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TEDGlobal 2011

Ian Ritchie: The day I turned down Tim Berners-Lee

イアン・リッチー 「ワールド・ワイド・ウェブの創始者を断った日」

July 11, 2011

想像してみて下さい。1990年代後半、ティム・バーナーズ=リーと名乗る若者がいきなりやって来て、自作のワールド・ワイド・ウェブというシステムを提案してきます。イアン・リッチーはその場にいました。しかし、彼は買いませんでした。これは情報・ネットワーク、そして失敗から学ぶことについての一口話です。

Ian Ritchie - Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Well we all know the World Wide Web
誰もが知っているように
00:15
has absolutely transformed publishing, broadcasting,
ワールドワイドウェブ(WWW)が出版・報道・広告・社会参画のあり方を
00:17
commerce and social connectivity,
完全に変えました
00:21
but where did it all come from?
しかし始まりはどこでしょうか?
00:23
And I'll quote three people:
V.ブッシュ・D.エンゲルバート
00:25
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart and Tim Berners-Lee.
・T.バーナーズ=リーの3人を紹介します
00:27
So let's just run through these guys.
ザッと見て行きましょう
00:30
This is Vannevar Bush.
彼はヴァネヴァー・ブッシュ
00:32
Vannevar Bush was the U.S. government's chief scientific adviser during the war.
戦争中に米政府の主席科学顧問を務めていました
00:34
And in 1945,
1945年に彼は雑誌の
00:37
he published an article in a magazine called Atlantic Monthly.
月刊アトランティックで記事を発表しました
00:39
And the article was called "As We May Think."
記事名は「われわれが思考するごとく」です
00:42
And what Vannevar Bush was saying
私たちの情報処理システムが
00:45
was the way we use information is broken.
機能していないとブッシュは主張しました
00:47
We don't work in terms of libraries
図書館やカタログなどのシステムだと
00:50
and catalog systems and so forth.
私たちの脳は上手く働きません
00:53
The brain works by association.
脳は連想をして動くのです
00:55
With one item in its thought, it snaps instantly to the next item.
考え事が1つあると 即座に2つ目を呼び起こします
00:57
And the way information is structured
当時の情報処理システムでは
01:00
is totally incapable of keeping up with this process.
脳のプロセスに完全には追いつけなかったのです
01:02
And so he suggested a machine,
だから彼はある機械を提唱し
01:05
and he called it the memex.
メメックスと名づけました
01:07
And the memex would link information,
メメックスは一切れの情報に
01:09
one piece of information to a related piece of information and so forth.
関連データなどをリンクさせます
01:11
Now this was in 1945.
これは1945年の話です
01:14
A computer in those days
コンピュータは当時
01:16
was something the secret services used to use for code breaking.
シークレット・サービスの暗号解読用だったので
01:18
And nobody knew anything about it.
全く知られていませんでした
01:21
So this was before the computer was invented.
つまりコンピュータの発明前に
01:23
And he proposed this machine called the memex.
彼はメメックスを提唱しました
01:25
And he had a platform where you linked information to other information,
複数の情報を繋げるプラットフォームがあったので
01:27
and then you could call it up at will.
自在に情報を呼び出せたのです
01:30
So spinning forward,
話を進めます
01:32
one of the guys who read this article was a guy called Doug Engelbart,
空軍将校ダグ・エンゲルバートも
01:34
and he was a U.S. Air Force officer.
この記事を読んだ1人です
01:36
And he was reading it in their library in the Far East.
彼は極東の図書館で記事を読んでいました
01:38
And he was so inspired by this article,
記事に刺激されて 彼の人生が
01:41
it kind of directed the rest of his life.
方向づけられたかのようでした
01:43
And by the mid-60s, he was able to put this into action
1960年中頃までに スタンフォード研究所勤務中に
01:45
when he worked at the Stanford Research Lab in California.
彼は実行に移すことができたのです
01:48
He built a system.
彼はシステムを立ち上げました
01:52
The system was designed to augment human intelligence, it was called.
人知を高めるためのシステムと言われています
01:54
And in a premonition of today's world
oN-Line System略してNLSという
01:57
of cloud computing and softwares of service,
彼のシステムはクラウドや
02:00
his system was called NLS
ソフトウェアに溢れた
02:02
for oN-Line System.
現代世界の予兆となりました
02:04
And this is Doug Engelbart.
彼はダグ・エンゲルハート
02:06
He was giving a presentation at the Fall Joint Computer Conference
1968年の秋季共同コンピュータ協議会で
02:08
in 1968.
プレゼンテーションをしました
02:11
What he showed --
ご覧のように彼はステージに座り
02:14
he sat on a stage like this, and he demonstrated this system.
このシステムを紹介しました
02:16
He had his head mic like I've got.
こんなヘッドマイクを持って
02:19
And he works this system.
彼はシステムを動かします
02:21
And you can see, he's working between documents
見ての通り 文章や図などを
02:23
and graphics and so forth.
扱っています
02:25
And he's driving it all
全部の動作を
02:27
with this platform here,
このシステム用に作った
02:29
with a five-finger keyboard
プラットフォームと
02:31
and the world's first computer mouse,
5本指キーボードと
02:33
which he specially designed in order to do this system.
世界初のマウスで操っています
02:35
So this is where the mouse came from as well.
マウスの誕生でもあったのです
02:37
So this is Doug Engelbart.
以上がエンゲルバートの話です
02:39
The trouble with Doug Engelbart's system
このシステムの問題点は
02:41
was that the computers in those days cost several million pounds.
当時のコンピュータが数百万ポンドもしたことです
02:43
So for a personal computer,
コンピュータを買うことは
02:46
a few million pounds was like having a personal jet plane;
ジェット機を買うようなもので
02:48
it wasn't really very practical.
全く実用的でなかったのです
02:50
But spin on to the 80s
1980年代に入って
02:52
when personal computers did arrive,
個人用コンピュータが登場すると
02:54
then there was room for this kind of system on personal computers.
このシステムの需要が出ました
02:56
And my company, OWL
私の会社OWLは
02:58
built a system called Guide for the Apple Macintosh.
GuideというシステムをMac用に開発しました
03:00
And we delivered the world's first hypertext system.
世界初のハイパーテキスト・システムを送り込んだのです
03:03
And this began to get a head of steam.
これがきっかけで勢いづきました
03:07
Apple introduced a thing called HyperCard,
Appleがハイパーカードを発表して
03:09
and they made a bit of a fuss about it.
ちょっとした騒ぎになりました
03:11
They had a 12-page supplement in the Wall Street Journal the day it launched.
発売日の新聞に12ページの小冊子が付きました
03:13
The magazines started to cover it.
雑誌も取り上げ始めました
03:16
Byte magazine and Communications at the ACM
ByteマガジンやACMの学会誌が
03:18
had special issues covering hypertext.
特別号を出したのです
03:20
We developed a PC version of this product
私たちはMac版に加えて
03:22
as well as the Macintosh version.
PC版の製品も開発しました
03:24
And our PC version became quite mature.
このPC版がかなり進化したのです
03:26
These are some examples of this system in action in the late 80s.
1980年代後半にはこのシステムによって
03:29
You were able to deliver documents, were able to do it over networks.
通信を利用した文書送信が可能になりました
03:33
We developed a system such
html型マークアップ言語の
03:36
that it had a markup language based on html.
システムを開発しました
03:38
We called it hml: hypertext markup language.
hmlと呼んでいます(hyoertext markup languageの略)
03:40
And the system was capable of doing
このシステムを使うと
03:43
very, very large documentation systems over computer networks.
コンピュータ・ネットワーク上の膨大な文書処理が可能になります
03:45
So I took this system to a trade show in Versailles near Paris
1990年11月後半 パリ近郊のヴェルサイユで
03:49
in late November 1990.
開かれた見本市にこれを出展すると
03:52
And I was approached by a nice young man called Tim Berners-Lee
ティム・バーナーズ=リーという男が来て
03:55
who said, "Are you Ian Ritchie?" and I said, "Yeah."
「リッチーさんですか?
03:57
And he said, "I need to talk to you."
話があります」と言ってきました
03:59
And he told me about his proposed system called the World Wide Web.
彼はWorld Wide Webという名前のシステムを提案したのです
04:01
And I thought, well, that's got a pretentious name,
気取った名前だなと私は思いました というのも
04:04
especially since the whole system ran on his computer in his office.
システム全体が彼のコンピュータ上で動いたからです
04:07
But he was completely convinced that his World Wide Web
しかし彼はいつかWorld Wide Webが世界を支配すると
04:10
would take over the world one day.
信じ切っていました そして私に
04:13
And he tried to persuade me to write the browser for it,
ブラウザを書くよう言ってきました
04:15
because his system didn't have any graphics or fonts or layout or anything;
彼のシステムには図やフォントなど何もなく
04:17
it was just plain text.
平坦な文字だけだったのです
04:20
I thought, well, you know, interesting,
興味深かったですが 欧州原子核研究機構の男が
04:22
but a guy from CERN, he's not going to do this.
こんな事なんてしないと思って
04:25
So we didn't do it.
私たちは断りました
04:27
In the next couple of years,
数年間はハイパーテキスト委員会も
04:29
the hypertext community didn't recognize him either.
彼を評価しませんでした
04:31
In 1992, his paper was rejected for the Hypertext Conference.
1992年のハイパーテキスト協議会で
04:33
In 1993,
彼の論文は拒否されました そして1993年
04:36
there was a table at the conference in Seattle,
シアトルで協議会があり
04:39
and a guy called Marc Andreessen
マーク・アンドリーセンという男が
04:41
was demonstrating his little browser for the World Wide Web.
自作のWorld Wide Web用の小さなブラウザを紹介しました
04:43
And I saw it, and I thought, yep, that's it.
それを見て「あれだ」と思いました
04:46
And the very next year, in 1994, we had the conference here in Edinburgh,
翌年の1994年のエジンバラの協議会で
04:48
and I had no opposition in having Tim Berners-Lee as the keynote speaker.
ティム・バーナーズ=リーを基調講演者として迎えるのに異議は無かったです
04:51
So that puts me in pretty illustrious company.
おかげで私の会社はかなり有名になりました
04:55
There was a guy called Dick Rowe
デッカレコードのディック・ロウは
04:57
who was at Decca Records and turned down The Beatles.
ビートルズを採用しませんでした
04:59
There was a guy called Gary Kildall
IBMがPCのOSを求めてきた時
05:01
who went flying his plane
ゲイリー・キルドールは
05:03
when IBM came looking for an operating system
自家用機で飛行中のため
05:05
for the IBM PC,
その場に居合わすことができず
05:07
and he wasn't there, so they went back to see Bill Gates.
IBMはビル・ゲイツの元に行きました
05:09
And the 12 publishers
そして12社の出版会社が
05:11
who turned down J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter, I guess.
ハリー・ポッターの出版を断ったようです
05:13
On the other hand, there's Marc Andreessen
一方 マーク・アンドリーセンは
05:16
who wrote the world's first browser for the World Wide Web.
世界初のWorld Wide Web用のブラウザを書きました
05:18
And according to Fortune magazine,
フォーチュン誌によれば
05:20
he's worth 700 million dollars.
彼の資産は700万ドルです
05:22
But is he happy?
しかし彼は幸せなんですかね?
05:24
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:26
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:28
Translator:Naoki Funahashi
Reviewer:Hidetoshi Yamauchi

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Ian Ritchie - Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie

Why you should listen

Ian Ritchie is chair of iomart plc. and several other computer and learning businesses, including Computer Application Services Ltd., the Interactive Design Institute and Caspian Learning Ltd. He is co-chair of the Scottish Science Advisory Council, a board member of the Edinburgh International Science Festival and the chair of Our Dynamic Earth, the Edinburgh Science Centre.

Ritchie founded and managed Office Workstations Limited (OWL) in Edinburgh in 1984 and its subsidiary OWL International Inc. in Seattle from 1985. OWL became the first and largest supplier of Hypertext/Hypermedia authoring tools (a forerunner to the World Wide Web) for personal computers based on its Guide product. OWL's customers used its systems to implement large interactive multimedia documentation systems in industry sectors such as automobile, defence, publishing, finance, and education. OWL was sold to Matsushita Electrical Industrial (Panasonic) of Japan in December 1989. He is the author of New Media Publishing: Opportunities from the digital revolution (1996).

He was awarded a CBE in the 2003 New Years Honours list for services to enterprise and education; he is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering; a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; and a Fellow and a past-President of the British Computer Society (1998-99). 

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