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TEDGlobal 2011

Todd Kuiken: A prosthetic arm that "feels"

トッド・クイケン: 「感覚を持つ」義手

July 14, 2011

リハビリテーション医のトッド・クイケンは人の神経系と接続された義手を開発しており、操作性だけでなく感覚性の向上も目指しています。ステージでは患者であるアマンダ・キッツが彼の次世代義手をデモンストレーションしてみせます。

Todd Kuiken - Biomedical engineer
A doctor and engineer, Todd Kuiken builds new prosthetics that connect with the human nervous system. Yes: bionics. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
00:15
So today, I would like to talk with you
本日はみなさんに
00:18
about bionics,
生体工学
つまり身体の一部を
00:20
which is the popular term
メカトロニクス機器やロボットで置き換えるという
00:22
for the science of replacing part of a living organism
科学分野についてお話ししようと思います
00:25
with a mechatronic device, or a robot.
これは正に
00:28
It is essentially
00:30
the stuff of life meets machine.
生体と機械の融合です
特に 腕を失った人の為に
00:33
And specifically, I'd like to talk with you
生体工学が
00:35
about how bionics is evolving
どう進歩しているかをお話しします
00:38
for people with arm amputations.
我々の研究動機です
00:41
This is our motivation.
00:44
Arm amputation causes a huge disability.
腕を失うとは大変なことです
単純な不便さは勿論でしょう
00:47
I mean, the functional impairment is clear.
00:49
Our hands are amazing instruments.
手は素晴らしい道具です
片手を失っただけで
00:51
And when you lose one, far less both,
日常的に必要とされる
00:54
it's a lot harder to do the things
身体的行為が難しくなります
00:56
we physically need to do.
そして大きな精神的ダメージ
00:58
There's also a huge emotional impact.
私の診療室では 身体的不自由さと
01:00
And actually, I spend as much of my time in clinic
同じくらい 精神的ダメージの治療にも
01:02
dealing with the emotional adjustment of patients
時間をかけています
01:05
as with the physical disability.
社交上の問題もあります
01:07
And finally, there's a profound social impact.
我々は手で話し
01:10
We talk with our hands.
手で挨拶をし
01:12
We greet with our hands.
手で外界とやりとりをします
01:14
And we interact with the physical world with our hands.
手がなくなることは
01:17
And when they're missing,
障害を意味します
01:19
it's a barrier.
腕の切断の多くは
01:21
Arm amputation is usually caused by trauma,
工場事故や交通事故
01:24
with things like industrial accidents,
そして悲しくも
01:26
motor vehicle collisions
戦争による外傷の結果です
01:28
or, very poignantly, war.
生まれつき腕のない子もいます
01:30
There are also some children who are born without arms,
先天性四肢欠損です
01:33
called congenital limb deficiency.
01:36
Unfortunately, we don't do great
残念ながら義手の製作は
困難を極めています
01:38
with upper-limb prosthetics.
01:40
There are two general types.
義手には2種類あります
01:42
They're called body-powered prostheses,
こちらは身体操作型義手といって
01:44
which were invented just after the Civil War,
南北戦争直後に発明され
01:46
refined in World War I and World War II.
第1・2次世界大戦中に改良されました
01:49
Here you see a patent
これが1912年の
01:51
for an arm in 1912.
特許申請書です
01:53
It's not a lot different
現在の義手と そう違いはありません
01:55
than the one you see on my patient.
肩の筋肉で制御するものです
01:58
They work by harnessing shoulder power.
02:00
So when you squish your shoulders, they pull on a bicycle cable.
肩をすぼめるとケーブルが引かれ
02:03
And that bicycle cable can open or close a hand or a hook
手やフックを開いたり閉じたり
肘を動かせます
02:06
or bend an elbow.
02:08
And we still use them commonly,
この義手は今でも使われています
とても頑丈で単純な構造ですからね
02:10
because they're very robust
02:12
and relatively simple devices.
02:14
The state of the art
最先端のものは
筋電義手という義手です
02:16
is what we call myoelectric prostheses.
02:18
These are motorized devices
筋肉からのわずかな
02:20
that are controlled
電気信号により
02:22
by little electrical signals from your muscle.
モーター駆動される義手です
02:24
Every time you contract a muscle,
筋肉を収縮させる時
02:26
it emits a little electricity
わずかな電気信号が流れ
02:28
that you can record with antennae or electrodes
それを電極やアンテナで読み取り
02:30
and use that to operate the motorized prosthesis.
義手の操作に用いるのです
02:33
They work pretty well
手を失ったばかりの人の場合
02:35
for people who have just lost their hand,
この義手をとても上手く操作します
02:37
because your hand muscles are still there.
手の筋肉がまだ残っていますから
02:39
You squeeze your hand, these muscles contract.
手をすぼめればこの筋肉が収縮し
02:41
You open it, these muscles contract.
手をひらけばこの筋肉が収縮し
02:43
So it's intuitive, and it works pretty well.
直感的に上手に使うことができます
しかしもっと上部で
腕の大半を切断するとどうでしょう
02:46
Well how about with higher levels of amputation?
02:48
Now you've lost your arm above the elbow.
この筋肉だけでなく
02:50
You're missing not only these muscles,
手と肘そのものがありません
02:52
but your hand and your elbow too.
02:54
What do you do?
どうしましょう?
02:56
Well our patients have to use
そのような患者さんは
02:58
very code-y systems
腕の筋肉だけで
ロボット義手を動かす
03:01
of using just their arm muscles
技術を要する方法をとります
03:03
to operate robotic limbs.
ロボット義手ということです
03:06
We have robotic limbs.
このように様々な種類があります
03:08
There are several available on the market, and here you see a few.
開閉する手と 回転する手首と
03:11
They contain just a hand that will open and close,
03:14
a wrist rotator and an elbow.
肘があります
03:16
There's no other functions.
機能はそれだけです
03:18
If they did, how would we tell them what to do?
機能を増やしても制御方法がありません
03:20
We built our own arm at the Rehab Institute of Chicago
そこで
シカゴリハビリテーション研究所(RIC)では
03:23
where we've added some wrist flexion and shoulder joints
手首の屈曲と
肩の関節を加え 6つのモーターで
03:26
to get up to six motors, or six degrees of freedom.
6自由度を持つ試作品を作りました
03:29
And we've had the opportunity to work with some very advanced arms
さらに我々は米軍から研究費を得て開発された
03:32
that were funded by the U.S. military, using these prototypes,
可動式の手を持ち
最大10の自由度を持つ
03:35
that had up to 10 different degrees of freedom
進歩した義手を
03:38
including movable hands.
使うことができました
03:40
But at the end of the day,
しかし結局どう義手に
03:42
how do we tell these robotic arms what to do?
命令を伝えたものでしょうか
03:44
How do we control them?
どう操作すれば良いのでしょう?
03:46
Well we need a neural interface,
その為には神経系あるいは思考過程と
03:48
a way to connect to our nervous system
繋ぐことで身体の一部の様に
03:50
or our thought processes
直感的かつ自然に操作できる
03:52
so that it's intuitive, it's natural,
神経インタフェースが
03:54
like for you and I.
必要なのです
03:58
Well the body works by starting a motor command in your brain,
脳から発する運動命令は
脊髄を伝わり末梢神経をとおって
04:01
going down your spinal cord,
末梢に伝わります
04:03
out the nerves and to your periphery.
感覚はその反対です
04:05
And your sensation's the exact opposite.
刺激は全く同じ神経を逆に辿り
04:07
You touch yourself, there's a stimulus
04:09
that comes up those very same nerves back up to your brain.
脳に伝えます
腕を失ってもまだ神経系は働きます
04:13
When you lose your arm, that nervous system still works.
04:16
Those nerves can put out command signals.
まだ脳の指令を送ることができます
04:19
And if I tap the nerve ending
そして退役軍人が失った
04:21
on a World War II vet,
腕の端の神経を触ると
04:23
he'll still feel his missing hand.
彼はまだ手を感じるのです
04:25
So you might say,
それならば脳を開けて
04:27
let's go to the brain
脳内に何かを埋め込み
04:29
and put something in the brain to record signals,
信号を記録したり
あるいは末梢神経の末端で
04:32
or in the end of the peripheral nerve and record them there.
信号を記録したりしてみよう
04:35
And these are very exciting research areas,
確かにそういう研究もありますが
これは恐ろしく難しいのです
04:38
but it's really, really hard.
04:40
You have to put in
数百の微小電極を埋め込み
04:42
hundreds of microscopic wires
信号を発する小さな個々のニューロン
- 普通の神経線維 -から
04:44
to record from little tiny individual neurons -- ordinary fibers
マイクロボルト単位の
04:48
that put out tiny signals
信号を読み取る
04:50
that are microvolts.
必要があります
これは現在 技術的に
04:52
And it's just too hard
難度が高過ぎます
04:54
to use now and for my patients today.
そこで違う方法を考えました
04:56
So we developed a different approach.
神経信号を増幅する生体機能
04:59
We're using a biological amplifier
05:02
to amplify these nerve signals -- muscles.
つまり筋肉を使えば良いのです
05:05
Muscles will amplify the nerve signals
筋肉は神経信号を
数千倍に増幅するので
05:07
about a thousand-fold,
05:09
so that we can record them from on top of the skin,
先程お見せしたように 皮膚の上からでも
05:12
like you saw earlier.
信号が取れます
特定領域への神経支配再確立とでも言えましょう
05:14
So our approach is something we call targeted reinnervation.
05:17
Imagine, with somebody who's lost their whole arm,
腕を失っても
(腕を支配する)4つの主要な神経が
まだ残っている患者を
05:20
we still have four major nerves
想像してみて下さい
05:22
that go down your arm.
その患者の胸筋から神経を取り除き
05:24
And we take the nerve away from your chest muscle
代わりに腕の神経を埋め込みます
05:27
and let these nerves grow into it.
「手を握ろう」と考えれば胸の一部が収縮し
05:30
Now you think, "Close hand," and a little section of your chest contracts.
05:33
You think, "Bend elbow,"
「肘を曲げよう」と考えれば
05:35
a different section contracts.
胸の別の場所が収縮します
その動きを電極やアンテナで
05:37
And we can use electrodes or antennae
05:39
to pick that up and tell the arm to move.
読み取り義手を操作すればいい
05:42
That's the idea.
これが我々のアイデアです
05:44
So this is the first man that we tried it on.
この義手を初めて試した患者です
ジェシー・サリヴァンという名で
05:47
His name is Jesse Sullivan.
とても穏やかな方です
05:49
He's just a saint of a man --
架線作業中に触る電線を間違え
05:51
54-year-old lineman who touched the wrong wire
両の手に重度の火傷を負い
05:53
and had both of his arms burnt so badly
肩から先を切断しました
05:56
they had to be amputated at the shoulder.
そして最先端の義手を試すため
05:58
Jesse came to us at the RIC
RICの私たちのところにやって来ました
06:00
to be fit with these state-of-the-art devices, and here you see them.
右腕はケーブル操作する
06:03
I'm still using that old technology
旧型の義手を使っています
06:06
with a bicycle cable on his right side.
動かす関節はアゴのスイッチで選びます
06:08
And he picks which joint he wants to move with those chin switches.
左では3つの関節を持つ
06:11
On the left side he's got a modern motorized prosthesis
モーター駆動の義手で
06:14
with those three joints,
肩のパッドで動かしています
06:16
and he operates little pads in his shoulder
腕の操作に使うためです
06:19
that he touches to make the arm go.
ジェシーは操縦が上手く
06:21
And Jesse's a good crane operator,
私たちも満足でした
06:23
and he did okay by our standards.
加えて彼は胸の追加手術も必要になりました
06:25
He also required a revision surgery on his chest.
これをよい機会に我々は
06:28
And that gave us the opportunity
06:30
to do targeted reinnervation.
特定領域への神経支配再確立手術を行いました
06:32
So my colleague, Dr. Greg Dumanian, did the surgery.
手術を行ったのは
同僚のグレッグ ドゥマニアン博士です
06:35
First, we cut away the nerve to his own muscle,
まず胸の神経を取り除き
腕の神経を取り出し
06:38
then we took the arm nerves
それを胸に植え込んで
06:40
and just kind of had them shift down onto his chest
傷口を塞ぎました
06:42
and closed him up.
3ヶ月後には神経も少し伸び
06:44
And after about three months,
胸をピクピク動かせるようになり
06:46
the nerves grew in a little bit and we could get a twitch.
6ヶ月後には神経も十分に伸びて
06:48
And after six months, the nerves grew in well,
強い収縮も可能になりました
06:51
and you could see strong contractions.
このような感じです
06:53
And this is what it looks like.
ジェシーが手を開閉させようと思うと
06:55
This is what happens when Jesse thinks
この動作がおきます
06:57
open and close his hand,
肘を屈曲したり伸ばそうと思うと
06:59
or bend or straighten your elbow.
胸がこう動きます
07:02
You can see the movements on his chest,
この小さなしるしは
07:04
and those little hash marks
アンテナや電極の位置です
07:06
are where we put our antennae, or electrodes.
こんな風に胸を動かせる人が
07:08
And I challenge anybody in the room
もし会場にいれば教えてください
07:10
to make their chest go like this.
彼の脳は腕のことを考えています
07:12
His brain is thinking about his arm.
胸をこんな風に動かす方法を
学んだわけではありません
07:14
He has not learned how to do this with the chest.
学習過程はありません
07:17
There is not a learning process.
直感的なのです
07:19
That's why it's intuitive.
これが最初の動作テストです
07:21
So here's Jesse in our first little test with him.
左側は元の義手です
07:24
On the left-hand side, you see his original prosthesis,
スイッチを使って
07:27
and he's using those switches
積み木を
ひとつの箱からもう一つの箱へ移しています
07:29
to move little blocks from one box to the other.
20ヶ月も使用した義手はよくなじんでいます
07:31
He's had that arm for about 20 months, so he's pretty good with it.
右側は私たちの
07:34
On the right side,
「特定領域への神経支配再確立」を使って
2ヶ月目の映像です
07:36
two months after we fit him with his targeted reinnervation prosthesis --
機器としては同じ義手で
07:39
which, by the way, is the same physical arm,
制御ソフトが違うだけですが
07:42
just programmed a little different --
動作は明らかに速く
07:44
you can see that he's much faster
スムーズに積み木を移しています
07:46
and much smoother as he moves these little blocks.
この時点で3つの信号を使っているだけです
07:49
And we're only able to use three of the signals at this time.
ここで驚くべき科学的発見がありました
07:52
Then we had one of those little surprises in science.
私たちはロボット義手を操作するための
07:57
So we're all motivated to get motor commands
運動指令を得ようとしていた訳ですが
07:59
to drive robotic arms.
08:01
And after a few months,
数ヶ月後にジェシーの
08:03
you touch Jesse on his chest,
胸に触れると 彼は
08:05
and he felt his missing hand.
失った手を感じました
手の感覚が胸に戻ったのです
08:08
His hand sensation grew into his chest again
手術で脂肪を取り去ったので
08:10
probably because we had also taken away a lot of fat,
筋肉と皮膚が近づき
08:13
so the skin was right down to the muscle
以前あった神経支配を取り除いたのでしょう
08:15
and deinnervated, if you would, his skin.
ここを触れば親指を感じ
08:17
So you touch Jesse here, he feels his thumb;
ここを触れば小指です
08:19
you touch it here, he feels his pinky.
1 gほどの小さな
08:21
He feels light touch
力でも感じます
08:23
down to one gram of force.
熱さ、冷たさ、鋭さ、鈍さ
08:25
He feels hot, cold, sharp, dull,
全てを失われた手で感じます
08:28
all in his missing hand,
胸の感覚も残っていますが
08:30
or both his hand and his chest,
意識できるのは一方です
08:32
but he can attend to either.
これはとても面白いことです
08:34
So this is really exciting for us,
なぜなら
これは感覚の再現に繋がる可能性があり
08:36
because now we have a portal,
あるいは末梢神経の末端で
08:38
a portal, or a way to potentially give back sensation,
触れたものを感じる義手の製作にも
08:42
so that he might feel what he touches
繋がる可能性があるからです
08:44
with his prosthetic hand.
義手センサーからの信号が
08:46
Imagine sensors in the hand
胸の「手」に伝わればいいのです
08:48
coming up and pressing on this new hand skin.
これは面白い
08:51
So it was very exciting.
我々はまた 当初注目していた
08:53
We've also gone on
肘から先を失った多数の患者の
08:55
with what was initially our primary population
義手についても考えました
08:57
of people with above-the-elbow amputations.
筋肉の一部から神経を切り離して
神経支配を除き
08:59
And here we deinnervate, or cut the nerve away,
ほかの部分では神経をそのままにすると
09:02
just from little segments of muscle
上下運動を伝える神経と
09:04
and leave others alone
手の開閉を伝える神経を
09:06
that give us our up-down signals
作れます
09:08
and two others that will give us a hand open and close signal.
彼は初期の患者のクリスです
09:11
This was one of our first patients, Chris.
左側は8ヶ月使っている
09:13
You see him with his original device
なじみの義手で
09:15
on the left there after eight months of use,
右は2ヶ月目の義手です
09:17
and on the right, it is two months.
4~5倍のスピードで
09:19
He's about four or five times as fast
動作テストをこなしています
09:22
with this simple little performance metric.
09:25
All right.
この仕事が好きなのは
09:27
So one of the best parts of my job
研究仲間である患者さんが
09:30
is working with really great patients
同時に共同研究者だからです
09:32
who are also our research collaborators.
本日その一人のアマンダ・キッツが
09:34
And we're fortunate today
会場に来てくれました
09:36
to have Amanda Kitts come and join us.
09:38
Please welcome Amanda Kitts.
アマンダ・キッツです
09:40
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:47
So Amanda, would you please tell us how you lost your arm?
アマンダ どうして腕を失ったのですか?
09:50
Amanda Kitts: Sure. In 2006, I had a car accident.
2006年に交通事故に遭いました
09:53
And I was driving home from work,
仕事から帰る途中
09:56
and a truck was coming the opposite direction,
反対車線のトラックが突っ込んできて
09:58
came over into my lane,
車の前面が潰され その時
10:00
ran over the top of my car and his axle tore my arm off.
トラックの車軸に腕を巻き取られました
10:04
Todd Kuiken: Okay, so after your amputation, you healed up.
そうですか 腕を切断したあと回復したのですね
従来型の義手を使ったと思いますが
10:07
And you've got one of these conventional arms.
10:09
Can you tell us how it worked?
使い心地は如何でしたか?
少し難しかったです
10:12
AK: Well, it was a little difficult,
上腕二頭筋と上腕三頭筋しか使えなくて
10:14
because all I had to work with was a bicep and a tricep.
10:16
So for the simple little things like picking something up,
例えば何かを拾うという簡単な動作にも
10:19
I would have to bend my elbow,
まずは肘を曲げ
筋を同時収縮させ
10:22
and then I would have to cocontract
10:24
to get it to change modes.
モードを変える必要があります
10:26
When I did that,
そして
上腕二頭筋を使って
10:28
I had to use my bicep
手を閉じて
10:31
to get the hand to close,
上腕三頭筋で手を開き
10:33
use my tricep to get it to open,
10:35
cocontract again
また同時収縮させ
10:37
to get the elbow to work again.
肘をまた動かすのです
10:39
TK: So it was a little slow?
時間がかかりますか
10:41
AK: A little slow, and it was just hard to work.
少し遅いし とにかく大変なのです
集中力が要ります
10:44
You had to concentrate a whole lot.
10:46
TK: Okay, so I think about nine months later
オーケー そして9ヶ月後に
「特定領域への神経支配再確立」手術を
受けたと思いますが
10:49
that you had the targeted reinnervation surgery,
10:51
took six more months to have all the reinnervation.
神経支配が再確立するには
さらに半年程かかったと思います
10:54
Then we fit her with a prosthesis.
そして改めて作った義手は
10:57
And how did that work for you?
どうでしたか?
10:59
AK: It works good.
良かったですよ
肘を使いながら
11:02
I was able to use my elbow
11:06
and my hand simultaneously.
手も一緒に動かせるし
それも思うだけで動かせます
11:09
I could work them just by my thoughts.
11:11
So I didn't have to do any of the cocontracting and all that.
同時収縮などあれこれ面倒はありません
11:14
TK: A little faster?
速くなりました?
11:16
AK: A little faster. And much more easy, much more natural.
少しだけ速いです ただすごく簡単で自然です
11:20
TK: Okay, this was my goal.
それを目指していたんです
11:23
For 20 years, my goal was to let somebody
20年間 私の目標は患者さんが
肘と手を直感的に そして同時に操作できる
11:26
[be] able to use their elbow and hand in an intuitive way
義手の製作でした
11:29
and at the same time.
そして今 50人以上がこの手術を受けました
11:31
And we now have over 50 patients around the world who have had this surgery,
何十人もの米軍の
11:34
including over a dozen of our wounded warriors
負傷兵も含まれます
11:36
in the U.S. armed services.
手術の成功率は極めて高く
11:38
The success rate of the nerve transfers is very high.
96%程成功しました
11:41
It's like 96 percent.
太い神経を細い筋に移植しているからです
11:43
Because we're putting a big fat nerve onto a little piece of muscle.
11:46
And it provides intuitive control.
この手術が直感的な操作を可能にします
動作テストでは 速さと
11:50
Our functional testing, those little tests,
11:52
all show that they're a lot quicker and a lot easier.
簡易性の向上が示されました
11:54
And the most important thing
そして何より
患者さんが喜んでくれました
11:56
is our patients have appreciated it.
11:58
So that was all very exciting.
これが楽しかった
12:00
But we want to do better.
しかしまだ改善したい
神経信号には多くの情報が含まれていますが
12:03
There's a lot of information in those nerve signals,
もっと情報を引き出したい
12:07
and we wanted to get more.
指一本づつ 親指 手首を動かせます
12:09
You can move each finger. You can move your thumb, your wrist.
しかしもっと何かできないか?
12:12
Can we get more out of it?
実験を行いました
12:14
So we did some experiments
患者さんに無数の電極を取り付け
12:16
where we saturated our poor patients with zillions of electrodes
指先の動作から 何かへ腕を伸ばす
12:19
and then had them try to do two dozen different tasks --
腕全体の動作まで20あまりの動作を
12:22
from wiggling a finger to moving a whole arm
試してもらい
12:25
to reaching for something --
データを集めました
12:27
and recorded this data.
そしてパターン認識と呼ばれる
12:29
And then we used some algorithms
音声認識によく用いられる
12:31
that are a lot like speech recognition algorithms,
アルゴリズムを適用しました
12:33
called pattern recognition.
どうでしょう
12:35
See.
(笑)
12:37
(Laughter)
ジェシーの胸を見れば
12:39
And here you can see, on Jesse's chest,
3つの動作に対応する
12:41
when he just tried to do three different things,
3つのパターンがわかります
12:43
you can see three different patterns.
しかし電極に対し具体的な
12:45
But I can't put in an electrode
動作の指示はできないので
12:47
and say, "Go there."
12:49
So we collaborated with our colleagues in University of New Brunswick,
ニューブランズウィック大学と共同で
12:52
came up with this algorithm control,
アマンダがこれから披露する
12:54
which Amanda can now demonstrate.
アルゴリズム制御を開発しました
12:56
AK: So I have the elbow that goes up and down.
まず肘を上下に動かすことができます
手首も回せるし
13:01
I have the wrist rotation
13:03
that goes -- and it can go all the way around.
しかもグルットとも回ります
13:06
And I have the wrist flexion and extension.
手首も屈伸します
13:10
And I also have the hand closed and open.
手の開閉もできます
13:13
TK: Thank you, Amanda.
ありがとう アマンダ
13:15
Now this is a research arm,
これは実験段階の義手ですが
ここから下は市販の部品でできています
13:17
but it's made out of commercial components from here down
残りの部品は世界中から借りてきました
13:20
and a few that I've borrowed from around the world.
3 kg程の重さです
13:23
It's about seven pounds,
私の腕を切り落としたら きっと
13:26
which is probably about what my arm would weigh
そのくらいの重さです
13:28
if I lost it right here.
アマンダにはちょっと重いはずです
13:30
Obviously, that's heavy for Amanda.
しっかり取り付けていない義手なので
13:33
And in fact, it feels even heavier,
余計重く感じます
13:35
because it's not glued on the same.
装着具でつけた腕ですからね
13:37
She's carrying all the weight through harnesses.
つまりメカトロニクス部分は
胸躍るようなものではありませんが
13:39
So the exciting part isn't so much the mechatronics,
制御が素晴らしいのです
13:42
but the control.
我々は小型のマイコンを開発しました
13:44
So we've developed a small microcomputer
アマンダの首の後ろでチカチカしながら
13:47
that is blinking somewhere behind her back
彼女がそれぞれの筋肉からの
13:50
and is operating this
信号パターンを使って 訓練に従って
13:52
all by the way she trains it
13:54
to use her individual muscle signals.
動作しているのです
13:56
So Amanda, when you first started using this arm,
アマンダ この義手を使い始めた時
13:58
how long did it take to use it?
慣れるまでどのくらいかかりました?
自分に適応させるまでに3-4時間といった
14:01
AK: It took just about probably three to four hours
そんなところです
14:03
to get it to train.
14:05
I had to hook it up to a computer,
その間はコンピュータの側を
14:07
so I couldn't just train it anywhere.
離れることはできず
14:09
So if it stopped working, I just had to take it off.
コンピューターが止まったら
外さなければいけません
14:12
So now it's able to train
今は背中の
小さな装置で同じことができ
14:14
with just this little piece on the back.
14:16
I can wear it around.
いつでもつけていられます
14:18
If it stops working for some reason, I can retrain it.
何かの理由で働かなくなっても
もう一度訓練して
14:21
Takes about a minute.
今度は1分程しかかかりません
14:23
TK: So we're really excited,
つまり臨床的に使えるものを
14:25
because now we're getting to a clinically practical device.
開発できて 我々はとても興奮しています
14:28
And that's where our goal is --
実用に足るような そんな機器を
14:30
to have something clinically pragmatic to wear.
作るのが我々の望むことだったからです
14:34
We've also had Amanda able to use
アマンダにはもっと進んだ
義手も使ってもらいました
14:37
some of our more advanced arms that I showed you earlier.
これはDEKA社の義手です
14:41
Here's Amanda using an arm made by DEKA Research Corporation.
ディーン・カーメンが
数年前TEDでデモを行ったものです
14:44
And I believe Dean Kamen presented it at TED a few years ago.
14:48
So Amanda, you can see,
とてもスムーズに
14:50
has really good control.
制御できています
14:52
It's all the pattern recognition.
パターン認識の成果です
14:54
And it now has a hand that can do different grasps.
違った握り方のできる義手もあります
14:57
What we do is have the patient go all the way open
患者さんに義手の手を広げてもらい
15:00
and think, "What hand grasp pattern do I want?"
「どんな握り方をしたいか」考えてもらうと
そのモードになり これで
15:03
It goes into that mode,
5〜6種の握り方ができます
15:05
and then you can do up to five or six different hand grasps with this hand.
15:07
Amanda, how many were you able to do with the DEKA arm?
アマンダ いくつの握り方ができますか?
15:10
AK: I was able to get four.
4つです
キーグリップ、チャックグリップ
15:12
I had the key grip, I had a chuck grip,
強く握ること そして
15:15
I had a power grasp
つまむことができます
15:17
and I had a fine pinch.
15:19
But my favorite one was just when the hand was open,
でも手を開いているのが一番好きですね
15:21
because I work with kids,
子ども相手の仕事では
15:23
and so all the time you're clapping and singing,
手を叩いて歌うことが多いんです
15:26
so I was able to do that again, which was really good.
それがまたできるようになったのが嬉しいです
15:29
TK: That hand's not so good for clapping.
この義手は拍手向きではないようで
15:31
AK: Can't clap with this one.
難しいですね
15:33
TK: All right. So that's exciting
ありがとう
メカトロニクスが進歩し
15:35
on where we may go with the better mechatronics,
15:37
if we make them good enough
実地試験ができれば
15:39
to put out on the market and use in a field trial.
何ができるか楽しみです
15:42
I want you to watch closely.
ではこちらをご覧下さい
15:44
(Video) Claudia: Oooooh!
(オー!)
15:46
TK: That's Claudia,
この患者はクローディアといい
15:48
and that was the first time
これは彼女が初めて
義手から感覚を得た場面です
15:50
she got to feel sensation through her prosthetic.
15:53
She had a little sensor at the end of her prosthesis
義手の先端にセンサーがあり
15:56
that then she rubbed over different surfaces,
いくつかの違った表面をなでる毎に
違った感触を感じるのです
15:59
and she could feel different textures
16:01
of sandpaper, different grits, ribbon cable,
紙やすり 砂利 リボン
感触が
「神経支配を再確立した手」の皮膚に伝わります
16:04
as it pushed on her reinnervated hand skin.
テーブルをなでると自分の指が
16:07
She said that when she just ran it across the table,
揺れ動くのを感じると言います
16:10
it felt like her finger was rocking.
これが皮膚感覚フィードバックの
16:12
So that's an exciting laboratory experiment
可能性を示す実験となります
16:14
on how to give back, potentially, some skin sensation.
16:17
But here's another video that shows some of our challenges.
こちらはまた別の挑戦です
ジェシーが泡粒玩具を握ると
16:20
This is Jesse, and he's squeezing a foam toy.
16:23
And the harder he squeezes -- you see a little black thing in the middle
強く握るほど胸についた黒い小さな機器が
それに比例して彼の皮膚を強く押します
16:26
that's pushing on his skin proportional to how hard he squeezes.
ただ多くの電極を見ればわかる通り
16:29
But look at all the electrodes around it.
皮膚の表面にぎっしりです
16:31
I've got a real estate problem.
多くの電極を繋ぐ必要があり
16:33
You're supposed to put a bunch of these things on there,
電極に付属するモーターは
16:35
but our little motor's making all kinds of noise
とてもうるさいです
16:38
right next to my electrodes.
課題は多いですが我々は挑戦を続けています
16:40
So we're really challenged on what we're doing there.
将来は明るいです
16:43
The future is bright.
今の技術にも 将来の技術にも希望が一杯です
16:45
We're excited about where we are and a lot of things we want to do.
16:48
So for example,
例えばもっと
皮膚表面の問題を解決して
16:50
one is to get rid of my real estate problem
16:53
and get better signals.
良い信号を得ることだとか
16:55
We want to develop these little tiny capsules
米粒のように非常に小さく
16:58
about the size of a piece of risotto
筋肉に入れることができ
17:00
that we can put into the muscles
EMG信号を遠隔で取得できる
17:02
and telemeter out the EMG signals,
カプセルを開発し 煩わしい配線などに
17:05
so that it's not worrying about electrode contact.
気をもまない様にしたいだとか
感覚のフィードバックを得るために
17:08
And we can have the real estate open
皮膚につけるものを減らすとか
17:10
to try more sensation feedback.
17:12
We want to build a better arm.
とにかく良い義手を作りたい
17:14
This arm -- they're always made for the 50th percentile male --
この義手は平均的な男性用のサイズです
17:18
which means they're too big for five-eighths of the world.
全人口の5/8の人間にとっては大き過ぎます
そのため 私たちは強く 速い義手よりは
17:22
So rather than a super strong or super fast arm,
17:25
we're making an arm that is --
ただ握り・開き
17:27
we're starting with,
手首と肘だけは動かせる
17:29
the 25th percentile female --
しかしサイズ的には
平均的な女性用のサイズより
17:32
that will have a hand that wraps around,
さらに小さい
17:34
opens all the way,
そんな義手の開発の優先を考えています
17:36
two degrees of freedom in the wrist and an elbow.
その義手は最も小さく軽く
17:39
So it'll be the smallest and lightest
最も賢い義手です
17:41
and the smartest arm ever made.
小さな義手を開発すれば
17:43
Once we can do it that small,
それを大きくするのは簡単です
17:45
it's a lot easier making them bigger.
これらが我々の目標です
17:47
So those are just some of our goals.
今日はここに来てくださり有難うございます
17:50
And we really appreciate you all being here today.
最後に昨日私たちが体験した
17:54
I'd like to tell you a little bit about the dark side,
義手の難しさについてお話します
17:56
with yesterday's theme.
時差ぼけしたアマンダが
17:58
So Amanda came jet-lagged,
18:00
she's using the arm,
義手を操作すると
18:02
and everything goes wrong.
うまくいきませんでした
18:04
There was a computer spook,
システムが変な挙動をし
18:06
a broken wire,
ワイヤーが切れ
電圧変換機がスパークし
18:08
a converter that sparked.
ホテルの電気回路を全て使って
18:10
We took out a whole circuit in the hotel
火災報知機が鳴りかけました
18:12
and just about put on the fire alarm.
その全てに私は対処できませんでしたが
18:14
And none of those problems could I have dealt with,
サイモン博士をはじめとする
18:17
but I have a really bright research team.
18:19
And thankfully Dr. Annie Simon was with us
優秀な研究チームのおかげで
昨日の問題を処理できました
18:22
and worked really hard yesterday to fix it.
これが科学というものです
18:24
That's science.
幸運にも 今日は問題なく動作しました
18:26
And fortunately, it worked today.
ありがとうございました
18:28
So thank you very much.
(拍手)
18:30
(Applause)
Translator:Tatsuaki Iriya
Reviewer:Masaki Yanagishita

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Todd Kuiken - Biomedical engineer
A doctor and engineer, Todd Kuiken builds new prosthetics that connect with the human nervous system. Yes: bionics.

Why you should listen

As Dean Kamen said at TED2007, the design of the prosthetic arm hadn't really been updated since the Civil War -- basically "a stick and a hook." But at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, physiatrist Todd Kuiken is building new arms and hands that are wired into the nervous system and can be controlled by the same impulses from the brain that once controlled flesh and blood.

Kuiken's training -- as both a physician and an engineer -- helps him see both sides of this complex problem. A technology called targeted muscle reinnervation uses nerves remaining after an amputation to control an artificial limb, linking brain impulses to a computer in the prosthesis that directs motors to move the limb. An unexpected effect in some patients: not only can they move their new limb, they can feel with it.

He  said: "From an engineering standpoint, this is the greatest challenge one can imagine: trying to restore the most incredible machine in the universe."

The original video is available on TED.com
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