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TED2012

David Kelley: How to build your creative confidence

デビッド・ケリー 「自分のクリエイティビティに自信を持つ方法」

March 1, 2012

皆さんの学校や職場も、「クリエイティブ」な人と実務的な人に分かれているのでしょうか? しかしながら、クリエイティビティは限られた人だけが持っているものではないと、デビッド・ケリーは言います。デザイン分野におけるその伝説的な経歴と人生の体験を通し、創造するための自信を築く方法について語ってくれます。(ゲスト キュレーターのチー・パールマンとデビッド・ロックウェルによるTED2012セッション「デザイン・スタジオ」より。)

David Kelley - Designer, educator
David Kelley’s company IDEO helped create many icons of the digital generation -- but what matters even more to him is unlocking the creative potential of people and organizations to innovate routinely. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
00:15
I wanted to talk to you today
今日はクリエイティビティに対する
00:17
about creative confidence.
自信についてお話しします
00:20
I'm going to start way back in the third grade
オハイオ州バーバートンの
小学3年生だった頃の
昔の話から始めましょう
00:23
at Oakdale School in Barberton, Ohio.
00:26
I remember one day my best friend Brian was working on a project.
親友のブライアンが 創作に取り組んだ時のことを
今でもよく覚えています
00:30
He was making a horse out of the clay
先生が洗面台の下に置いていた
粘土を使って
00:33
that our teacher kept under the sink.
馬を作ろうとしていました
00:36
And at one point, one of the girls who was sitting at his table,
すると同じテーブルにいた女の子が
00:39
seeing what he was doing,
のぞき込んで
00:41
leaned over and said to him,
言ったのです
00:43
"That's terrible. That doesn't look anything like a horse."
「なによそれ?
全然 馬に見えない」
00:46
And Brian's shoulders sank.
ブライアンは肩を落としました
00:50
And he wadded up the clay horse and he threw it back in the bin.
そして粘土の馬を丸めると
粘土入れに投げ戻しました
00:53
I never saw Brian do a project like that ever again.
その後ブライアンが そのような創作に
手を出すことは 二度とありませんでした
00:59
And I wonder how often that happens.
こんなことが どれほど頻繁に
起きていることかと思います
01:02
It seems like when I tell that story of Brian to my class,
ブライアンの話をすると
多くの学生が授業の後にやってきて
01:06
a lot of them want to come up after class
似たような体験をしたと言います
01:10
and tell me about their similar experience,
01:11
how a teacher shut them down
先生にやる気をなくさせられたとか
01:13
or how a student was particularly cruel to them.
他の生徒から
残酷な仕打ちを受けたと
01:15
And some opt out thinking of themselves
そして そのために
自分にはクリエイティブな才能はないと
諦めてしまう人がたくさんいます
01:19
as creative at that point.
01:21
And I see that opting out that happens in childhood,
子ども時代にそんなことがあって
そのまま心に染みついてしまい
01:26
and it moves in and becomes more ingrained,
01:28
even by the time you get to adult life.
大人になっても
そう思い続けるのです
01:31
So we see a lot of this.
そういったことを
よく目にします
01:36
When we have a workshop
ワークショップを開いたり
01:38
or when we have clients in to work with us side-by-side,
クライアントと
一緒に取り組んでいて
01:40
eventually we get to the point in the process
何か漠然とした
型から外れた状況に
01:43
that's fuzzy or unconventional.
なることがあります
すると そこにいたお偉方の誰かが
携帯電話をさっと取り出し
01:46
And eventually these bigshot executives whip out their Blackberries
01:50
and they say they have to make really important phone calls,
すごく大事な用件が
あるんだと言って
01:53
and they head for the exits.
部屋を出ていこうとします
01:54
And they're just so uncomfortable.
あまりに居心地が悪かったのです
追いかけていって
どうしたのかと聞いてみると
01:58
When we track them down and ask them what's going on,
02:00
they say something like, "I'm just not the creative type."
「自分は クリエイティブなタイプじゃないんだ」
みたいなことを言います
そんなことないのは
分かっています
02:04
But we know that's not true.
正しいやり方に則って
やり通せば
02:06
If they stick with the process, if they stick with it,
すばらしいものを作り上げ
02:09
they end up doing amazing things
02:11
and they surprise themselves just how innovative
自分や自分のチームが
いかに革新的であるか
02:14
they and their teams really are.
自らを驚かせることになるはずです
02:16
So I've been looking at this fear of judgment that we have.
みんなが抱えている この評価への恐れを
私はずっと見てきました
02:22
That you don't do things, you're afraid you're going to be judged.
評価されることを恐れるあまり
やること自体を止めてしまうのです
02:26
If you don't say the right creative thing, you're going to be judged.
気の利いたクリエイティブなことを
言えないと 軽蔑されてしまうと—
02:30
And I had a major breakthrough
心理学者のアルバート・
バンデューラに出会って
02:32
when I met the psychologist Albert Bandura.
私は大きな展開を迎えました
02:36
I don't know if you know Albert Bandura.
みなさんバンデューラを
ご存じかわかりませんが
02:38
But if you go to Wikipedia,
Wikipedia を見ると
02:40
it says that he's the fourth most important psychologist in history --
彼が歴史上4番目に重要な
心理学者だと書いてあります
02:43
like Freud, Skinner, somebody and Bandura.
フロイト スキナー
誰かと バンデューラです (笑)
02:48
Bandura's 86 and he still works at Stanford.
バンデューラは86歳ですが
今でも スタンフォードで研究しています
02:52
And he's just a lovely guy.
すごくいい人ですよ
02:54
And so I went to see him
会いに行ったんです
02:57
because he has just worked on phobias for a long time,
私がとても興味を持っている
恐怖症について
彼が長年研究していたからです
03:01
which I'm very interested in.
彼はある手法を
開発していました
03:03
He had developed this way, this kind of methodology,
ごく短時間に
人の恐怖症を治せる方法です
03:09
that ended up curing people in a very short amount of time.
03:12
In four hours he had a huge cure rate of people who had phobias.
ほんの4時間で 恐怖症を
とても高い確率で 治せるんです
ヘビの話をしました
03:17
And we talked about snakes. I don't know why we talked about snakes.
なんでヘビの話になったのか
分かりませんが
03:19
We talked about snakes and fear of snakes as a phobia.
ヘビとヘビに対する
恐怖の話をしたんです
03:24
And it was really enjoyable, really interesting.
すごく楽しくて 面白い話でした
03:27
He told me that he'd invite the test subject in,
彼は被験者を呼ぶと
「隣の部屋にヘビがいます これから
そこに行きましょう」と言うんです
03:33
and he'd say, "You know, there's a snake in the next room
「隣の部屋にヘビがいます これから
そこに行きましょう」と言うんです
03:36
and we're going to go in there."
03:38
To which, he reported, most of them replied,
たいていの人は
「とんでもない 行きませんよ
たいていの人は
「とんでもない 行きませんよ
03:41
"Hell no, I'm not going in there,
03:43
certainly if there's a snake in there."
ヘビがいるんだったら絶対に」
と答えます
03:45
But Bandura has a step-by-step process that was super successful.
しかしバンデューラは段階的な方法で
高い成功率を 誇っています
まずはマジックミラー越しに
03:50
So he'd take people to this two-way mirror
ヘビのいる部屋を覗いて
03:53
looking into the room where the snake was,
それに慣れさせます
03:55
and he'd get them comfortable with that.
03:58
And then through a series of steps,
それからいくつもの段階を経て
03:59
he'd move them and they'd be standing in the doorway with the door open
開いたドアの前に立って
中を見させます
04:03
and they'd be looking in there.
04:05
And he'd get them comfortable with that.
それにも慣れたら
さらにいくつもの
小さなステップを踏んで
04:07
And then many more steps later, baby steps,
04:09
they'd be in the room, they'd have a leather glove like a welder's glove on,
部屋に入り 溶接工が
はめるような革手袋をつけて
04:13
and they'd eventually touch the snake.
ヘビに触れさせます
04:16
And when they touched the snake everything was fine. They were cured.
ヘビに触れたら
万事OKです
恐怖は克服されます
04:22
In fact, everything was better than fine.
そればかりか
これまでずっとヘビを
恐れていた人たちが
04:24
These people who had life-long fears of snakes
「このヘビ なんてきれいなんだろう」
などと言い
04:27
were saying things like,
04:29
"Look how beautiful that snake is."
「このヘビ なんてきれいなんだろう」
などと言い
04:32
And they were holding it in their laps.
膝の上に乗せたりするのです
04:35
Bandura calls this process "guided mastery."
バンデューラはこのプロセスを
「案内付きの習得」と呼んでいます
04:40
I love that term: guided mastery.
好きな言葉です
「案内付きの習得」
04:43
And something else happened,
それから 別の効果もあります
この過程を経て
ヘビに触った人たちは
04:46
these people who went through the process and touched the snake
04:49
ended up having less anxiety about other things in their lives.
他のことについても
あまり 不安を持たないようになるのです
04:52
They tried harder, they persevered longer,
より熱心に粘り強く取り組み
04:57
and they were more resilient in the face of failure.
失敗に直面しても
簡単にへこたれないようになります
04:59
They just gained a new confidence.
新たな自信を手にしたのです
05:03
And Bandura calls that confidence self-efficacy --
バンデューラはこれを
「自己効力感」と呼んでいます
05:09
the sense that you can change the world
「身の回りの世界は変えられる」
05:11
and that you can attain what you set out to do.
「やろうと思ったことは達成できる」
という感覚です
05:15
Well meeting Bandura was really cathartic for me
バンデューラと出会って
私はカタルシスを覚えました
05:19
because I realized that this famous scientist
この高名な心理学者は
05:22
had documented and scientifically validated
私が30年間
ずっと目にしてきたことを
05:25
something that we've seen happen for the last 30 years.
記録し 科学的に
証明していたからです
05:29
That we could take people who had the fear that they weren't creative,
自分はクリエイティブじゃないという
恐れを持った人たちが
05:33
and we could take them through a series of steps,
段階的なステップを踏んで
小さな成功を
積み重ねることで
05:36
kind of like a series of small successes,
05:39
and they turn fear into familiarity, and they surprise themselves.
恐れていたものに馴染み
自分で驚くほど変わるのです
05:44
That transformation is amazing.
この変化は
目を見張るばかりです
05:46
We see it at the d.school all the time.
そういうことを d.schoolで
いつも目にしています
05:49
People from all different kinds of disciplines,
様々な分野に
05:51
they think of themselves as only analytical.
自分はもっぱら分析的な人間だと
思っている人たちがいます
05:54
And they come in and they go through the process, our process,
そんな人たちが
このプロセスを経ると
自信を築き 自分を違ったように
捉えるようになります
05:58
they build confidence and now they think of themselves differently.
06:01
And they're totally emotionally excited
そして自分が
クリエイティブな人間だと思えることに
06:04
about the fact that they walk around
すっかり夢中になります
06:06
thinking of themselves as a creative person.
06:08
So I thought one of the things I'd do today
今日はみなさんに
06:12
is take you through and show you what this journey looks like.
その道のりが どんなものか
お話ししたいと考えていました
06:15
To me, that journey looks like Doug Dietz.
ちょうどダグ・ディーツが
辿ったような道のりです
06:20
Doug Dietz is a technical person.
ダグは技術的な人間です
06:24
He designs medical imaging equipment,
大型医用画像装置の
設計をしています
06:27
large medical imaging equipment.
06:28
He's worked for GE, and he's had a fantastic career.
GEで働いている
素晴らしい業績の持ち主です
06:32
But at one point he had a moment of crisis.
しかしある時
危機に直面しました
病院で 自分のMRI 装置が
06:35
He was in the hospital looking at one of his MRI machines in use
使われているところを見たのです
06:39
when he saw a young family.
06:41
There was a little girl,
小さな女の子が
06:43
and that little girl was crying and was terrified.
怖がって泣いていました
06:46
And Doug was really disappointed to learn
小児患者の8割は
MRIを受けさせる時に 鎮静剤を
使わなければならないと知って
06:49
that nearly 80 percent of the pediatric patients in this hospital
06:54
had to be sedated in order to deal with his MRI machine.
彼はショックを受けました
06:58
And this was really disappointing to Doug,
自分の仕事を誇りに
していた彼にとって
07:01
because before this time he was proud of what he did.
それはすごく
がっかりすることだったのです
自分の機械は人の命を救っていると
思っていたわけですから
07:05
He was saving lives with this machine.
07:07
But it really hurt him to see the fear
それが子どもたちに与えている
恐怖を目にして
07:09
that this machine caused in kids.
心を痛めたのです
その頃 彼はスタンフォードの
d.school で授業を受けていて
07:12
About that time he was at the d.school at Stanford taking classes.
デザイン思考 共感
07:16
He was learning about our process
07:18
about design thinking, about empathy,
反復的試作といった
過程について
07:20
about iterative prototyping.
学んでいました
07:23
And he would take this new knowledge
ダグはその新しい知識を使って
すごいことをしました
07:25
and do something quite extraordinary.
ダグはその新しい知識を使って
すごいことをしました
07:27
He would redesign the entire experience of being scanned.
スキャンを受ける体験全体を
すっかり変えてしまったのです
彼の作り出したものがこれです
07:33
And this is what he came up with.
07:35
He turned it into an adventure for the kids.
子どものための冒険に
変えたのです
07:38
He painted the walls and he painted the machine,
装置や部屋の壁いっぱいに
絵を描き
07:40
and he got the operators retrained by people who know kids,
オペレーターも
子ども博物館の職員など
07:43
like children's museum people.
子どもをよく知っている人たちに
手ほどきしてもらいました
07:45
And now when the kid comes, it's an experience.
子どもたちが来たら
船の騒音や振動の話をします
07:50
And they talk to them about the noise and the movement of the ship.
07:53
And when they come, they say,
そして言うのです
07:55
"Okay, you're going to go into the pirate ship,
「さあみんな
これから海賊船に乗るからね
07:57
but be very still because we don't want the pirates to find you."
でも じっとしていて
海賊に見つからないように」
08:00
And the results were super dramatic.
結果は劇的なものでした
08:04
So from something like 80 percent of the kids needing to be sedated,
8割の子どもたちに鎮静剤が
必要だったのが
08:09
to something like 10 percent of the kids needing to be sedated.
1割に減りました
08:13
And the hospital and GE were happy too.
病院やGEも大喜びです
08:15
Because you didn't have to call the anesthesiologist all the time,
何度も麻酔医を
呼ぶ必要もなくなり
一日にずっと多くの子どもを
診断できるようになりました
08:18
they could put more kids through the machine in a day.
08:20
So the quantitative results were great.
量的に 大きな成果です
08:23
But Doug's results that he cared about were much more qualitative.
しかしダグが より気にかけていたのは
質的な面です
女の子がスキャンから
出てくるのを
08:27
He was with one of the mothers
08:29
waiting for her child to come out of the scan.
母親と一緒に
待っていたときのことです
08:31
And when the little girl came out of her scan,
出てきた女の子が 母親に
駆け寄って言ったのです
08:34
she ran up to her mother and said,
「ママ 明日もここに来ていいよね?」
08:36
"Mommy, can we come back tomorrow?"
08:38
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:40
And so I've heard Doug tell the story many times,
ダグがこの個人的変容と
それから生まれた
革新的なデザインの話をするのを
08:44
of his personal transformation
08:46
and the breakthrough design that happened from it,
何度となく聞きましたが
08:50
but I've never really seen him tell the story of the little girl
この小さな女の子のくだりで
08:52
without a tear in his eye.
彼は いつも涙を浮かべています
ダグの話で病院が出てきましたが
08:55
Doug's story takes place in a hospital.
08:57
I know a thing or two about hospitals.
病院については
私も少しばかり知っています
09:00
A few years ago I felt a lump on the side of my neck,
数年前 首の横にしこりを感じて
09:04
and it was my turn in the MRI machine.
MRI を受けることになりました
09:08
It was cancer. It was the bad kind.
腫瘍でした
それも悪性の
09:11
I was told I had a 40 percent chance of survival.
生存率は40%だと
言われました
09:15
So while you're sitting around with the other patients in your pajamas
パジャマを着て 他の患者たちと
一緒に待機していました
09:19
and everybody's pale and thin
みんな痩せて
青白い顔をしています
09:21
and you're waiting for your turn to get the gamma rays,
ガンマ線照射を
受ける順番を待ちながら
09:26
you think of a lot of things.
いろんなことを思いました
09:27
Mostly you think about, Am I going to survive?
たいていは「生き延びられるだろうか?」
ということです
09:29
And I thought a lot about,
それから 自分がいなくなったら
09:32
What was my daughter's life going to be like without me?
娘はどうなるだろうと思いました
09:36
But you think about other things.
それからこんなことも考えました
09:39
I thought a lot about, What was I put on Earth to do?
自分が地上に残したものは何だろう?
09:43
What was my calling? What should I do?
自分の使命は何なのだろう?
私は何をすべきなのだろう?
09:45
And I was lucky because I had lots of options.
幸い私には
たくさんの選択肢がありました
09:48
We'd been working in health and wellness,
IDEOでは医療や健康 学校教育
09:50
and K through 12, and the Developing World.
発展途上国のためのこともしています
09:53
And so there were lots of projects that I could work on.
だから取り組めるプロジェクトは
たくさんありました
09:54
But I decided and I committed to at this point
しかし この時私は
自分が一番やりたいことに
09:57
to the thing I most wanted to do --
打ち込もうと決めたのです
09:59
was to help as many people as possible
できるだけ多くの人が
クリエイティビティに対する自信を
10:04
regain the creative confidence they lost along their way.
取り戻せるよう
手助けするということです
10:08
And if I was going to survive, that's what I wanted to do.
生き延びることができたら
そういうことをしたいと 思いました
10:10
I survived, just so you know.
ちなみに言っておきますと
私は生き延びることができました
10:13
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:15
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:20
I really believe
人々が
10:23
that when people gain this confidence --
この自信を取り戻したとき
10:25
and we see it all the time at the d.school and at IDEO --
それを d.schoolやIDEOで
いつも目にしていますが—
10:28
they actually start working on the things that are really important in their lives.
彼らは自分の人生で本当に大切なことに
取り組むようになります
10:33
We see people quit what they're doing and go in new directions.
それまでやっていたことをやめて
新しい方向に踏み出すのです
10:37
We see them come up with more interesting, and just more, ideas
より興味深い より多くの
アイデアを考え出すことで
10:43
so they can choose from better ideas.
より良いアイデアの中から
選べるようになるからです
10:46
And they just make better decisions.
そして より良い決断を下すのです
10:48
So I know at TED you're supposed to have a change-the-world kind of thing.
TEDでは みんな
世界を変えようとしていて
10:52
Everybody has a change-the-world thing.
世界を変えるものを
持っていますが
10:54
If there is one for me, this is it. To help this happen.
私にそれがあるとしたら
この変化を起こす手助けをすることです
10:58
So I hope you'll join me on my quest --
思想的リーダーである皆さんにも
11:01
you as thought leaders.
この試みに加わって
いただけたらと思います
11:03
It would be really great if you didn't let people divide the world
生まれつきクリエイティブな人と
11:07
into the creatives and the non-creatives, like it's some God-given thing,
そうでない人がいるという
考えを止め
11:11
and to have people realize that they're naturally creative.
みんなに天賦のクリエイティビティが
あるのだと 気付いてほしいのです
11:15
And those natural people should let their ideas fly.
そうすれば彼らはアイデアを
自由に飛翔させるようになります
11:19
That they should achieve what Bandura calls self-efficacy,
バンデューラの言う自己効力感を
みんなが手にすべきなのです
11:25
that you can do what you set out to do,
やろうと思ったことは実現できる
11:28
and that you can reach a place of creative confidence
自分のクリエイティビティに自信を持って
11:31
and touch the snake.
そしてヘビに触るのです
11:33
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
11:34
(Applause)
(拍手)
Translator:Yasushi Aoki
Reviewer:Naomi Nakayama

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David Kelley - Designer, educator
David Kelley’s company IDEO helped create many icons of the digital generation -- but what matters even more to him is unlocking the creative potential of people and organizations to innovate routinely.

Why you should listen

As founder of legendary design firm IDEO, David Kelley built the company that created many icons of the digital generation -- the first mouse, the first Treo, the thumbs up/thumbs down button on your Tivo's remote control, to name a few. But what matters even more to him is unlocking the creative potential of people and organizations so they can innovate routinely.

David Kelley's most enduring contributions to the field of design are a methodology and culture of innovation. More recently, he led the creation of the groundbreaking d.school at Stanford, the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, where students from the business, engineering, medicine, law, and other diverse disciplines develop the capacity to solve complex problems collaboratively and creatively.

Kelley was working (unhappily) as an electrical engineer when he heard about Stanford's cross-disciplinary Joint Program in Design, which merged engineering and art. What he learned there -- a human-centered, team-based approach to tackling sticky problems through design -- propelled his professional life as a "design thinker."

In 1978, he co-founded the design firm that ultimately became IDEO, now emulated worldwide for its innovative, user-centered approach to design. IDEO works with a range of clients -- from food and beverage conglomerates to high tech startups, hospitals to universities, and today even governments -- conceiving breakthrough innovations ranging from a life-saving portable defibrillator to a new kind of residence for wounded warriors, and helping organizations build their own innovation culture.

Today, David serves as chair of IDEO and is the Donald W. Whittier Professor at Stanford, where he has taught for more than 25 years. Preparing the design thinkers of tomorrow earned David the Sir Misha Black Medal for his “distinguished contribution to design education.” He has also won the Edison Achievement Award for Innovation, as well as the Chrysler Design Award and National Design Award in Product Design from the Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, and he is a member of the National Academy of Engineers.

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