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TEDGlobal 2011

Alex Steffen: The shareable future of cities

アレックス・ステッフェン:共有可能な都市の未来

July 12, 2011

どうすれば都市が未来を救うことができるのか?車で出かけなくとも欲しい物や必要な物を手に入れる地域基盤によるグリーン・プロジェクトについてアレックス・ステッフェンが語ります。

Alex Steffen - Planetary futurist
Alex Steffen explores our planet's future, telling powerful, inspiring stories about the hard choices facing humanity ... and our opportunity to create a much better tomorrow. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Climate change is already a heavy topic,
気候変動は既に深刻な問題ですが
00:15
and it's getting heavier
このままではいけないと
00:17
because we're understanding
私達が理解し始めた現在
00:19
that we need to do more than we are.
深刻度は更に増しています
00:21
We're understanding, in fact,
実際 先進国に暮らす私達は
00:23
that those of us who live in the developed world
排ガス量の削減をしっかりと推進させるべきと言うことも
00:25
need to be really pushing towards eliminating our emissions.
理解し始めています
00:27
That's, to put it mildly, not what's on the table now.
控えめに言ってもこの問題への十分な対応はまだできていません
00:30
And it tends to feel a little overwhelming
そして今日の現実に直面して
00:33
when we look at what is there in reality today
この問題の大きさを目のあたりにすると
00:35
and the magnitude of the problem that we face.
手の打ちようがないような感覚になります
00:38
And when we have overwhelming problems in front of us,
そしてそのような問題を目のあたりにすると
00:41
we tend to seek simple answers.
シンプルな解決策を求めたくなります
00:44
And I think this is what we've done with climate change.
そこで私達が気候変動に対して行なってきた対処法としては
00:47
We look at where the emissions are coming from --
排ガスの発生源を調べ
00:50
they're coming out of our tailpipes and smokestacks and so forth,
それが自動車の排気管や煙突等だということを認識して
00:52
and we say, okay, well the problem is
そこで "よし それなら問題は
00:55
that they're coming out of fossil fuels that we're burning,
私達が燃やしている化石燃料なんだ
00:57
so therefore, the answer must be
だから 解決策としては
00:59
to replace those fossil fuels with clean sources of energy.
クリーンな代替エネルギー源を活用すればいいんだ"となります
01:02
And while, of course, we do need clean energy,
もちろんクリーンエネルギーは必要ですが
01:05
I would put to you that it's possible
私が皆さんにお伝えしたいのは
01:08
that by looking at climate change
気候変動の課題を
01:10
as a clean energy generation problem,
クリーンエネルギーの生成として考えると
01:12
we're in fact setting ourselves up
解決に至らないままになる
01:14
not to solve it.
可能性があるということなのです
01:16
And the reason why
その理由としては
01:18
is that we live on a planet
私達が暮らすこの地球の
01:20
that is rapidly urbanizing.
急激な都市化が挙げられます
01:22
That shouldn't be news to any of us.
これは今更驚くようなことではありません
01:24
However, it's hard sometimes
しかし都市化の規模を感じ取るのは
01:26
to remember the extent of that urbanization.
時として難しいものがあります
01:28
By mid-century,
今世紀半ばには
01:31
we're going to have about eight billion -- perhaps more -- people
およそ80億 またはそれ以上の人々が都市で
01:33
living in cities or within a day's travel of one.
または都市に一日で移動できる地域で暮らしているでしょう
01:36
We will be an overwhelmingly urban species.
壮大な規模の都市圏居住者となるのです
01:39
In order to provide
都市圏に暮らす
01:42
the kind of energy that it would take
80億の人々が
01:44
for eight billion people living in cities
今日の北半球の都市居住者と
01:46
that are even somewhat like the cities
近い形の暮らしをするとして
01:48
that those of us in the global North live in today,
その人達にエネルギーを提供するとしたら
01:50
we would have to generate
とてつもない量のエネルギーを
01:52
an absolutely astonishing amount of energy.
生成しなければなりません
01:54
It may be possible
それ程の量の
01:56
that we are not even able
クリーンエネルギーを作り出すのは
01:58
to build that much clean energy.
不可能かもしれないのです
02:00
So if we're seriously talking about tackling climate change
そこで都市化している地球の気候変動問題に
02:03
on an urbanizing planet,
真剣に取り組む場合は
02:06
we need to look somewhere else for the solution.
別の解決法を見つけ出す必要があります
02:08
The solution, in fact, may be closer to hand than we think,
実際 その解決法は意外と近くにあるのかもしれません
02:11
because all of those cities we're building
と言うのも 私達が築き上げてる都市群が
02:14
are opportunities.
そのきっかけになるのです
02:16
Every city determines to a very large extent
都市の構成自体が住民による消費エネルギー量を
02:18
the amount of energy used by its inhabitants.
決めると言っても過言ではありません。
02:21
We tend to think of energy use as a behavioral thing --
私達はライトのスイッチを入れる時みたいに
02:24
I choose to turn this light switch on --
行動することでエネルギーを使うと考えがちですが
02:27
but really, enormous amounts of our energy use
消費されるエネルギーの多くは
02:29
are predestined
私達の行動以前に
02:32
by the kinds of communities and cities that we live in.
地域や都市によって決定づけられているのです
02:34
I won't show you very many graphs today,
ここでは多くのグラフをお見せしたりはしませんが
02:37
but if I can just focus on this one for a moment,
一つだけ注目して頂きたいのがこちらです
02:39
it really tells us a lot of what we need to know --
これは私達が知るべき事を多く示していてます
02:42
which is, quite simply,
簡単に言えば
02:44
that if you look, for example, at transportation,
一例として交通面についてご覧頂くと
02:46
a major category of climate emissions,
排ガスの主要カテゴリーにおいては
02:48
there is a direct relationship
都市の密集度と
02:50
between how dense a city is
その都市の住民による
02:52
and the amount of climate emissions
大気中へのガスの排出量は
02:54
that its residents spew out into the air.
直接的な関連があります
02:56
And the correlation, of course,
もちろん人口密度が高いほど
02:59
is that denser places tend to have lower emissions --
排ガスの量は少なくなります
03:01
which isn't really all that difficult to figure out, if you think about it.
これは考えればすぐに分かることですね
03:04
Basically,
普段
03:07
we substitute, in our lives,
私達は欲しいものを
03:09
access to the things we want.
手に入れながら暮らしています
03:12
We go out there and we hop in our cars
家を出て車に乗ったら
03:14
and we drive from place to place.
場所から場所へと運転していく
03:16
And we're basically using mobility to get the access we need.
通常はこういった交通手段で必要なものを入手していますが
03:18
But when we live in a denser community,
人口密度の高い地域になると
03:21
suddenly what we find, of course,
必要としているものは 当然
03:23
is that the things we need are close by.
近隣で入手できるようになります
03:25
And since the most sustainable trip
そしてもっとも環境に優しい方法としては
03:27
is the one that you never had to make in the first place,
そもそもそういった移動をしないということで
03:29
suddenly our lives become instantly more sustainable.
その時点で私達の暮らしは一段と環境に優しくなります
03:32
And it is possible, of course,
そして近隣の人口密度を
03:35
to increase the density of the communities around us.
高めることはもちろん可能なのです
03:37
Some places are doing this with new eco districts,
いくつかの地域ではこの取り組みを新しいエコ特区として
03:40
developing whole new sustainable neighborhoods,
また全く新しい環境保全地域として展開しています
03:42
which is nice work if you can get it,
遂行できるとしたら これは素晴らしい取り組みです
03:44
but most of the time, what we're talking about is, in fact,
しかし実際の議論の大部分は
03:46
reweaving the urban fabric that we already have.
既にある都市構造の組み直しについてです
03:49
So we're talking about things like infill development:
これはインフィル開発などといった
03:51
really sharp little changes
既に建物がある地域や
03:54
to where we have buildings, where we're developing.
開発中の地域の再構築についての議論です
03:56
Urban retrofitting:
これは既存地域に対して
03:58
creating different sorts of spaces and uses
これまでとは違う空間や利用法を創造するという
04:00
out of places that are already there.
都市改善です
04:02
Increasingly, we're realizing
そして段々と分かってきたのは
04:04
that we don't even need to densify an entire city.
都市全域の人口密度を高める必要はない
04:06
What we need instead is an average density
必要なのは あまり車を利用しないで済む
04:09
that rises to a level
そういったレベルの
04:12
where we don't drive as much and so on.
平均的な人口密度だということです
04:14
And that can be done
これはいくつかの特定地域の
04:16
by raising the density in very specific spots a whole lot.
人口密度を高めることで可能になります
04:18
So you can think of it as tent poles
これは都市全域の人口密度を高めるための
04:21
that actually raise the density of the entire city.
テントの支柱みたいなものだとお考え下さい
04:24
And we find that when we do that,
このように広範囲な地域構造内で
04:27
we can, in fact, have a few places that are really hyper-dense
いくつかの区域の人口密度を
04:29
within a wider fabric of places
大幅に高めることによって
04:31
that are perhaps a little more comfortable
住みやすさが向上すると共に
04:33
and achieve the same results.
先程と同様の環境保全が達成できるのです
04:35
Now we may find that there are places that are really, really dense
ここで かなりの人口密度なのに依然として自動車の保有率が高い
04:37
and still hold onto their cars,
地域があることに思い当たるかもしれません
04:40
but the reality is that, by and large,
しかし全体的に見て
04:42
what we see when we get a lot of people together with the right conditions
そう感じるのが 適切な状態下の密集環境でならば
04:45
is a threshold effect,
それは閾値効果によるもので
04:48
where people simply stop driving as much,
単純に 人々はあまり運転をしなくなるでしょうし
04:50
and increasingly, more and more people,
こういった環境に親しむことで
04:52
if they're surrounded by places that make them feel at home,
更に多くの人が
04:54
give up their cars altogether.
車を利用しなくなるでしょう
04:56
And this is a huge, huge energy savings,
これはとてつもなく大きな省エネになります
04:58
because what comes out of our tailpipe
なぜなら自動車の排ガスは
05:01
is really just the beginning of the story
気候変動に与える影響の
05:03
with climate emissions from cars.
始めの一歩に過ぎず
05:05
We have the manufacture of the car, the disposal of the car,
そこから自動車の製造や廃棄
05:07
all of the parking and freeways and so on.
駐車場や高速道路などにも影響を与えていきます
05:09
When you can get rid of all of those
人々がこれらを利用しなくなることで
05:12
because somebody doesn't use any of them really,
私達の暮らしから取り除くとすると
05:14
you find that you can actually cut transportation emissions
実際に交通機関が消費する排ガスの約90%を
05:16
as much as 90 percent.
削減できるのです
05:18
And people are embracing this.
人々はこの環境を受け入れ始めていて
05:20
All around the world, we're seeing more and more people embrace this walkshed life.
世界中の人々がこの徒歩圏内の生活環境を受け入れ始めています
05:22
People are saying that it's moving from the idea of the dream home
人々が口にするのは 夢のような家から
05:25
to the dream neighborhood.
夢のような地域にと言う発想の転換です
05:28
And when you layer that over
そして現在普及し始めている
05:30
with the kind of ubiquitous communications that we're starting to see,
ユビキタス通信を重ね合わせることで
05:32
what you find is, in fact,
空間を活用した更なる利便性に
05:35
even more access suffused into spaces.
お気づきになるでしょう
05:37
Some of it's transportation access.
いくつかの交通機関についてですが
05:40
This is a Mapnificent map that shows me, in this case,
これはMapnificentという地図で ここでは
05:42
how far I can get from my home in 30 minutes
公共交通機関を利用して私の家から30分で
05:45
using public transportation.
どこまで行けるのかを表示しています
05:47
Some of it is about walking. It's not all perfect yet.
徒歩圏も表示されてまだ完璧とは言えません
05:49
This is Google Walking Maps.
これはグーグルのウォーキングマップです
05:51
I asked how to do the greater Ridgeway,
グレーター・リッジウェイの道程を調べたら
05:53
and it told me to go via Guernsey.
ガーンジー島を経由するようになっていて
05:55
It did tell me that this route
このルートは歩道や緑道が
05:57
maybe missing sidewalks or pedestrian paths, though.
ない可能性がありますと表示されました
05:59
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:01
But the technologies are getting better,
しかし技術は進歩していますし
06:03
and we're starting to really kind of crowdsource this navigation.
私達はこのナビのクラウドソーシングを始めています
06:05
And as we just heard earlier,
また先程聞いたように
06:07
of course, we're also learning how to put information on dumb objects.
端末に情報を取り込む方法も学び始めています
06:09
Things that don't have any wiring in them at all,
無線でつながる
06:12
we're learning how to include
記録端末やナビに
06:14
in these systems of notation and navigation.
情報を取り込む方法を学んでいるのです
06:16
Part of what we're finding with this
このことで気づかされることの一つが
06:19
is that what we thought
密集した環境での
06:21
was the major point
最高の暮らしは
06:23
of manufacturing and consumption,
製造や消費活動の中心である
06:25
which is to get a bunch of stuff,
多くの物を手に入れることと
06:28
is not, in fact,
私達は考えてきましたが
06:30
how we really live best in dense environments.
実際はそうではないという事です
06:32
What we're finding is that what we want
そして私達が求めているのは
06:34
is access to the capacities of things.
色々な物を最大限に活用すると言うことです
06:36
My favorite example is a drill. Who here owns a drill, a home power drill?
私の好きな例えはドリルです 家庭用のパワードリルをお持ちの方は?
06:38
Okay. I do too.
分かりました 私も持っています
06:41
The average home power drill is used somewhere between six and 20 minutes
平均的な家庭用ドリルの使用時間の総計は
06:43
in its entire lifetime,
6分から20分の間です
06:45
depending on who you ask.
人によって異なりますが
06:47
And so what we do is we buy these drills
つまり私達は
06:49
that have a potential capacity of thousands of hours of drill time,
何千時間も使えるドリルを購入しては
06:52
use them once or twice to put a hole in the wall and let them sit.
壁に1、2回穴を開けて後はそのままにしてるのです
06:55
Our cities, I would put to you,
私達が暮らす都市群は
06:58
are stockpiles of these surplus capacities.
こういった余分な能力の蓄積なのです
07:00
And while we could try and figure out
そこでこれらの機能を最大限に
07:03
new ways to use those capacities --
活用するための新しい使い道
07:05
such as cooking or making ice sculptures
--例えば料理とか氷像制作
07:07
or even a mafia hit --
更にはマフィアにだったり--
07:09
what we probably will find
を見つけ出すよりも
07:11
is that, in fact, turning those products into services
これらの物をサービスとして活用し
07:13
that we have access to when we want them,
利用したい時に利用できるようにするという方が
07:15
is a far smarter way to go.
断然賢いやり方ではないでしょうか
07:17
And in fact, even space itself is turning into a service.
実際 空間それ自体も活用されています
07:20
We're finding that people can share the same spaces,
人々は同じ空間を共有したり
07:23
do stuff with vacant space.
空きスペースを活用したりできるのです
07:25
Buildings are becoming bundles of services.
建物は様々なサービスの集合体なので
07:28
So we have new designs
暖房や冷房などのように
07:30
that are helping us take mechanical things that we used to spend energy on --
今まではエネルギーを消費していた物を
07:32
like heating, cooling etc. --
エネルギーを消費しないもので代用する
07:35
and turn them into things that we avoid spending energy on.
新しい試みがあるのです
07:37
So we light our buildings with daylight.
建物内を採光で照らし
07:40
We cool them with breezes. We heat them with sunshine.
そよ風で涼しめ 日光で暖めるのです
07:42
In fact, when we use all these things,
実際にこれら全てを活用することで
07:45
what we've found is that, in some cases,
いくつかの事例においては
07:47
energy use in a building can drop as much as 90 percent.
建物のエネルギー消費量が約90%削減できるのです
07:49
Which brings on another threshold effect
これはまた別の閾値効果を生み出します
07:51
I like to call furnace dumping,
「炉の廃止」と呼びたいもので
07:53
which is, quite simply,
本当にシンプルなんですが
07:55
if you have a building that doesn't need to be heated with a furnace,
暖めるのに炉を必要としない建物は
07:57
you save a whole bunch of money up front.
前もった金銭負担を大幅に減らせます
07:59
These things actually become cheaper to build
実際 建築にかかる費用は
08:01
than the alternatives.
炉が必要な時よりも少額です
08:03
Now when we look at being able
ここで物の使用削減
08:05
to slash our product use, slash our transportation use,
または交通機関や建物のエネルギーの使用削減の
08:08
slash our building energy use,
可能性について考えてみると
08:11
all of that is great, but it still leaves something behind.
皆素晴らしいのですが見逃している点もあるのです
08:13
And if we're going to really, truly become sustainable cities,
本当に環境に優しい都市を創り上げるには
08:16
we need to think a little differently.
少し違った視点からも考える必要があります
08:18
This is one way to do it.
その一つとして
08:20
This is Vancouver's propaganda about how green a city they are.
これはヴァンクーヴァーの緑化環境をアピールする広報ですが
08:22
And certainly lots of people have taken to heart
とても多くの人が緑に囲まれたこの都市の
08:24
this idea that a sustainable city is covered in greenery.
環境を心から歓迎しています
08:26
So we have visions like this.
そこで私達はこれらのような
08:29
We have visions like this. We have visions like this.
ヴィジョンを描くことになります
08:31
Now all of these are fine projects,
これらは皆素晴らしいプロジェクトですが
08:34
but they really have missed an essential point,
大事な点が欠けているのです
08:36
which is it's not about the leaves above,
それは地上の緑についてではなく
08:39
it's about the systems below.
地下のシステムについてです
08:41
Do they, for instance, capture rainwater
これらのシステムは雨水の貯水による
08:43
so that we can reduce water use?
水の使用量削減は可能でしょうか
08:45
Water is energy intensive.
水は多くのエネルギーを消費します
08:47
Do they, perhaps, include green infrastructure,
緑化環境を構築することで
08:50
so that we can take runoff
流れ出る雨水や
08:52
and water that's going out of our houses
家庭から排出される水を
08:54
and clean it and filter it
洗浄 ろ過して
08:56
and grow urban street trees?
都市街路の木々を育てるのは可能でしょうか
08:58
Do they connect us back to the ecosystems around us
河川などの身の回りの生態系と私達を
09:00
by, for example, connecting us to rivers
再び結びつけて それらの生態系を
09:03
and allowing for restoration?
再生させるのは可能でしょうか
09:05
Do they allow for pollination,
蜂や蝶などが
09:07
pollinator pathways
授粉を行うために
09:09
that bees and butterflies and such can come back into our cities?
私達の街に戻ってくる為の道作りは可能でしょうか
09:11
Do they even take the very waste matter
私達の食事や繊維などから排出される
09:14
that we have from food and fiber and so forth,
老廃物の処理をして
09:16
and turn it back into soil
それらを土壌に返し
09:19
and sequester carbon --
炭素の隔離といった
09:21
take carbon out of the air
二酸化炭素の排出を抑制することは
09:23
in the process of using our cities?
私達の暮らしの中で可能なのでしょうか
09:25
I would submit to you that all of these things are not only possible,
皆さんにお伝えしたいことは これらはすべて可能だというだけではなく
09:27
they're being done right now,
既に行われているということなのです
09:30
and that it's a darn good thing.
これはとても素晴らしいことです
09:32
Because right now, our economy by and large
と言うのも 概して今日の経済は
09:34
operates as Paul Hawken said,
ポール・ホーケン氏が言うように
09:37
"by stealing the future, selling it in the present
"盗んだ未来を今日売ることで
09:39
and calling it GDP."
GDPと呼んでいる"のです
09:41
And if we have another eight billion
80億の人々
09:43
or seven billion,
70億
09:45
or six billion, even, people,
もしかしたら60億かもしれませんが
09:47
living on a planet where their cities also steal the future,
この地球に暮らす私達も未来を盗んでいるのです
09:49
we're going to run out of future really fast.
私達は未来を急速に使い果たしています
09:52
But if we think differently,
しかし視点を変えることで
09:54
I think that, in fact, we can have cities
無公害なだけではなく
09:56
that are not only zero emissions,
無限の可能性を秘めた
09:58
but have unlimited possibilities as well.
都市を創ることができるのではないでしょうか
10:00
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございます
10:02
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:04
Translator:Wataru Yamazato
Reviewer:Akari Takenishi

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Alex Steffen - Planetary futurist
Alex Steffen explores our planet's future, telling powerful, inspiring stories about the hard choices facing humanity ... and our opportunity to create a much better tomorrow.

Why you should listen

Do you ever wonder whether we should be optimistic or pessimistic about the future? If you want more reasons to think things may still turn out for the better, Alex Steffen's your man. He doesn't downplay the scope and scale of the problems we face. Instead, he shows that we have the tools within our grasp for meeting those massive challenges, if we have the will to use them.

This isn't just hopeful thinking, either. Steffen uses real-world examples and big-picture research to show us that a brighter, greener future is ours to choose, and his work has earned him the ear of leading cities, corporations and philanthropic foundations. As the New York Times said a recent profile, "Alex Steffen lays out the blueprint for a successful century."

After working as a journalist on four continents, Steffen co-founded and ran the online magazine Worldchanging.com from 2003-2010. In those seven years, he made Worldchanging one of the world's leading sustainability-related publications with an archive of almost 12,000 articles and a large global audience. He also edited an internationally best-selling book surveying innovative solutions to the planet's most pressing problems: Worldchanging: A User's Guide for the 21st Century. 

His most recent work is Carbon Zero, a book describing cities that create prosperity not climate change, accelerating their economies while reducing their climate emissions to zero. He is now at work on a new book and a television project. "The big open secret about sustainability work," he recently told Design Observer magazine, 'is not how bad things are. It is how good things can get."

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