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TEDxBoulder 2011

Phil Plait: How to defend Earth from asteroids

フィル・プレート 「小惑星から地球を守るには」

September 5, 2011

直径10キロの大きさで、瞬く間に文明を終わらせるものとは何か?それは小惑星であり、宇宙に多く存在しているのです。小惑星が破壊する過程とそれを食い止めるために我々がすべき事を、ユーモアと優れた視覚効果を交えたトークで、フィル・プレート氏がTEDボルダーの観客達を魅了します。

Phil Plait - Astronomer
Phil Plait blogs at Bad Astronomy, where he deconstructs misconceptions and explores the wonder of the universe. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I want to talk to you about something
話しておきたい事があります
00:16
kind of big.
重要な話です
00:18
We'll start here.
始めましょう
00:21
65 million years ago
6500万年前
00:24
the dinosaurs had a bad day.
恐竜達には不運な1日でした
00:27
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:30
A chunk of rock six miles across,
直径10キロの大きな隕石が
00:33
moving something like 50 times
ライフル銃の
00:36
the speed of a rifle bullet,
約50倍の速さで
00:38
slammed into the Earth.
地球に衝突しました
00:40
It released its energy all at once,
そのエネルギーは一瞬で放射され
00:42
and it was an explosion that was
大爆発し
00:44
mind-numbing.
全てが終わりました
00:46
If you took every nuclear weapon ever built
冷戦の最中に造られた
00:48
at the height of the Cold War,
全ての核兵器を
00:50
lumped them together and blew them up
集めて一度に
00:52
at the same time,
爆発させたとしても
00:54
that would be one one-millionth
その隕石が衝突した時の
00:56
of the energy released at that moment.
100万分の1のエネルギーにしかなりません
00:58
The dinosaurs had a really bad day.
恐竜達には本当に不運な1日でした
01:02
Okay?
いいですか?
01:05
Now, a six-mile-wide rock is very large.
直径10キロの隕石は非常に大きいです
01:07
We all live here in Boulder.
我々はボルダーに住んでいます
01:09
If you look out your window and you can see
窓の外の
01:11
Long's Peak, you're probably familiar with it.
ロングスピークは 見慣れた景色です
01:13
Now, scoop up Long's Peak, and put it out
では ロングスピークをすくい上げて
01:15
in space.
脇に置いておきます
01:17
Take Meeker, Mt. Meeker. Lump that in there,
ミーカー山もとって1つにまとめて
01:19
and put that in space as well,
エベレストとK2(山)
01:21
and Mt. Everest, and K2,
インディアンピークスも
01:23
and the Indian peaks.
一緒にしておきます
01:25
Then you're starting to get an idea of
では考えてみましょう
01:27
how much rock we're talking about, okay?
いくつの山について話しましたか?
01:29
We know it was that big because of
その隕石が巨大だったのは
01:31
the impact it had and the crater it left.
その衝撃やクレーターから明らかです
01:33
It hit in what we now know as Yucatan,
隕石が落ちたのは
01:35
the Gulf of Mexico.
メキシコ湾のユカタンです
01:37
You can see here, there's the
こちらに見えるのが
01:39
Yucatan Peninsula, if you recognize Cozumel
ユカタン半島です コスメル島は
01:41
off the east coast there.
東海岸から離れたところにあります
01:43
Here is how big of a crater was left.
クレーターの大きさが見てとれますね
01:45
It was huge. To give you a sense of the scale,
巨大でした 規模を測ると
01:48
okay, there you go. The scale here is
こちらですが
01:50
50 miles on top, a hundred kilometers
大きさは頂上が80キロで
01:52
on the bottom. This thing was
ふもとは100キロです
01:54
300 kilometers across -- 200 miles --
直径300キロ(約200マイル)の
01:56
an enormous crater that excavated out
巨大なクレーターは
01:58
vast amounts of earth that splashed around
大量の大地を削って世界中に撒き散らし
02:00
the globe and set fires all over the planet,
日光を遮る程の粉じんと共に
02:03
threw up enough dust to block out the sun.
地球全体を火の海にしてできました
02:06
It wiped out 75 percent of all species
地球上の全生物の75パーセントが
02:09
on Earth.
絶滅しました
02:11
Now, not all asteroids are that big.
全ての小惑星がこんなに大きい訳ではなく
02:13
Some of them are smaller.
小さいものもあります
02:16
Here is one that came in
これは
02:18
over the United States
1992年10月に
02:21
in October of 1992.
アメリカに落下した隕石です
02:23
It came in on a Friday night.
金曜日の夜でした
02:25
Why is that important?
なぜそれが重要か?
02:27
Because back then, video cameras were
当時ビデオカメラは
02:29
just starting to become popular, and people
普及し始めたばかりで
02:31
would bring them, parents would bring them,
誰もがビデオカメラを携帯し
02:33
to their kids' football games to film their kids
子供達のフットボールの試合を撮りました
02:35
play football. And since this came in on a Friday,
金曜日に落下したことで
02:37
they were able to get this great footage
この素晴しい映像が各地で撮影されました
02:40
of this thing breaking up as it came in
ウエストヴァージニア
02:42
over West Virgina, Maryland, Pennsylvania
メリーランド ペンシルバニア
02:44
and New Jersey until it did that
ニュージャージー
02:46
to a car in New York.
ニューヨークの車にまで
02:48
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:50
Now, this is not a 200-mile-wide crater,
これは直径300キロもありませんね
02:52
but then again you can see the rock
しかしここにあるような
02:55
which is sitting right here,
フットボール位の隕石でも
02:57
about the size of a football, that hit
ぶつかると
02:59
that car and did that damage.
車が損傷しています
03:01
Now this thing was probably about the size
この隕石は恐らく元々は
03:03
of a school bus when it first came in.
スクールバス程の大きさでした
03:05
It broke up through atmospheric pressure,
それが大気圧で砕けて
03:07
it crumbled, and then the pieces fell apart
粉々になり かけらが落下して
03:09
and did some damage.
被害を与えたのでしょう
03:11
Now, you wouldn't want that falling on your foot
こんな隕石が足や頭の上に落ちてきたら
03:13
or your head, because it would do that to it.
大変なことになりますね
03:15
That would be bad.
最悪でしょう
03:17
But it won't wipe out, you know, all life
しかし地球上の全ての生命が
03:19
on Earth, so that's fine. But it turns out,
絶滅する事は無いので大丈夫です
03:21
you don't need something six miles across
しかし直径10キロ無くても
03:23
to do a lot of damage.
大災害は起こり得るのです
03:26
There is a median point between tiny rock
隕石には小さなものと大きなものだけでなく
03:28
and gigantic rock, and in fact, if any of you
中ぐらいの大きさを持つものもあります
03:30
have ever been to near Winslow, Arizona,
アリゾナのウィンズローに行くと
03:32
there is a crater in the desert there that is
砂漠の中に”アリゾナ隕石孔”と呼ばれる
03:35
so iconic that it is actually called Meteor Crater.
非常に象徴的なクレーターがあります
03:38
To give you a sense of scale, this is about a mile wide.
規模を測ると 直径1.5キロです
03:42
If you look up at the top, that's a parking lot,
頂上は駐車場になっています
03:45
and those are recreational vehicles right there.
RV車も停まっています
03:48
So it's about a mile across, 600 feet deep.
直径約1,5キロで深さ200メートルです
03:51
The object that formed this was probably about
この隕石孔を形成した物体の大きさは
03:54
30 to 50 yards across, so roughly the size
およそ30~45メートル程で
03:57
of Mackey Auditorium here.
このマッケイ公会堂位のサイズです
04:00
It came in at speeds that were tremendous,
それは驚異的な速さでやって来て
04:03
slammed into the ground, blew up,
地面に衝突し 粉々になり
04:06
and exploded with the energy of roughly
およそ20メガトンの核爆弾のエネルギーで
04:08
a 20-megaton nuclear bomb --
爆発しました
04:10
a very hefty bomb.
非常に大きな爆弾です
04:12
This was 50,000 years ago, so it may have
5万年前にその隕石は
04:14
wiped out a few buffalo or antelope,
バッファローかアンテロープの様な生物を
04:16
or something like that out in the desert,
砂漠から絶滅させました
04:18
but it probably would not have caused
しかし地球規模の災害の原因には
04:21
global devastation.
ならなかった様ですね
04:23
It turns out that these things don't have to
次の事例からは小惑星が衝突しなくても
04:25
hit the ground to do a lot of damage.
大災害が起こる事が分かります
04:27
Now, in 1908, over Siberia, near the
1908年のツングースカ大爆発ですが
04:30
Tunguska region -- for those of you who are
”ゴーストバスターズ”を観ると
04:32
Dan Aykroyd fans and saw "Ghostbusters,"
ダン・エイクロイドが
04:34
when he talked about the greatest cross-dimensional rift
1909年のツングースカ大爆発以来の
04:36
since the Siberia blast of 1909, where he got
超常現象だと言いますが
04:39
the date wrong, but that's okay. (Laughter)
間違っていますね 1908年です
04:42
It was 1908. That's fine. I can live with that.
大丈夫 間違ってても生きていけます
04:44
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:47
Another rock came into the Earth's atmosphere
この時小惑星は大気圏に入ると
04:50
and this one blew up above the ground, several
地上から数キロ上空で
04:53
miles up above the surface of the Earth.
爆発しました
04:55
The heat from the explosion set fire to the
爆発による高熱で
04:58
forest below it, and then the shock wave
森は炎上し その空振で
05:01
came down and knocked down trees for
数千平方キロメートルの木々が
05:04
hundreds of square miles, okay?
なぎ倒されました
05:06
This did a huge amount of damage.
これは非常に大きな破壊規模でした
05:09
And again, this was a rock probably roughly
繰り返しますが これは恐らく
05:11
the size of this auditorium that we're sitting in.
この公会堂位の小惑星の仕業でしょう
05:13
In Meteor Crater it was made of metal,
アリゾナ隕石孔は鉄金を成分とした
05:15
and metal is much tougher, so it made it
とても頑丈な隕石が衝突した事で
05:17
to the ground.
形成されました
05:19
The one over Tunguska was probably made
ツングースカについては恐らく
05:21
of rock, and that's much more crumbly, so it
とても砕けやすい小惑星の仕業で
05:23
blew up in the air. Either way, these are
それ故に空中分解しました
05:25
tremendous explosions, 20 megatons.
いずれの事例も20メガトンの大爆発でした
05:27
Now, when these things blow up, they're not
この位の規模の爆発では
05:30
going to do global ecological damage.
地球規模で生態系に影響を及ぼすことはないでしょう
05:32
They're not going to do something like
恐竜が絶滅したような事態には
05:35
the dinosaur-killer did.
ならないでしょう
05:37
They're just not big enough.
それ程の破壊力はありません
05:39
But they will do global economic damage,
しかし世界経済には損失を与えます
05:41
because they don't have to hit, necessarily,
地表に衝突しなかったとしても
05:43
to do this kind of damage.
損失が出ることがあります
05:45
They don't have to do global devastation.
地球規模の惨事になる必要はありません
05:47
If one of these things were to hit
もし隕石がどこかに落ちてくるとしたら
05:49
pretty much anywhere, it would cause a panic.
パニックを引き起こすでしょう
05:51
But if it came over a city, an important city --
もしこれが最も重要な都市―
05:53
not that any city is more important than others,
どの都市もそれぞれ重要ですが
05:55
but some of them we depend on them more
世界経済を支えている都市に
05:57
on the global economic basis -- that could do
隕石が降ったとすると
05:59
a huge amount of damage to us
我々の文明や生活に大きな影響が
06:02
as a civilization.
あるでしょう
06:05
So, now that I've scared the crap out of you ...
みなさん怖くなって震えてますね
06:07
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:10
what can we do about this? All right?
我々に何ができるでしょう?
06:12
This is a potential threat.
これは潜在的脅威です
06:14
Let me note that we have not had
この6500万年の間 恐竜が絶滅したような
06:16
a giant impact like the dinosaur-killer
巨大衝突は起きていません
06:18
for 65 million years. They're very rare.
めったに無い事です
06:20
The smaller ones happen more often, but
小さな隕石の衝突はしばしば起きますが
06:23
probably on the order of a millennium,
恐らくは1000年周期
06:26
every few centuries or every few thousand
数世紀から数千年に一度の出来事です
06:28
years, but it's still something to be aware of.
それでも注意を向けるべき事です
06:30
Well, what do we do about them?
さて 我々はどうしましょう?
06:33
The first thing we have to do is find them.
まずは見つける事です
06:35
This is an image of an asteroid that passed
これは2009年に地球の近くを通った
06:37
us in 2009.
小惑星です
06:39
It's right here.
ここです
06:41
But you can see that it's extremely faint.
とても見えづらいでしょう
06:43
I don't even know if you can see that
後方にあるものが見えるでしょうか
06:45
in the back row. These are just stars.
これらはただの星です
06:47
This is a rock that was about 30 yards across,
直径30メートル位なので
06:49
so roughly the size of the ones that blew up
ツングースカやアリゾナに衝突した
06:51
over Tunguska and hit Arizona 50,000 years ago.
物体とほぼ同じ大きさでしょう
06:53
These things are faint.
かすかにしか見えません
06:56
They're hard to see, and the sky is really big.
見えづらい上に 空は広大です
06:58
We have to find these things first.
我々はこれらを見逃してはなりません
07:00
Well the good news is, we're looking for them.
幸いな事に 我々は常に見張っています
07:02
NASA has devoted money to this.
NASAはこの監視に予算を充てています
07:04
The National Science Foundation, other
アメリカ国立科学財団や諸外国は
07:06
countries are very interested in doing this.
この事にとても関心を持っています
07:08
We're building telescopes that are looking
これらの脅威を見つけ出すために
07:10
for the threat. That's a great first step,
我々は望遠鏡を作っています
07:12
but what's the second step? The second step
重要な第一歩です 次に行う事は
07:14
is that we see one heading toward us,
地球に向かってきている物体を確認し
07:16
we have to stop it. What do we do?
食い止める事です 何をするか?
07:18
You've probably heard about the asteroid
小惑星アポフィスをご存知でしょう
07:20
Apophis. If you haven't yet, you will.
知らなくてもいつか耳にします
07:22
If you've heard about the Mayan 2012
2012年のマヤの予言についてご存知なら
07:25
apocalypse, you're going to hear about Apophis,
アポフィスを知る事になるでしょう
07:27
because you're keyed in to all the doomsday
地球の終末についての情報は
07:29
networks anyway.
互いに結び付いているのですから
07:31
Apophis is an asteroid that was discovered in 2004.
アポフィスは2004年に発見されました
07:34
It's roughly 250 yards across, so it's
直径およそ250メートルの大きさで
07:37
pretty big -- big size, you know,
かなり大きいですね
07:40
bigger than a football stadium -- and it's going to
フットボール競技場よりも大きい物体が
07:42
pass by the Earth in April of 2029.
2029年4月に地球の近くを通過します
07:44
And it's going to pass us so close that it's
どれ程近くかというと
07:47
actually going to come underneath
気象衛星よりも近くを通ると
07:49
our weather satellites.
思われています
07:51
The Earth's gravity is going to bend the orbit
地球の引力はアポフィスの軌道を
07:53
of this thing so much that if it's just right,
曲げてしまいます
07:55
if it passes through this region of space,
もしアポフィスが この豆型の
07:58
this kidney bean-shaped region called
”鍵穴”とよばれる場所を通過すると
08:01
the keyhole, the Earth's gravity will bend it
地球の重力で軌道が変わり
08:03
just enough that seven years later
そうすると
08:05
on April 13, which is a Friday, I'll note,
7年後の2036年4月13日には…
08:07
in the year 2036 ... (Laughter)
ちなみに13日の金曜日ですね(笑)
08:09
-- you can't plan that kind of stuff --
―天体の動きに計画は立てられません―
08:12
Apophis is going to hit us. And it's
アポフィスが地球に衝突するでしょう
08:15
250 meters across, so it would do
それは直径250メートルで
08:17
unbelievable damage.
衝撃は想像を超えるでしょう
08:19
Now the good news is that the odds of it
幸いな事に その確率ですが
08:21
actually passing through this keyhole and
鍵穴を通過して
08:23
hitting us next go-around are one in a million,
地球に衝突する確率は100万分の1です
08:25
roughly -- very, very low odds, so I personally
とても低い確率でなので個人的には
08:27
am not lying awake at night worrying about this at all.
心配で夜眠れない様な事はありません
08:29
I don't think Apophis is a problem.
アポフィスは問題ではありません
08:31
In fact, Apophis is a blessing in disguise,
アポフィスは不幸中の幸いです
08:33
because it woke us up to the dangers
こうしたことに対する我々の危機意識を
08:35
of these things.
目覚めさせたからです
08:37
This thing was discovered just a few years
これはたった数年前に発見されたもので
08:39
ago and could hit us a few years from now.
数年後に衝突することもあり得ました
08:41
It won't, but it gives us a chance to study
実際には衝突しませんがこれを機に
08:43
these kinds of asteroids. We didn't really
この類の小惑星の調査が始まりました
08:45
necessarily understand these keyholes, and
以前は鍵穴のことなどわかりませんでしたが
08:47
now we do and it turns out
今はわかっています
08:49
that's really important, because how do you
小惑星の衝突をどう食い止めるかにおいて
08:51
stop an asteroid like this?
これはとても重要です
08:53
Well, let me ask you, what happens if you're
お尋ねしますが
08:55
standing in the middle of the road and a car's
もし道路の真ん中に立っていて
08:57
headed for you? What do you do? You do this.
車がこちらに向かってきたらどうしますか?
08:59
Right? Move. The car goes past you.
よけるでしょう?車は通過します
09:01
But we can't move the Earth, at least
地球は簡単に動きません
09:03
not easily, but we can move a small asteroid.
しかし小惑星なら動かせます
09:05
And it turns out, we've even done it.
それはもう実際に行われています
09:07
In the year 2005, NASA launched a probe
2005年にNASAは”ディープインパクト”という
09:09
called Deep Impact, which slammed into --
探査機を打ち上げ その一部分を
09:12
slammed a piece of itself into the nucleus of a comet.
彗星の核に衝突させました
09:15
Comets are very much like asteroids.
彗星は小惑星によく似ています
09:18
The purpose wasn't to push it out of the way.
目的は軌道を変えることではありませんでした
09:20
The purpose was to make a crater to excavate
目的はクレーターを作り
09:22
the material and see what was underneath
彗星の成分を掘り出し
09:24
the surface of this comet, which we learned
その内部構造を調査することで
09:26
quite a bit about.
多くの成果がありました
09:28
We did move the comet a little tiny bit,
我々はほんの少しだけ彗星を動かしました
09:30
not very much, but that wasn't the point.
しかしそれは重要ではありません
09:32
However, think about this.
考えてみましょう
09:34
This thing is orbiting the sun at
これが太陽の周りを
09:36
10 miles per second, 20 miles per second.
毎秒15~30キロで回っています
09:38
We shot a space probe at it and hit it. Okay?
探査機から彗星に弾丸を衝突させました
09:40
Imagine how hard that must be, and we did it.
とても困難なことを成功させたのです
09:42
That means we can do it again.
もう一度行うこともできるということです
09:45
If we need, if we see an asteroid that's coming
もし地球に向かってくる小惑星を確認して
09:48
toward us, and it's headed right for us,
すぐ近くまで来た時 必要であれば
09:50
and we have two years to go, boom! We hit it.
2年でそこに行って ブーン!ぶつけます
09:52
You can try to -- you know, if you watch
そうですね…映画を観ると
09:55
the movies, you might think about,
こう考えるでしょう
09:57
why don't we use a nuclear weapon?
核兵器を使えば良いのに
09:59
It's like, well, you can try that, but the problem is timing.
試しても良いですが タイミングが難しい
10:01
You shoot a nuclear weapon at this thing,
小惑星に核弾頭を発射すると
10:03
you have to blow it up within a few milliseconds
数ミリ秒以内に爆破させる必要があります
10:05
of tolerance or else you'll just miss it.
さもないと失敗するでしょう
10:07
And there are a lot of other problems
他にも多くの問題があって
10:09
with that. It's very hard to do.
実施するのは困難です
10:11
But just hitting something? That's pretty easy.
何かをぶつけるのは とても簡単です
10:13
I think even NASA can do that,
NASAだってできると思います
10:15
and they proved that they can. (Laughter)
彼らは出来る事を証明しました(笑)
10:17
The problem is, what happens if you hit
問題になるのは
10:19
this asteroid, you've changed the orbit,
小惑星に弾丸を当てて軌道を変え
10:21
you measure the orbit and then you find out,
新たな軌道を測ってみたら
10:23
oh, yeah, we just pushed it into a keyhole,
小惑星が鍵穴に入っていて
10:25
and now it's going to hit us in three years.
3年後に地球に衝突するといった時です
10:27
Well, my opinion is, fine. Okay?
私に言わせれば それでも大丈夫です
10:29
It's not hitting us in six months. That's good.
6ヶ月以内に衝突しなければ上出来です
10:31
Now we have three years to do something else.
問題に取り組むのに3年あります
10:33
And you can hit it again. That's kind of
再び小惑星を撃つこともできますが
10:36
ham-fisted. You might just push it into a third
別の鍵穴に入ってしまうかもしれませんし
10:38
keyhole or whatever, so you don't do that.
それはやめておきましょう
10:40
And this is the part, it's the part I just love.
ここからが私の大好きな箇所です
10:42
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:46
After the big macho "Rrrrrrr BAM! We're
勇ましく「ブルブル バン!
10:48
gonna hit this thing in the face,"
ど真ん中に弾丸を撃ち込んでやる」
10:50
then we bring in the velvet gloves.
と言った後で穏やかな方法を取るのです
10:52
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:55
There's a group of scientists and engineers
科学者と技術者 宇宙飛行士の
10:58
and astronauts and they call themselves
あるグループは自らを
11:00
The B612 Foundation. For those of you
"B612"財団と呼んでいます
11:02
who've read "The Little Prince,"
”星の王子様”を読んだ事があれば
11:04
you understand that reference, I hope. The little prince
何か分かりますね?星の王子様が住んでいた
11:06
who lived on an asteroid, it was called B612.
小惑星がB612と呼ばれていました
11:08
These are smart guys -- men and women --
B612には男女共に優秀な人達がいます
11:10
astronauts, like I said, engineers.
今言った様に 宇宙飛行士や技術者
11:12
Rusty Schweickart, who was an Apollo 9
アポロ9号のラッセル・シュウェイカートも
11:14
astronaut, is on this. Dan Durda, my friend
ここに属しています 私の友人で
11:16
who made this image, works here at
この映像を作ったダン・ダルダもその一人で
11:18
Southwest Research Institute in Boulder,
サウスウエスト研究所で働いています
11:20
on Walnut Street. He created this image for this,
彼はこの映像の制作者で
11:22
and he's actually one of the astronomers
これから話す計画に取り組んでいる
11:24
who works for them. If we see an asteroid
天文学者の一人です
11:26
that's going to hit the Earth and we have
地球に向かってくる小惑星があっても
11:28
enough time, we can hit it to move it into
十分な時間があれば弾丸を撃ち込んで
11:30
a better orbit. But then what we do is we launch
軌道を修正できます しかしむしろ行うべきは
11:33
a probe that has to weigh a ton or two.
1,2トンの探査機を打ち上げることです
11:36
It doesn't have to be huge -- couple of tons,
巨大である必要はなく 2トン程のものを
11:38
not that big -- and you park it near the asteroid.
小惑星の近くまで行かせます
11:41
You don't land on it, because these things are
回転する小惑星に着陸するのは
11:44
tumbling end over end. It's very hard to land on them.
困難なので 着陸はしませんが
11:46
Instead you get near it.
近くまで行くと
11:48
The gravity of the asteroid pulls on the probe,
小惑星の重力が探査機を引っ張ります
11:50
and the probe has a couple of tons of mass.
重さが2トンほどの探査機にも
11:52
It has a little tiny bit of gravity, but it's enough
ほんの小さな重力があり
11:55
that it can pull the asteroid, and you have your
その重力で小惑星を引っ張ることができます
11:57
rockets set up, so you can -- oh, you can barely
そのためのロケットも搭載しています
11:59
see it here, but there's rocket plumes -- and you
かすかにロケットの煙が見えます
12:01
basically, these guys are connected by their
小惑星と探査機は
12:03
own gravity, and if you move the probe very
互いの重力で結ばれていますから
12:05
slowly, very, very gently, you can very easily
探査機をとてもゆっくり丁寧に動かせば
12:08
finesse that rock into a safe orbit.
簡単に小惑星を安全な軌道に乗せられます
12:12
You can even put in orbit around the Earth
地球の軌道に乗せて
12:15
where we could mine it, although that's a
採鉱することもできますが
12:17
whole other thing. I won't go into that.
それは別の話なので今はしません
12:19
(Laughter)
(笑)
12:21
But we'd be rich!
でもそれを行えば金持ちになれます
12:23
(Laughter)
(笑)
12:25
So think about this, right?
想像して下さい
12:30
There are these giant rocks flying out there,
巨大な隕石が3つ降ってきたとします
12:32
and they're hitting us, and they're doing
地球に衝突したら被害が出るでしょう
12:34
damage to us, but we've figured out how to do
しかし対策はもうわかっています
12:36
this, and all the pieces are in place to do this.
そのための準備も万端です
12:38
We have astronomers in place with telescopes
天文学者達は望遠鏡で
12:41
looking for them. We have smart people,
常にそれを見張っていて
12:43
very, very smart people, who are concerned
とても優秀な人達がこの事に関心を持って
12:45
about this and figuring out how to fix the
この問題の解決策を導き出しています
12:47
problem, and we have the technology to do this.
そのための科学技術もあります
12:49
This probe actually can't use chemical rockets.
この探査機には化学燃料は使えません
12:52
Chemical rockets provide too much thrust, too
化学燃料は推進力が強すぎて
12:54
much push. The probe would just shoot away.
探査機は彼方に飛んで行ってしまいます
12:56
We invented something called an ion drive,
我々はイオンドライブという
12:58
which is a very, very, very low-thrust engine.
非常に低推力のエンジンを開発しました
13:00
It generates the force a piece of paper would
1枚の紙が手を押すのと同じ位の
13:03
have on your hand, incredibly light,
非常に小さなエネルギーしか出しませんが
13:05
but it can run for months and years,
その小さな推力を
13:07
providing that very gentle push.
何ヶ月も何年も出し続けることができます
13:10
If anybody here is a fan of the original "Star Trek,"
オリジナルの”スタートレック”には
13:13
they ran across an alien ship that had
イオンエンジンを持つエイリアンの船があり
13:15
an ion drive, and Spock said,
スポックが言います
13:17
"They're very technically sophisticated.
「彼らは技術的にとても優れている
13:19
They're a hundred years ahead of us with this drive."
我々の100年先を行くエンジンだ」
13:21
Yeah, we have an ion drive now. (Laughter)
イオンエンジンはもう実現しています(笑)
13:23
We don't have the Enterprise, but
彼らのような宇宙船はありませんが
13:25
we've got an ion drive now.
イオンエンジンはもうあります
13:27
(Applause)
(拍手)
13:29
Spock.
おわかりですか スポックさん
13:32
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:34
So ...
と言う訳で
13:37
that's the difference, that's the difference
これこそが
13:39
between us and the dinosaurs.
我々と恐竜の違いなんです
13:41
This happened to them.
恐竜は隕石で絶滅してしまいましたが
13:43
It doesn't have to happen to us.
我々はそうはなりません
13:45
The difference between the dinosaurs and us
恐竜と我々の違いは
13:47
is that we have a space program
宇宙計画
13:50
and we can vote,
そして選挙です
13:52
and so we can change our future.
我々は未来を変えることができます
13:54
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:57
We have the ability to change our future.
我々には未来を変える能力があります
13:58
65 million years from now,
6500万年後
14:01
we don't have to have our bones
ホコリまみれの我々の骨を
14:03
collecting dust in a museum.
博物館に展示しなくても良いのです
14:05
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
14:07
(Applause)
(拍手)
14:09
Translator:Yuko Masubuchi
Reviewer:Wataru Narita

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Phil Plait - Astronomer
Phil Plait blogs at Bad Astronomy, where he deconstructs misconceptions and explores the wonder of the universe.

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Phil Plait is the Bad Astronomer. Not a bad astronomer, but a blogger for Slate who debunks myths and misconceptions about astronomy -- and also writes about the beauty, wonder and importance of fundamental research.

He worked for six years on the Hubble Space Telescope, and directed public outreach for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. He is a past president of the James Randi Educational Foundation, and was the host of Phil Plait's Bad Universe, a documentary series on the Discovery Channel.

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