になりません
02:59
So you need the novelty in order for the arousal to be sustained.
つまり欲求を満たすために真新しさが必要です
03:01
And the problem is the industry is supplying it.
問題は産業界がそれを提供していることです
03:04
Jane McGonigal told us last year
ジェーン・マクゴニガルによれば
03:07
that by the time a boy is 21,
男子は21歳を迎えるまでに
03:09
he's played 10,000 hours of video games,
ゲームを1万時間もやり
03:11
most of that in isolation.
そのほとんどの時間が孤独です
03:13
As you remember, Cindy Gallop said
また 男は愛を営むことと
03:15
men don't know the difference
ポルノをすることの違いを理解していないと
03:17
between making love and doing porn.
シンディ・ギャロップは言いました
03:20
The average boy now watches 50 porn video clips a week.
平均的な男子は週に50個もエロ動画を観ます
03:22
And there's some guy watching a hundred, obviously.
当たり前ですが週に100個観る男もいます
03:25
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:28
And the porn industry is the fastest growing industry in America --
ポルノ業界はアメリカで急速に成長しています
03:30
15 billion annually.
年間150億ドルです
03:33
For every 400 movies made in Hollywood,
映画が400個できる頃には
03:35
there are 11,000 now made porn videos.
エロ動画は11,000個も作られます
03:37
So the effect, very quickly,
早くもその影響はでて
03:40
is it's a new kind of arousal.
新種の性的興奮となりました
03:42
Boys' brains are being digitally rewired in a totally new way
男子の脳は新しい配線にデジタルで繋がれ
03:44
for change, novelty, excitement and constant arousal.
変化・真新しさ・普遍の性的興奮を求めます
03:47
That means they're totally out of sync in traditional classes,
つまり アナログで静止している従来の類には
03:50
which are analog, static, interactively passive.
完全に同期していないのです
03:53
They're also totally out of sync
彼らはまた 徐々に育んでいく
03:55
in romantic relationships,
ロマンチックな関係にも
03:57
which build gradually and subtly.
同期できていないのです
03:59
So what's the solution? It's not my job.
ただ 私は警告するだけです
04:01
I'm here to alarm. It's your job to solve.
解決策は自分で見つけて下さい
04:03
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:05
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:08
But who should care? The only people who should care about this
だが誰の責任でしょうか おそらく両親や
04:10
is parents of boys and girls,
教育者 ゲーマー 映画製作者
04:13
educators, gamers, filmmakers
真の男が好きな女です
04:15
and women who would like a real man
真の男と言うのは
04:17
who they can talk to, who can dance,
話せて 踊れて
04:19
who can make love slowly
ゆっくりと愛の営みができ
04:21
and contribute to the evolutionary pressures
我々の進化に貢献できる者です
04:23
to keep our species above banana slugs.
それにより 人間はナメクジより優勢でしょう
04:25
No offense to banana slug owners. Thank you.
悪気はないです 有難うございました
04:28
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:30
Translated by Naoki Funahashi
Reviewed by Hidetoshi Yamauchi

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About the Speaker:

Philip Zimbardo - Psychologist
Philip Zimbardo was the leader of the notorious 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment -- and an expert witness at Abu Ghraib. His book The Lucifer Effect explores the nature of evil; now, in his new work, he studies the nature of heroism.

Why you should listen

Philip Zimbardo knows what evil looks like. After serving as an expert witness during the Abu Ghraib trials, he wrote The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. From Nazi comic books to the tactics of used-car salesmen, he explores a wealth of sources in trying to explain the psychology of evil.

A past president of the American Psychological Association and a professor emeritus at Stanford, Zimbardo retired in 2008 from lecturing, after 50 years of teaching his legendary introductory course in psychology. In addition to his work on evil and heroism, Zimbardo recently published The Time Paradox, exploring different cultural and personal perspectives on time.

Still well-known for his controversial Stanford Prison Experiment, Zimbardo in his new research looks at the psychology of heroism. He asks, "What pushes some people to become perpetrators of evil, while others act heroically on behalf of those in need?"

More profile about the speaker
Philip Zimbardo | Speaker | TED.com