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TEDGlobal 2007

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala: Aid versus trade

ヌゴジ・オコンジョイウェアラ:援助対貿易

June 7, 2007

ナイジェリアのヌゴジ・オコンジョイウェアラ前財務相は、2007年TEDグローバルの最終日、援助対貿易について熱心に討論した4日間を総括し、さらに、個人的な話を紹介しながら、この議題に関する責務を説明した。

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala - Economist
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is a respected global economist. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
It's very, very difficult
非常に難しいことですが
00:25
to speak at the end of a conference like this,
会議の最終日の総括をしたいと思います
00:30
because everyone has spoken. Everything has been said.
全員が話し終わったところで
00:33
So I thought that what may be useful is to remind us
大切なことは
00:36
of some of the things that have gone on here,
ここで話されたことを心にとめ
00:40
and then maybe offer some ideas which we can take away,
持ち帰った考えを提案し
00:43
and take forward and work on.
さらに それを実行することです
00:46
That's what I'd like to try and do.
私もそうしようと思います
00:51
We came here saying we want to talk about "Africa: the Next Chapter."
「アフリカの新たな章」について話しに来ました
00:52
But we are talking about "Africa: the Next Chapter"
それはなぜかと言うと
00:57
because we are looking at the old and the present chapter -- that we're looking at,
悪いことに私達は過去や現在ばかりを
00:59
and saying it's not such a good thing.
見ているからです
01:05
The picture I showed you before, and this picture, of drought, death and disease
これは私達がいつも目にしている
01:08
is what we usually see.
干ばつ 死 病気の写真ですが
01:11
What we want to look at is "Africa: the Next Chapter,"
「アフリカの次章」で目にするのは
01:15
and that's this: a healthy, smiling, beautiful African.
健康で 笑顔の 美しいアフリカ人です
01:19
And I think it's worth remembering what we've heard
今日までに聞いたことを
01:23
through the conference right from the first day,
覚えておいて下さい
01:26
where I heard that all the important statistics have been given --
これはとても重要な
01:28
about where we are now,
アフリカは現在どこに位置し
01:31
about how the continent is doing much better.
どうしたらより良くなるかの統計です
01:34
And the importance of that is that we have a platform to build on.
アフリカには基盤はあります
01:38
So I'm not going to spend too much time --
今は詳しく触れずに
01:41
just to show you, refresh your memories
紹介だけにしておきます
01:44
that we are here for "Africa: the Next Chapter" because for the first time
実際にアフリカは
01:47
there really is a platform to build on.
しっかりした基盤があります
01:49
We really do have it going right
これを良い方に向けるべきです
01:53
that the continent is growing at rates that people had thought would not happen.
アフリカは急成長していて
01:56
After decades of 2 percent, we are now at 5 percent,
現在は5%の成長率です
02:00
and it's going to -- projected -- 6 and 7 percent even.
今後は6%から7%の予想です
02:03
And inflation has come down.
インフレは落ち着きました
02:07
External debt -- something that I can tell you a long story about
私が働いた国では
02:11
because I personally worked on one of the biggest debts on the continent --
巨額の対外債務を抱えていましたが
02:13
has come down dramatically.
現在は債務も激減し
02:17
You know, as you can see,
500億ドルから
02:20
from almost 50 billion down to about 12 or 13 billion.
120から130億ドルになったのです
02:22
Now this is a huge achievement.
これは大成功です
02:25
You know, we've built up reserves. Why is that important?
また 準備金の増加も大切です
02:28
It's because it shows off our economies, shows off our currencies
経済や通貨の強さを示し
02:32
and gives a platform on which people can plan and build, including businesses.
ビジネスを計画 構築する基盤が得られます
02:35
We've also seen some evidence that all this is making a difference
変化しつつあることの証拠として
02:40
because private investment flows have increased.
民間投資が増加しています
02:44
I want to remind you again --
繰り返しますが
02:47
I know you saw these statistics before --
統計では 約60億だった投資が
02:49
from almost 6 billion we are now at about 18 billion.
現在は約180億です
02:52
In 2005, remittances -- I just took one country, Nigeria
2005年はナイジェリアでも
02:55
skyrocketing -- skyrocketing is too dramatic,
海外からの送金額が驚くほどの勢いで
02:58
but increasing dramatically.
急激に増加しつつあります
03:03
And in many other countries this is happening.
他の国も同じです
03:06
Why is this important? Because it shows confidence.
この現象の意義は
03:08
People are now confident to bring --
外国で暮らす人々が安心して
03:10
if your people in the diaspora bring their money back,
出身国へ送金するなら
03:13
it shows other people that, look,
他の人々にとって
03:16
there is emerging confidence in your country.
国への信用が生まれ
03:18
And instead of an outflow, you are now getting a net inflow.
純流入につながります
03:21
Now, why is all this important, to have to go really fast?
今重要なことは
03:24
It's important that we build this platform,
急がず 基盤を構築することです
03:26
that we have the president, Kikwete, and others of our leaders who are saying,
大統領と他の指導者たちが
03:29
"Look, we must do something different."
別のことをして
03:32
Because we are confronted with a challenge.
解決したいのは
03:34
62 percent of our population is below the age of 24.
国民の62%が24歳以下という事実です
03:36
What does this mean?
ここで問題になるのは
03:43
This means that we have to focus on how our youth
若い人々をどのように
03:46
are going to be engaged in productive endeavor in their lives.
生産活動に就かせるか
03:49
You have to focus on how to create jobs,
雇用や健康や教育を
03:52
make sure they don't fall into disease, and that they get an education.
どう保証するかです
03:55
But most of all that they are productively engaged in life,
生産的な生活のための
03:57
and that they are creating the kind of productive environment
生産環境を構築することは
04:00
in our countries that will make things happen.
将来的には可能でしょう
04:03
And to support this, I just recently --
政府の仕事を離れた私は
04:07
one of the things I've done since leaving government
世論調査の
04:10
is to start an opinion research organization in Nigeria.
組織を設立しました
04:12
Most of our countries don't even have any opinion research.
アフリカの国では 世論調査も
04:14
People don't have voice.
国民の発言権もなく
04:18
There is no way you can know what people want.
民意が分かりません
04:20
One of the things we asked them recently was what's their top issue.
国民に尋ねると
04:22
Like in every other country where this has been done,
調査した国はどこでも同じで
04:24
jobs is the top issue.
仕事が最大の問題です
04:27
I want to leave this up here and come back to it.
これについては後で述べます
04:31
But before I get to this slide, I just wanted to run you through this.
ここでちょっと考えて欲しいのですが
04:36
And to say that for me, the next stage of building this platform
構築した基盤が次の段階で
04:40
that now enables us to move forward --
前進を可能にすることを
04:43
and we mustn't make light of it.
忘れないで下さい
04:46
It was only 5, 6, 7 years ago
ほんの5年から7年前には
04:48
we couldn't even talk about the next chapter, because we were in the old chapter.
アフリカは古い章の中にいたのです
04:53
We were going nowhere.
進むこともできず
04:57
The economies were not growing.
経済は停滞していて
05:00
We were having negative per capita growth.
個人ではマイナス成長でした
05:02
The microeconomic framework and foundation for moving forward
マクロ経済の枠組も
05:06
was not even there.
存在しませんでした
05:08
So let's not forget that it's taken a lot to build this,
ですから私達は
05:12
including all those things that we tried to do in Nigeria that Dele referred to.
いろいろやりました
05:15
Creating our own program to solve problems, like fighting corruption,
問題解決プログラムの作成や
05:17
building institutions, stabilizing the micro economy.
マクロ経済制度の安定化などです
05:24
So now we have this platform we can build on.
今は基盤があります
05:29
And it brings us to the debate that has been going on here:
この前提で ここで議論してきたのは
05:33
aid versus private sector, aid versus trade, etc.
援助対民間部門や援助対貿易などについてです
05:37
And someone stood up to say that one of the frustrating things
ある人から「議論が単純すぎる」と
05:42
is that it's been a simplistic debate.
言われたのですが
05:47
And that's not what the debate should be about.
これを討論してどうするのでしょう
05:49
That's engaging in the wrong debate.
私達の討論は間違っていました
05:54
The issue here is how do we get a partnership that involves government donors,
政府や民間部門や
05:58
the private sector and ordinary African people
生活がかかっている一般の人々と
06:00
taking charge of their own lives?
どう協力していくのか
06:04
How do we combine all this?
その組み合わせが今の問題なのです
06:07
To move our continent forward, to do the things that need doing
アフリカの前進には
06:12
that I talked about -- getting young people employed.
想像力のある若者を
06:14
Getting the creative juices flowing on this continent,
雇用する必要があることは
06:17
much of what you have seen here.
今まで ここで見てきました
06:20
So I'm afraid we've been engaging a little bit in the wrong debate.
間違った議論から
06:23
We need to bring it back to say,
戻って 考えるべきは
06:26
what is the combination of all these factors
私達が望むものを作るのに
06:28
that is going to yield what we want? (Applause)
全ての要素をどう組み合わせるかです(拍手)
06:31
And I want to tell you something.
もうひとつ述べたいのは
06:35
For me, the issue about aid --
私にとっての援助の問題です
06:40
I don't think that Africans need to now go all the way over to the other side
アフリカは別の方向へ進む必要も
06:43
and feel bad about aid.
援助が悪いと感じる必要も
06:47
Africa has been giving the other countries aid.
ありません
06:50
Mo Ibrahim said at a debate we were at that
ある人に「援助するアフリカになる」と
06:53
he dreams one day when Africa will be giving aid.
言われたとき 私は
06:58
And I said, "Mo, you're right. We have -- no, but we've already been doing it!
「すでにそうです」と答えました
07:00
The U.K. and the U.S. could not have been built today without Africa's aid."
「アフリカの援助なしに 今の英米はありません」
07:03
(Applause)
(拍手)
07:09
It is all the resources that were taken from Africa,
アフリカの資源や人間が
07:17
including human, that built these countries today!
現在の国を構築したのです!
07:20
So when they try to give back, we shouldn't be on the defensive.
お返しをしてくれるなら 素直に受けましょう
07:24
The issue is not that.
問題になるのは
07:30
The issue is how are we using what has been given back.
返されたものの使い方です
07:33
How are we using it?
私達はどう使っているのか
07:37
Is it being directed effectively?
直接 効果的でしょうか?
07:40
I want to tell you a little story.
援助を受けるかではなく
07:45
Why I don't mind if we get aid, but we use it well.
有効利用できるかが問題だと感じる理由があります
07:48
From 1967 to '70, Nigeria fought a war -- the Nigeria-Biafra war.
1967年から70年
07:57
And in the middle of that war, I was 14 years old.
ナイジェリアは戦争中で
08:00
We spent much of our time with my mother cooking.
私は料理担当でした
08:04
For the army -- my father joined the army as a brigadier -- the Biafran army.
父はビアフラ軍に入隊し
08:06
We were on the Biafran side.
准将をしていました
08:09
And we were down to eating one meal a day, running from place to place,
一日一食で 次から次へ
08:11
but wherever we could help we did.
場所を移動しました
08:14
At a certain point in time, in 1969, things were really bad.
1969年のある日 情勢がとても悪化し
08:18
We were down to almost nothing in terms of a meal a day.
一日一食もできなくなって
08:22
People, children were dying of kwashiorkor.
人々が死にました
08:26
I'm sure some of you who are not so young
年輩のみなさんは
08:28
will remember those pictures.
記憶していると思いますが
08:30
Well, I was in the middle of it.
私はその中にいました
08:33
In the midst of all this, my mother fell ill with a stomach ailment for two or three days.
母が数日間 胃の病気になって
08:35
We thought she was going to die.
亡くなりかけました
08:39
My father was not there.
父は軍にいて
08:41
He was in the army.
いません
08:43
So I was the oldest person in the house.
家族では私が最年長でした
08:44
My sister fell very ill with malaria.
妹が重いマラリアにかかったとき
08:48
She was three years old and I was 15.
彼女は3歳 私は15歳でした
08:53
And she had such a high fever. We tried everything.
妹は高熱を出し
08:58
It didn't look like it was going to work.
看病しても 治る気配がありません
09:00
Until we heard that 10 kilometers away there was a doctor, who was
10キロ先の医者なら診察して
09:04
looking at people and giving them meds.
薬をもらえると聞いて
09:08
Now I put my sister on my back -- burning --
高熱の妹を背中に背負い
09:10
and I walked 10 kilometers with her strapped on my back.
10キロ歩きました
09:14
It was really hot. I was very hungry.
暑さと空腹で とてもつらかったけど
09:17
I was scared because I knew her life depended on my getting to this woman.
妹の命は私にかかっていました
09:22
We heard there was a woman doctor who was treating people.
治療のために
09:25
I walked 10 kilometers, putting one foot in front of the other.
10キロ歩きました
09:27
I got there and I saw huge crowds.
そこに着くと 大勢が
09:30
Almost a thousand people were there, trying to break down the door.
診療している教会のドアを
09:33
She was doing this in a church. How was I going to get in?
こじ開けようとしていたのです
09:36
I had to crawl in between the legs of these people
私は妹を背負ったまま
09:42
with my sister strapped on my back,
足の間をはって 窓の方へ
09:45
find a way to a window.
進むと
09:49
And while they were trying to break down the door,
ドアをこじ開けずに
09:50
I climbed in through the window, and jumped in.
窓から中に入りました
09:53
This woman told me it was in the nick of time.
医者は間一髪だと言いました
09:57
By the time we jumped into that hall, she was barely moving.
妹は ほとんど動きませんでした
10:00
She gave a shot of her chloroquine -- what I learned was the chloroquine then --
クロロキンの注射を打たれました
10:04
gave her some -- it must have been a re-hydration --
水分補給も必要でした
10:08
and some other therapies, and put us in a corner.
隅に行き数時間すると
10:11
In about two to three hours, she started to move.
妹の体が動きました
10:18
And then they toweled her down because she started sweating,
汗をかいていたので
10:23
which was a good sign.
私は妹の身体を拭いてあげました
10:26
And then my sister woke up.
すると妹は起き上がったのです
10:31
And about five or six hours later, she said we could go home.
5‐6時間後 もう平気だと言われ
10:35
I strapped her on my back.
妹を背負って家に帰りました
10:38
I walked the 10 kilometers back and it was the shortest walk I ever had.
今度は10キロの道も短く感じました
10:41
I was so happy -- (Applause) -- that my sister was alive!
妹が回復し(拍手)とても嬉しかった
10:45
Today she's 41 years old, a mother of three,
現在 妹は母親になり
10:52
and she's a physician saving other lives.
医者をしています
10:54
Why am I telling that? I'm telling you that because --
こういうことです
10:57
when it is you or your person involved --
あなたや家族が苦しんでいるのなら
10:59
you don't care where -- whether it's aid.
場所は関係ありません
11:05
You don't care what it is! (Applause)
援助の定義は関係ありません!(拍手)
11:10
You just want the person to be alive!
その人が生きることだけを望むのが援助です!
11:18
And now let me become less sentimental, and say that saving lives --
アフリカには援助によって
11:23
which some of the aid we get does on this continent --
救われる命があります
11:26
when you save the life of anyone, a farmer, a teacher, a mother,
そして誰かの命を救うのは
11:29
they are contributing productively into the economy.
生産性を上げます
11:32
And as an economist, we can also look at that side of the story.
経済学者として別の側面も見えます
11:34
These are people who are productive agents in the economy.
生産性向上のため
11:43
So if we save people from HIV/AIDS, if we save them from malaria,
エイズやマラリアの人を治療すれば
11:45
it means they can form the base of production for our economy.
経済基盤が形成できます
11:49
And by the same token --
しかし同様の状況を放置すれば
11:52
as someone said yesterday -- if we don't and they die,
病人は死亡し
11:56
their children will become a burden on the economy.
遺児が経済的負担になる
11:58
So even from an economic standpoint,
社会的で人道的立場でなくとも
12:00
if we leave the social and the humanitarian,
経済の立場からも
12:04
we need to save lives now.
命を守ることが必要です
12:06
So that's one of the reasons, from a personal experience, that I say
そして こうした人的資源を
12:09
let's channel these resources we get into something productive.
生産的なものに向けようと思うのです
12:12
However, I will also tell you that I'm one of those
しかし私は これが唯一の答えと
12:18
who doesn't believe that this is the sole answer.
思ってはいません
12:22
That's why I said the debate has to get more sophisticated.
高度な議論が必要です
12:25
You know, we have to use it well.
私達は援助を上手く使う必要があるのです
12:28
What has happened in Europe?
ヨーロッパで起こったことですが
12:34
Do you all know that Spain -- part of the EU --
EUの加盟国スペインは
12:38
got 10 billion dollars in aid from the rest of the EU?
他の加盟国から100億ドルの援助を受け
12:42
Resources that were transferred to them --
スペインはその資源を
12:46
and were the Spanish ashamed of this? No!
恥ずかしいとは考えなかった
12:50
The EU transferred 10 billion. Where did they use it?
どう使ったのでしょう?
12:53
Have you been to southern Spain lately? There are roads everywhere.
スペイン南部はどこでも道路があり
12:55
Infrastructure everywhere.
インフラが整っているので
13:00
It is on the back of this that the whole of southern Spain
南部全体で サービス業が
13:03
has developed into a services economy.
発展しました
13:05
Did you know that Ireland got 3 billion dollars in aid?
30億ドルの援助を受け
13:08
Ireland is one of the fastest-growing economies in the European Union today.
アイルランドは経済を発展させました
13:10
For which many people, even from other parts of the world,
世界中から多くの人々が
13:14
are going there to find jobs.
職を求め集まります
13:20
What did they do with the 3 billion dollars in aid?
援助の使い方は?
13:22
They used it to build an information superhighway,
情報ハイウエイを構築し
13:25
gain infrastructure that
情報技術革命に使うための
13:28
enables them to participate in the
インフラを
13:32
information technology revolution,
整備したのです
13:34
and to create jobs in their economy.
雇用も創出されました
13:36
They didn't say, "No, you know, we're not going to take this."
援助を受けたからです
13:39
Today, the European Union is busy transferring aid.
今もEUは援助をしています
13:41
My frustration is if they can build infrastructure in Spain --
もしもスペインで
13:44
which is roads, highways, other things that they can build --
インフラが構築できるなら
13:46
I say then, why do they refuse to use the same aid
なぜEUはアフリカを
13:50
to build the same infrastructure in our countries? (Applause)
援助しないのですか?(拍手)
13:52
When we ask them and tell them what we need,
私達から要求しなくとも
13:54
one of my worries today is that we have many foundations now.
援助の財団は多いです
14:05
Now we talk about the World Bank, IMF, and accountability, all that
世界銀行 IMF などや
14:07
and the EU.
EUもそうです
14:10
We also have private citizens now who have a lot of money --
多額のお金を所有している一般市民もいます
14:12
some of them in this audience, with private foundations.
ここにも おられますね
14:17
And one day, these foundations have so much money,
私的援助は公的援助を
14:19
they will overtake the official aid that is being given.
上回るほどです
14:22
But I fear -- and I'm very grateful to all of them
みなさんがアフリカでしていることに
14:25
for what they are trying to do on the continent --
感謝していますが
14:30
but I'm also worried. I wake up with a gnawing in my belly
心配で 胃が痛むこともあります
14:32
because I see a new set of aid entrepreneurs on the continent.
援助起業家である彼らは
14:39
And they're also going from country to country,
国から国へ渡り歩き
14:42
and many times trying to find what to do.
何度も すべきことを見つけようとしています
14:46
But I'm not really sure that their assistance
しかし私はその支援が
14:51
is also being channeled in the right way.
正しい方向か全く確信が持てません
14:54
And many of them are not really familiar with the continent.
大陸は投資先の
14:58
They are just discovering.
一つに過ぎず
15:00
And many times I don't see Africans working with them.
アフリカ人と働くことも
15:03
They are just going alone! (Applause)
していないようです(拍手)
15:06
And many times I get the impression that they are not really even interested
実際に投資企業家達は
15:09
in hearing from Africans who might know.
アフリカ人の話を聞こうとさえしません
15:11
They want to visit us,
私達から現地の事を知り
15:15
see what's happening on the ground and make a decision.
行動を決定します
15:18
And now I'm maybe being harsh.
手短にお話します
15:20
But I worry because this money is so important.
お金は重要です
15:22
Now, who are they accountable to?
投資家は私達に責任を果たすでしょうか?
15:25
Are we on their boards when they make decisions
資金の投資先の決定に
15:30
about where to channel money? Are we there?
私達は参加していますか?
15:32
Will we make the same mistake that we made before?
私達は過ちを繰り返すのでしょうか?
15:35
Have our presidents and our leaders -- everyone is talking about --
大統領や指導者達は
15:38
have they ever called these people together and said,
人々を集めて
15:40
"Look, your foundation and your foundation --
「あなたがたには資金という
15:42
you have so much money, we are grateful.
ありがたい基盤がある
15:45
Let's sit down and really tell you where the money should be channeled
資金をどこに援助すべきか
15:47
and where this aid should go."
教えよう」と
15:50
Have we done that? The answer is no.
言った事はありませんでした
15:53
And each one is making their own individual effort.
バラバラに援助しているから
15:58
And then 10 years from now, billions will again have gone into Africa,
また数10億が投資されても
16:01
and we would still have the same problems.
同じ問題を抱えてしまうでしょう
16:04
This is what gives us the hopeless image.
将来性がなければ
16:08
Our inability to take charge and say to all these people bringing their money,
人々に資金を持って集まれとは
16:11
"Sit down."
言えません
16:15
And we don't do it because there are so many of us. We don't coordinate.
支援者が多すぎて
16:17
We've not called the Bill Gates, and the Soros,
ビル ゲイツもソロスも呼んでいません
16:19
and everybody else who is helping and say,
支援者の一部に声をかける時はこういいます
16:25
"Sit down. Let's have a conference with you.
「ここで会合を開きましょう
16:30
As a continent, here are our priorities.
優先権は私達にあります
16:33
Here is where we want you to channel this money."
ここに資金を向けてください」
16:36
Each one should not be an entrepreneur
起業家になって
16:40
going out and finding what is best.
海外で投資先を見つける前に
16:42
We're not trying to stop them at all! But to help them help us better.
私達をよりよく支援して欲しいのです
16:45
And what is disappointing me is that we are not doing this.
実際はそうではありません
16:49
Ten years from now we will have the same story,
ですから10年後も
16:52
and we will be repeating the same things.
同じことを繰り返しているでしょう
16:54
So our problem right now is, how can we leverage
現在の問題は私達がいかにして
16:59
all this good will that is coming towards our way?
必要とする好意を活用するか?
17:04
How can we get government to combine properly
政府がどのように適切に
17:10
with these private foundations, with the international organizations,
私立財団や国際組織や
17:14
and with our private sector.
民間部門と協力するのかです
17:17
I firmly believe in that private sector thing too.
民間部門だけでも
17:20
But it cannot do it alone.
だめです
17:24
So there might be a few ideas we could think of that could work.
浮かんだアイディアを
17:26
They said this is about proliferating and sharing ideas.
普及させ共有しましょう
17:29
So why don't we think of using some of this aid?
なぜ援助を使用しようとしないのですか?
17:32
Well, why don't we first say to those helping us out,
インフラが必要だと
17:37
"Don't be shy about infrastructure.
言わないのでしょうか
17:40
That health that you're working on cannot be sustainable without infrastructure.
医療にはインフラが不可欠です
17:42
That education will work better
より効率的な教育には電気や鉄道が
17:49
if we've got electricity and railroads, and so on.
整備されている方が良いし
17:54
That agriculture will work better if there are railroads to get the goods to market.
農作物も市場に運べます
17:57
Don't be shy of it.
遠慮しないで
18:00
Invest some of your resources in that, too."
アフリカに投資してください
18:05
And then we can see that this is one combination
民間や国際的な資金を上手く調整し
18:08
of private, international, multilateral money,
民間部門とアフリカ人が
18:13
private sector and the African that we can put together as a partnership,
一つになり協力し合うことを
18:17
so that aid can be a facilitator.
促進させるのが援助です
18:20
That is all aid can be.
援助するだけでは
18:25
Aid cannot solve our problems, I'm firmly convinced about that.
問題を解決できませんが
18:28
But it can be catalytic. And if we fail to use it as catalytic,
そのきっかけとして利用すれば
18:30
we would have failed.
援助は成功するでしょう
18:34
One of the reasons why China is a bit popular with Africans now --
アフリカで中国人が
18:39
one of the reasons is not only just that, you know, these people are stupid
非常識ということ以上に 資源の採取で
18:42
and China is coming to take resources.
知られつつあるのは
18:47
It's because there's a little more leverage in terms of the Chinese.
行動力があるからです
18:50
If you tell them, "We need a road here,"
道路が欲しいと言えば
18:56
they will help you build it.
中国人が協力します
19:01
They don't shy away from infrastructure.
遠慮は無用
19:03
In fact, the Chinese minister of finance said to me,
中国財務相は私に
19:04
when I asked him what are we doing wrong in Nigeria.
ナイジェリアに必要な
19:06
He said, "There are two things you need only.
2つのことを教えました
19:08
Infrastructure, infrastructure, infrastructure and discipline.
「インフラの整備と規律
19:11
You are undisciplined." (Applause)
あなた方には規律がありません」(拍手)
19:14
And I repeat it for the continent.
アフリカ全土もインフラと
19:23
It's the same. We need infrastructure, infrastructure and discipline.
規律が必要です
19:27
So we can make a catalytic to help us provide some of that.
それにより援助が提供されます
19:28
Now I realize -- I'm not saying -- health and education --
また健康な生活と良い教育の
19:31
no, you can also provide that as well.
両方を提供できます
19:35
But I'm saying it's not either or.
援助が協力を促進する様子を
19:38
Let's see how aid can be a facilitator in partnership.
見て下さい
19:41
One idea.
これがひとつ
19:43
Second thing, for the private sector,
次に 民間部門は
19:46
people are afraid to take risks on the continent.
大陸でリスクを冒したがりません
19:49
Why can't some of this aid be used as a kind of guarantee mechanisms,
なぜ援助の一部を
19:53
to enable people to take risk?
リスクの保証としないのでしょう?
19:55
(Applause)
(拍手)
19:59
And finally, because they are both standing at my -- I'm out of time.
最後に この2つは
20:00
Am I out of time?
時間がないですか?
20:06
OK, so let me not forget my punchline.
最後のポイントです
20:09
One of the things I want everybody to collaborate on is
みんなに協力して欲しいのは
20:12
to support women, to create jobs. (Applause)
女性の仕事を創設することです(拍手)
20:15
A lot has been said here about women, I don't need to repeat it.
繰り返しますが
20:24
But there are people -- women -- creating jobs.
女性の仕事が必要です
20:26
And we know, studies have shown
2000年に世界銀行が
20:29
that when you put resources in the hand of the woman --
女性への投資を行った
20:31
in fact, there's an econometric study,
研究があります
20:34
the World Bank Review, done in 2000, showing that
これによると
20:36
transfers into the hands of women result
女性が資本を手にした方が
20:39
in healthier children, more for the household, more for the economy and all that.
家族も経済も健全化します
20:42
So I'm saying that one of the takeaways from here --
別に男性を軽んじては
20:47
I'm not saying the men are not important --
いません
20:50
obviously, if you leave the husbands out, what will they do?
夫と別れた女性は
20:51
They'll come back home and get disgruntled,
実家で不満を抱き
20:54
and it will result in difficulties we don't want.
苦労することになります
20:56
We don't want men beating their wives
仕事をしない女性を
21:00
because they don't have a job, and so on.
殴ってはいけません
21:02
But at the margin, we also -- I want to push this,
最後に強調したいのは
21:05
because the reason is the men automatically --
男性は職を得る際に
21:08
they get -- not automatically, but they tend to get more support.
支援が受けやすいのです
21:12
But I want you to realize that resources
しかし女性が資本を持つと
21:17
in the hands of African women is a powerful tool.
それは強力なツールとなります
21:20
There are people creating jobs.
例えば ルワンダの女性は園芸業で
21:24
Beatrice Gakuba has created 200 jobs from her flower business in Rwanda.
200の雇用を創設し
21:28
We have Ibukun Awosika in Nigeria, with the chair company.
ナイジェリアの家具の製造会社は
21:30
She wants to expand.
拡張のため
21:35
She needs another 20 million.
2000万が必要です
21:37
She will create another 100, 200 more jobs.
新しい仕事口もできます
21:39
So take away from here is how are you going to put together
どのようにして 女性の手に資金を
21:43
the resources to put money in the hands of women in the middle
向けたらいいでしょう
21:47
who are ready --
彼女達は経営者として事業を拡大し
21:49
business people who want to expand and create more jobs.
雇用を生み出します
21:53
And lastly, what are you going to do
最後に あなた方はこれから
21:56
to be part of this partnership of aid, government, private sector
援助パートナー 政府 民間部門
22:01
and the African as an individual?
アフリカ人に何をしますか
22:06
Thank you. (Applause)
ありがとうございました(拍手)
22:09
Translator:Eriko Kakimoto
Reviewer:Chieko Tamakawa

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Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala - Economist
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is a respected global economist.

Why you should listen

Okonjo-Iweala was the Finance Minister of Nigeria, Africa’s largest economy, from 2003 to 2006, and then briefly the country’s Foreign Affairs Minister, the first woman to hold either position. From 2011 to 2015 she was again named Minister of Finance and Coordinating Minister for the Economy of Nigeria. Between those terms, from 2007 to 2011, she was one of the managing director of the World Bank and a candidate to the organization’s presidency. She is now a senior advisor at financial advisory and asset management firm Lazard, and she chairs the Board of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. At the World Bank, she worked for change in Africa and assistance for low-income countries. As Finance Minister, she attacked corruption to make Nigeria more transparent and desirable for investment and jobs, an activism that attracted criticism from circles opposed to reform.

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