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TED@SXSWi

JP Rangaswami: Information is food

JP・ランガスワミ「情報は食べ物と同じなんだ」

April 9, 2012

私たちはどのように情報を消費しているでしょうか?TED@SXSWiで 人と情報の関わり方について考察をしてきた技術者であるJP・ランガスワミが驚くべき鋭い洞察を紹介します。私たちは情報を食べ物のように消費しているんです。

JP Rangaswami - Technologist
JP Rangaswami thinks deeply (and hilariously) about disruptive data. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I love my food.
私は食べ物が大好きです
00:15
And I love information.
あと 情報も大好きです
00:17
My children usually tell me
この二つの情熱について子供たちは
00:20
that one of those passions is a little more apparent than the other.
一つ目はわかるけど 二つ目は。。。と言います
00:23
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:27
But what I want to do in the next eight minutes or so
でも この8分間でお話したいのは
00:29
is to take you through how those passions developed,
どのように二つの情熱が育まれてきたのか
00:31
the point in my life when the two passions merged,
また 二つの情熱が人生で混じり合った瞬間について
00:33
the journey of learning that took place from that point.
その瞬間から始まった学びの旅についてです
00:37
And one idea I want to leave you with today
食べ物を眺めるのと同じ方法で
00:42
is what would would happen differently in your life
情報を眺めると人生は
00:44
if you saw information the way you saw food?
どのように変わるのか お話したいと思います
00:47
I was born in Calcutta --
私はカルカッタで生まれました
00:52
a family where my father and his father before him
父と祖父がジャーナリストという
00:54
were journalists,
家庭でした
00:58
and they wrote magazines in the English language.
彼らは雑誌用の英文記事を書いていました
00:59
That was the family business.
それが家業だったんです
01:02
And as a result of that,
その結果
01:05
I grew up with books everywhere around the house.
私は本に囲まれて育ちました
01:06
And I mean books everywhere around the house.
家の至るところに本がありました
01:09
And that's actually a shop in Calcutta,
私の家は本屋でした
01:13
but it's a place where we like our books.
皆 私たちの本が好きでした
01:15
In fact, I've got 38,000 of them now
実際 今ではそのうちの38000冊を持っています
01:19
and no Kindle in sight.
電子書籍ではありませんよ
01:22
But growing up as a child with the books around everywhere,
本や 本について話い合う人たちに囲まれて
01:25
with people to talk to about those books,
子供時代を過ごしたのですが
01:30
this wasn't a sort of slightly learned thing.
学んだことはあまりありません
01:33
By the time I was 18, I had a deep passion for books.
18歳になる頃には本に深い情熱を抱いていましたが
これが唯一の
01:36
It wasn't the only passion I had.
情熱ということではありませんでした
01:39
I was a South Indian
私はベンガルで育った
01:42
brought up in Bengal.
南インド人です
01:44
And two of the things about Bengal:
ベンガルの人々は
01:46
they like their savory dishes
香辛料のきいた料理が好きです
01:48
and they like their sweets.
甘いものも好きです
01:51
So by the time I grew up,
なので 成長するに従って
01:53
again, I had a well-established passion for food.
食べ物に対しても また大きな情熱を持ちました
01:54
Now I was growing up in the late '60s and early '70s,
60年代後半から70年代初頭に幼少期を過ごした
01:58
and there were a number of other passions I was also interested in,
私には他にも多くの情熱があります
02:01
but these two were the ones that differentiated me.
でも私を特別なものにしたのは情報と食べ物ですね
02:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:08
And then life was fine, dandy.
人生は順調で楽しかったです
02:09
Everything was okay,
26歳になるまで
02:12
until I got to about the age of 26,
すべて順調でした
02:14
and I went to a movie called "Short Circuit."
当時「ショートサーキット」という映画を見に行きました おお
02:18
Oh, some of you have seen it.
見た方もいらっしゃるようですね
02:21
And apparently it's being remade right now
現在 リメイク中で
02:23
and it's going to be coming out next year.
来年公開される予定です
02:27
It's the story of this experimental robot
この試作品ロボットの話なんですが
02:29
which got electrocuted and found a life.
感電死をして 命を知るというものです
02:32
And as it ran, this thing was saying, "Give me input. Give me input."
動き出すと「入力 入力して下さい」と言いだします
02:35
And I suddenly realized that for a robot
ロボットにとっては情報も食べ物も
02:39
both information as well as food
同じようなものだと 突然にして
02:42
were the same thing.
気づいたのでした
02:45
Energy came to it in some form or shape,
エネルギーもデータも同様にして
02:47
data came to it in some form or shape.
何らかの形をとります
02:50
And I began to think,
そこで エネルギーや情報が
02:52
I wonder what it would be like
私にとってのインプットだったら
02:55
to start imagining myself
つまり 情報と食べ物が同じ形をしていたら
02:56
as if energy and information were the two things I had as input --
自分はどうなるんだろうと
02:59
as if food and information were similar in some form or shape.
考え始めました
03:03
I started doing some research then, and this was the 25-year journey,
こうして25年に渡る研究の旅が始まりました
03:07
and started finding out
霊長目である人類は
03:11
that actually human beings as primates
体重に対して
03:12
have far smaller stomachs
胃が極めて小さく
03:16
than should be the size for our body weight
脳が極めて大きいということに
03:18
and far larger brains.
気づきました
03:22
And as I went to research that even further,
もっと調べてみると
03:25
I got to a point where I discovered something
不経済組織仮説というものが
03:28
called the expensive tissue hypothesis.
最終的に見つかりました
03:32
That actually for a given body mass of a primate
霊長類は物質量によって
03:35
the metabolic rate was static.
新陳代謝率が固定されています
03:39
What changed was the balance of the tissues available.
異なるのは 活動中の組織間のバランスです
03:42
And two of the most expensive tissues in our human body
人体においてもっとも不経済な組織のうちの二つは
03:45
are nervous tissue and digestive tissue.
神経組織と消化組織です
03:49
And what transpired was that people had put forward a hypothesis
そして1995年よりも前に驚くべき結果を生むことになる
03:53
that was apparently coming up with some fabulous results by about 1995.
ある仮説を提唱していた人がいたことが判明しました
03:57
It's a lady named Leslie Aiello.
それはレスリー・アイエロという女性でした
04:01
And the paper then suggested that you traded one for the other.
彼女の論文は 神経組織の為に消化組織は
犠牲になったと提唱していました
04:04
If you wanted your brain for a particular body mass to be large,
ある体質量に対して大きな脳を望めば
04:09
you had to live with a smaller gut.
消化管は小さくならざるを得ません
04:13
That then set me off completely
そこでこの二つは関連していると
04:16
to say, Okay, these two are connected.
はっきりと思ったんです
04:19
So I looked at the cultivation of information as if it were food
こうして 食べ物と情報の生産は同じものだと考えました
04:22
and said, So we were hunter-gathers of information.
我々は情報の狩猟採集民だったんです
04:26
We moved from that to becoming farmers and cultivators of information.
そこから 私達は情報を生み出す生産者へと移行したんです
04:29
Does that really explain what we're seeing
今日 目にする知的財産権争いは
これで本当に説明できますか?
04:33
with the intellectual property battles nowadays?
今日 目にする知的財産権争いは
これで本当に説明できますか?
04:35
Because those people who were hunter-gatherers in origin
元々は狩猟採集民族だった人々が
04:37
wanted to be free and roam and pick up information as they wanted,
欲しいままの情報取得を求めたのに対して
04:41
and those that were in the business of farming information
情報の生産に従事していた人々は
04:44
wanted to build fences around it,
情報の囲い込みを行って
04:47
create ownership and wealth and structure and settlement.
所有権と富を獲得し
体系と訴訟を生み出しました
04:49
So there was always going to be a tension within that.
だから常に緊張状態があるわけです
04:53
And everything I saw in the cultivation
耕作においては常に
04:56
said there were huge fights amongst the foodies
農耕民と狩猟民の中の食通の間では
04:58
between the cultivators and the hunter-gatherers.
大きな衝突があったそうです
05:01
And this is happening here.
同じことが今も起きています
05:03
When I moved to preparation, this same thing was true,
調理段階でも二つの見解があること以外
05:05
expect that there were two schools.
状況は同じでした
05:08
One group of people said you can distill your information,
蒸留して そこから価値を抽出して
05:10
you can extract value, separate it and serve it up,
提供することができると片方は主張しますが
05:14
while another group turned around
もう一方はそんなのダメだ
05:17
and said no, no you can ferment it.
熟成させないと言います
05:19
You bring it all together and mash it up
一つにして すりつぶしてこそ
05:20
and the value emerges that way.
価値が出るという主張です
05:23
The same is again true with information.
情報についても同じことが言えます
05:25
But consumption was where it started getting really enjoyable.
しかし消費があって初めて楽しくなるものです
05:28
Because what I began to see then
というのも当時 消費の方法は
05:32
was there were so many different ways people would consume this.
本当に多種多様なんだと私は気づき始めたんです
05:34
They'd buy it from the shop as raw ingredients.
調理前の食材を買うこともあります
05:37
Do you cook it? Do you have it served to you?
調理して自分で食べることもありますし
05:40
Do you go to a restaurant?
レストランで食べることもあります
05:42
The same is true every time as I started thinking about information.
情報について考えてみても いつも同じことが言えます
05:44
The analogies were getting crazy --
マニアックな類似点が見えてきました
05:47
that information had sell-by dates,
情報にも消費期限があって
05:50
that people had misused information that wasn't dated properly
日付表示の間違った情報は人々を欺き
05:53
and could really make an effect on the stock market,
株式市場や企業価値に
05:57
on corporate values, etc.
実際に影響を及ぼすこともあります
05:59
And by this time I was hooked.
この時にはもうすっかりはまっていました
06:01
And this is about 23 years into this process.
ここまでは研究の23年分の成果です
06:04
And I began to start thinking of myself
次に疑問に思い始めたことは
06:07
as we start having mash-ups of fact and fiction,
私たちは事実とフィクションを混ぜてしまうということです
06:09
docu-dramas, mockumentaries, whatever you call it.
ノンフィクション・フィクションとでも呼びましょうか
06:12
Are we going to reach the stage
情報の何%が事実かを
数値化する時代がやってくるんでしょうか?
06:16
where information has a percentage for fact associated with it?
情報の何%が事実かを
数値化する時代がやってくるんでしょうか?
06:17
We start labeling information for the fact percentage?
情報に事実含有量のラベルを貼ることになるんでしょうか?
06:22
Are we going to start looking at what happens
情報供給が遮断されると
06:25
when your information source is turned off, as a famine?
情報の空腹を感じる日がくるのでしょうか?
06:28
Which brings me to the final element of this.
そろそろ 話は大詰めです
06:32
Clay Shirky once stated that there is no such animal as information overload,
クレイ・シャーキーは情報過負担という状態は存在せず
06:34
there is only filter failure.
問題なのはフィルターの方だと言いました
06:37
I put it to you that information,
食べ物という観点から見てみると問題点は
06:40
if viewed from the point of food,
情報の生産ではないということです
06:43
is never a production issue; you never speak of food overload.
食糧の作りすぎが問題になることはありませんからね
06:46
Fundamentally it's a consumption issue.
つまり問題は消費にあるんです
06:49
And we have to start thinking
そこで情報に対処する
06:52
about how we create diets within ourselves, exercise within ourselves,
能力を高め 有効なラベル付けをするには
06:54
to have the faculties to be able to deal with information,
どのように情報を摂取し
06:59
to have the labeling to be able to do it responsibly.
処理するのか考えなくてはいけません
07:02
In fact, when I saw "Supersize Me," I starting thinking of saying,
「スーパーサイズミー」を見たときには
07:05
What would happen
こんなことを思いつきました
07:09
if an individual had 31 days nonstop Fox News?
「1ヶ月ぶっ続けでFoxニュースを見たらどうなるんだ?」
07:11
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:15
Would there be time to be able to work with it?
「こんな情報を処理できるような時代はくるでしょうか?」
07:17
So you start really understanding
ですから 情報も正しく摂取しないと
07:20
that you can have diseases, toxins, a need to balance your diet,
有害となったり 情報中毒になることがあることを
07:23
and once you start looking, and from that point on,
おわかり頂けたでしょう
07:29
everything I have done in terms of the consumption of information,
こうして見ると情報の消費・生産・調理に関する
07:32
the production of information, the preparation of information,
私の研究は全て 食べ物という
07:35
I've looked at from the viewpoint of food.
観点から行われたことがわかります
07:39
It has probably not helped my waistline any
私は情報も食べ物も好きなので
07:42
because I like practicing on both sides.
お腹周りは減っていないでしょうね
07:45
But I'd like to leave you with just that question:
でも 最後に質問をさせてください
07:47
If you began to think of all the information that you consume
もし皆さんが食べ物のように
情報を消費するとしたら
07:51
the way you think of food,
もし皆さんが食べ物のように
情報を消費するとしたら
07:54
what would you do differently?
一体どうしますか?
07:56
Thank you very much for your time.
ご静聴ありがとうございました
07:57
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:00
Translator:Takahito Sugeno
Reviewer:Takahiro Shimpo

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JP Rangaswami - Technologist
JP Rangaswami thinks deeply (and hilariously) about disruptive data.

Why you should listen

With a background in economics and journalism, JP Rangaswami has been a technology innovator and chief information officer for many leading financial firms. As an advocate for open source and disruptive technologies, Rangaswami has been a leading force in the success of multiple startups, including School of Everything, Salesforce.com and Ribbit. He blogs (unmissably) at Confused of Calcutta.

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