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TEDxBoston 2012

Caitria + Morgan O'Neill: How to step up in the face of disaster

ケイトリア&モーガン・オニール: これからの災害復興とは    

June 22, 2012

自然災害が起こると、短期間ですが被災地の復興支援のために、人々の関心が高まります。では誰がこれを管理していくのでしょう?20歳と24歳のオニール姉妹は、家族が住む町が大きな竜巻に見舞われた時、被災地の復興に向けて住人たちの指揮をとりました。今では自分たちが復興してきたノウハウを人々に広めて、防災活動に取り組んでいます。(TEDxBostonにて)

Morgan O'Neill - Disaster relief expert
Pursuing her PhD in atmospheric science did not prepare Morgan O'Neill for a freak tornado hitting her hometown. With her sister, she helped coordinate a local relief effort and is teaching other towns to do the same through the website Recovers.org. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Newscaster: There's a large path of destruction here in town.
大災害の爪痕が
町のいたるところに見られます
00:18
... hit here pulling trees from the ground, shattering windows,
木は倒れ 窓は割れ
00:21
taking the roofs off of homes.
屋根は飛ばされています
00:24
Caitria O'Neill: That was me
ケイトリア: 私が立っているのは
00:27
in front of our house in Monson, Massachusetts last June.
昨年6月のマサチューセッツ州
モンソンの自宅前です
00:29
After an EF3 tornado ripped straight through our town
EF3の強い竜巻が猛威を振るい
00:32
and took parts of our roof off,
屋根が破壊されました
00:36
I decided to stay in Massachusetts
私は大学院に行くのをやめ
00:38
instead of pursuing the master's program
マサチューセッツに留まることにしました
00:40
I had moved my boxes home that afternoon for.
実は 大学院へ行く準備のため
その日 実家に戻ったところでした
00:41
Morgan O'Neill: So, on June 1st we weren't disaster experts,
モーガン:6月1日 災害について
私たちは素人でしたが
00:44
but on June 3rd we started faking it.
3日には 専門家のように
振る舞い始めました
00:47
This experience changed our lives.
この経験が
私たちの人生を変えました
00:49
And now we're trying to change the experience.
今後はこのような経験自体を
変えたいんです
00:52
CO: So tornadoes don't happen in Massachusetts.
マサチューセッツでは
通常 竜巻は起こりません
00:54
And I was cleverly standing in the front yard
竜巻が丘を超えて
やって来た時
00:56
when one came over the hill.
私は家の外で見物していました
00:58
After a lamppost flew by, my family and I sprinted into the basement.
街灯が飛んでくるのを見て
家族と地下室に駆け込みました
01:00
Trees were thrown against the house, the windows exploded.
倒木が家にあたり
窓が破壊されました
01:03
When we finally got out the back door,
勝手口から外に出ると
01:06
transformers were burning in the street.
落ちた電柱のトランスから
炎が上がっていました
01:08
MO: So I was here in Boston.
私はボストンにいました
01:10
I'm a PhD student at MIT,
MIT (マサチューセッツ工科大学) の博士課程で
01:12
and I happen to study atmospheric science.
偶然にも大気科学を勉強しています
01:14
Actually it gets weirder.
もっと奇妙なのが
01:16
So I was in the museum of science at the time the tornado hit,
実家が竜巻に直撃された時
私は科学博物館にいて
01:18
playing with the tornado display.
竜巻の実験装置を見ていました
01:21
So I missed her call.
だから彼女からの着信に
気付きませんでした
01:23
So I get the call from Caitria, I hear the news,
ケイトリアの電話で
竜巻のことを知り
01:25
and I start tracking the radar online
新たなスーパーセルが
家の近くに発生していたので
01:27
to call the family back when another supercell was forming in their area.
追跡レーダーをオンにして
電話をかけ直しました
01:29
And I drove home late that night with batteries and ice.
私はその日の夜遅くに
バッテリーと氷を持って帰宅しました
01:32
We live across the street from an historic church
家の向かいの古い教会は
01:35
that had lost its very iconic steeple in the storm.
竜巻によって尖塔を失いましたが
01:37
It had become a community gathering place overnight.
一夜にして地域住民の
集まる場所となっていました
01:40
The town hall and the police department had also suffered direct hits,
市役所や警察署も被害に遭い
01:42
and so people wanting to help or needing information
住人たちは
助けや情報を求めて
01:45
went to the church.
教会へ行ったのです
01:48
CO: We walked up to the church because we heard that they had hot meals,
暖かい食事を求めて
私たちも教会へ行くと
01:49
but when we arrived we found problems.
そこで
ある問題に気付きました
01:52
There were a couple large, sweaty men with chainsaws
チェーンソーを持った
汗だくの男性が二人
01:54
standing in the center of the church,
教会の真ん中に立っていましたが
01:56
but nobody knew where to send them
誰も被害状況を把握できず
01:58
because no one knew the extent of the damage yet.
彼らをどこに送ったらいいのか
分からない状態でした
02:00
And as we watched, they became frustrated and left
見ていると
彼らは次第にイライラしてきて
02:02
to go find somebody to help on their own.
助けられる人を
自力で探しに出て行きました
02:04
MO: So we started organizing.
そこで まとめ役を始めました
02:06
Why? It had to be done. We found Pastor Bob
必要だったからです
牧師のボブに援助に対する
02:07
and offered to give the response some infrastructure.
インフラ整備を申し出て
02:11
And then armed with just two laptops and one AirCard,
そしてノートパソコン2台と
エアカード1枚で
02:13
we built a recovery machine.
復興支援機関を作りました
02:16
(Applause)
(拍手)
02:22
CO: That was a tornado,
当時の状況はこうでした
02:23
and everyone's heading to the church to drop things off and volunteer.
「寄付やボランティアをしに
みんな教会に集まっているわ」
02:24
MO: Everyone's donating clothing.
「洋服がたくさん寄付されているわね」
02:27
We should really inventory the donations that are piling up here.
「集まった物資の一覧表を作らなくちゃ」
02:29
CO: Yeah, and we need a hotline. Can you make a Google Voice number?
「ホットラインも必要よ
グーグルボイスの番号を作ってくれる?」
02:31
MO: Yeah, sure. And we need to tell people what not to bring.
「了解
いらない物も教えなくちゃね」
02:34
I'll make a Facebook account. Can you print flyers for the neighborhoods?
「私はフェイスブックページを作るわ
チラシを作ってくれる?」
02:36
CO: Yeah, but we don't even know what houses are accepting help at this point.
「でもどの家が
手伝ってくれるか分からない」
02:40
We need to canvas and send out volunteers.
「助けを募って
ボランティアも派遣しなきゃ」
02:42
MO: We need to tell people what not to bring.
「いらない物をちゃんと言ってね」
02:44
Hey, there's a news truck. I'll tell them.
「ねえ テレビ局の車よ
ちょっと話してくるわね」
02:46
CO: You got my number off the news?
「テレビで番号を知ったの?」
02:48
We don't need any more freezers.
「冷蔵庫はもういらないわ」
02:50
MO: The insurance won't cover it? You need a crew to tar your roof? CO: Six packs of juice boxes arriving in one hour?
「屋根には保険がきかないの?」
「1時間でジュースが届くのね?」
02:52
Together: Someone get me Post-its!
「ポストイットが足りないわよ!」
02:55
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:57
CO: And then the rest of the community figured out
そして住民たちは気付きました
02:58
that we had answers.
私たちに聞けば解決すると
03:00
MO: I can donate three water heaters,
「給湯器を3台寄付するけど―
03:01
but someone needs to come pick them up.
誰か取りに来てくれる?」
03:04
CO: My car is in my living room.
「私の車はリビングの中なの」
03:05
MO: My boyscout troop would like to rebuild 12 mailboxes.
「我々ボーイスカウトが
郵便受けを12台作るよ」
03:07
CO: The puppy's missing, and insurance just doesn't cover the chimneys.
「ワンちゃんは行方不明で
煙突には保険が使えないの」
03:10
MO: My church group of 50 would like housing and meals for a week
「家を修復する一週間
50人の教会メンバーが
03:13
while we repair properties.
宿とご飯を必要としています」
03:16
CO: You sent me to that place on Washington Street yesterday,
「昨日ワシントン通りまで行って―
03:18
and now I'm covered in poison ivy.
うるしにかぶれちゃったの」
03:20
So this is what filled our days.
これが当時の状況です
03:22
We had to learn how to answer questions quickly
質問に迅速に答え
03:25
and to solve problems in about a minute or less,
問題をどんどん
解決していく必要がありました
03:27
because otherwise something more urgent would come up,
さらに急を要する事が起こり
03:29
and it just wouldn't get done.
忘れられてしまうからです
03:32
MO: We didn't get our authority from the board of selectmen
市議会委員や
防災対策本部
03:33
or the emergency management director or the United Way.
またはユナイテッド・ウェイからの
指示を待たずに
03:35
We just started answering questions and making decisions
質問に答えたり
様々な決断を下し始めました
03:39
because someone, anyone, had to.
必要に迫られ
03:42
And why not me? I'm a campaign organizer.
やることにしたのです
選挙運動の経験もあるし
03:44
I'm good at Facebook.
それにフェイスブックが得意で
03:46
And there's two of me.
私たちは2人いますから
03:48
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:49
CO: The point is, if there's a flood or a fire or a hurricane,
重要なのは洪水や火事
またはハリケーンの時
03:50
you, or somebody like you,
誰かが立ち上がって
03:54
are going to step up and start organizing things.
復興のまとめ役となる
必要があることです
03:56
The other point is that it is hard.
もう一つ重要なのは
それが困難だということ
03:58
MO: Lying on the ground after another 17-hour day,
17時間労働の日を続け
1日の終わりに
04:00
Caitria and I would empty our pockets
ケイトリアとポケットから
04:04
and try to place dozens of scraps of paper into context --
何十枚ものメモを取り出し
状況にあてはめていきます
04:05
all bits of information that had to be remembered and matched
様々な情報を頭に入れ
組み合わせなければ
04:08
in order to help someone.
人は助けられません
04:11
After another day and a shower at the shelter,
避難所で何日か経ったある日
04:12
we realized it shouldn't be this hard.
もっと簡単にできるはずだと
気付いたのです
04:14
CO: In a country like ours
アメリカのような
04:17
where we breathe wi-fi,
Wi-Fiが普及している国で
04:18
leveraging technology for a faster recovery should be a no-brainer.
復興をスピードアップするために
技術を使わない手はありません
04:19
Systems like the ones that we were creating on the fly
この即興でつくっているような
システムが
04:23
could exist ahead of time.
事前に用意できるはずであり
04:26
And if some community member
災害時に住人の中から
04:27
is in this organizing position in every area after every disaster,
誰かが復興のまとめ役になるのなら
04:29
these tools should exist.
このようなツールがあるべきです
04:33
MO: So we decided to build them --
そこで「 復興キット」を
04:35
a recovery in a box,
作ることに決めました
04:38
something that could be deployed after every disaster
災害時に 現地の住人によって
04:39
by any local organizer.
スタートできるシステムです
04:41
CO: I decided to stay in the country,
私は国内に残ることにしました
04:43
give up the master's in Moscow
モスクワで修士号を取るのをあきらめ
04:44
and to work full-time to make this happen.
このアイデアの現実化に
集中することにしました
04:46
In the course of the past year,
この1年間で私たちは
04:48
we've become experts in the field of community-powered disaster recovery.
災害ボランティアの分野で
専門家になりました
04:50
And there are three main problems that we've observed
そこで気付いた問題点が
04:53
with the way things work currently.
主に3つあります
04:56
MO: The tools. Large aid organizations are exceptional
1つ目は”ツール”です
大きな支援団体は
04:58
at bringing massive resources to bear after a disaster,
たくさんの救援物資を
災害時に集めてくれます
05:01
but they often fulfill very specific missions
でも彼らのすることは
05:04
and then they leave.
とても偏っています
05:07
This leaves local residents to deal
被災地に届けられるのは
05:08
with the thousands of spontaneous volunteers, thousands of donations,
山のような救援物資と
未経験のボランティアたちで
05:10
and all with no training and no tools.
彼らにはツールもありません
05:13
So they use Post-its or Excel or Facebook.
彼らが使う
エクセルやフェイスブックでは
05:15
But none of these tools allow you to value high-priority information
写真やお見舞いの言葉に混ざった
優先度の高い情報を
05:18
amidst all of the photos and well wishes.
見出すことはできません
05:21
CO: The timing.
2つ目に”タイミング”
05:24
Disaster relief is essentially a backwards political campaign.
災害復興は
選挙活動の逆とも言えます
05:25
In a political campaign,
選挙運動では
05:29
you start with no interest and no capacity to turn that into action.
最初は関心も
行動を起こす能力もありません
05:30
You build both gradually
関心や能力は徐々に高まり
05:34
until a moment of peak mobilization at the time of the election.
選挙当日にピークに達します
05:35
In a disaster, however, you start with all of the interest
災害が起こると
あらゆる関心が集まるものの
05:38
and none of the capacity.
対処能力はゼロから始まります
05:41
And you've only got about seven days to capture
最初の7日間のうちに
05:42
50 percent of all of the Web searches that will ever be made
被災地救済の検索の半数が行なわれ
05:45
to help your area.
その後は減少していきます
05:48
Then some sporting event happens,
スポーツイベントでもあれば
05:49
and you've got only the resources that you've collected thus far
その先5年間 復興に必要な
リソースを
05:51
to meet the next five years of recovery needs.
それ以上集める事はできないのです
05:54
This is the slide for Katrina.
これはカトリーナのグラフ
05:57
This is the curve for Joplin.
これはジョプリンで
05:59
And this is the curve for the Dallas tornadoes in April
これは
4月にダラスで起きた
06:02
where we deployed software.
竜巻のグラフです
06:05
There's a gap here.
ここにギャップがあります
06:07
Affected households have to wait for the insurance adjuster to visit
被害を受けた世帯は
損害保険監査人の
06:08
before they can start accepting help on their properties.
審査が終わるまで
支援を待たなくてはいけません
06:12
And you've only got about four days of interest in Dallas.
ダラスのグラフでは
世間の関心は4日間だけです
06:14
MO: Data.
3つ目が”データ”
06:18
Data is inherently unsexy,
データは本質的に地味ですが
06:20
but it can jumpstart an area's recovery.
被災地域の復興を後押しします
06:22
FEMA and the state
FEMAと州は
06:23
will pay 85 percent of the cost of a federally declared disaster,
連邦政府が指定した
被災地域の復興費用の
06:25
leaving the town to pay last 15 percent of the bill.
85%を支給しますが
残りの15%は自治体の責任です
06:28
Now that expense can be huge,
この費用は莫大ですが
06:31
but if the town can mobilize X amount of volunteers for Y hours,
被災地域でX人のボランティアに
Y時間働いてもえば
06:33
the dollar value of that labor used
彼らを雇った場合に支払う金額を
06:37
goes toward the town's contribution.
自治体の払った金額と
することができます
06:39
But who knows that?
でもどう証明するか?
06:41
Now try to imagine the sinking feeling you get
もし2千人のボランティアを派遣しても
06:43
when you've just sent out 2,000 volunteers and you can't prove it.
それが証明できなかったら
どんなに気がめいるでしょう
06:46
CO: These are three problems with a common solution.
この3つの問題には
共通の解決策があります
06:49
If we can get the right tools at the right time
災害に立ち向かい
06:52
to the people who will inevitably step up
住人をまとめてくれる人たちが
06:55
and start putting their communities back together,
必要とする時に
必要とするツールを提供できれば
06:58
we can create new standards in disaster recovery.
災害復興の新基準を
作れるでしょう
06:59
MO: We needed canvasing tools, donations databasing,
支援を頼むツールと
寄付のデータベース管理
07:02
needs reporting, remote volunteer access,
報告やボランティアからのアクセス
07:06
all in an easy-to-use website.
これらを使いやすいウェブサイトに
まとめるのです
07:09
CO: And we needed help.
それには助けが必要でした
07:11
Alvin, our software engineer and cofounder, has built these tools.
ソフトウェア技師のアルビンが
ウェブサイトを立ち上げました
07:12
Chris and Bill have volunteered their time
クリスとビルは
運営とパートナーシップを
07:15
to use operations and partnerships.
引き受けてくれました
07:17
And we've been flying into disaster areas since this past January,
私たちはこの1月からずっと
様々な被災地を訪れ
07:19
setting up software, training residents
ソフトウェアをセットアップしたり
07:23
and licensing the software to areas that are preparing for disasters.
災害に備えている地域に
ソフトウェアのライセンスを提供してきました
07:25
MO: One of our first launches was after the Dallas tornadoes this past April.
最初にこれを実行したのは
去年の4月 ダラスの竜巻の後です
07:29
We flew into a town that had a static outdated website
被災地で目にしたのは
時代遅れのウェブサイトと
07:33
and a frenetic Facebook feed trying to structure the response.
フェイスブックへの
大量の書き込みでした
07:36
And we launched our platform.
そこで 私たちの
プラットフォームを立ち上げました
07:39
All of the interest came in the first four days,
災害後 4日間に
たくさんの関心が集まりました
07:40
but by the time they lost the news cycle,
でもニュースで下火になった頃
07:42
that's when the needs came in,
実際 援助の要請が始まりました
07:44
yet they had this massive resource of what people were able to give
でも大量の救援物資がすでに集まっていたので
07:46
and they've been able to meet the needs of their residents.
被災者のニーズに
対応できたのです
07:49
CO: So it's working, but it could be better.
うまくいくようですが
更に改善できます
07:51
Emergency preparedness is a big deal in disaster recovery
災害に備えることは
災害復旧にとても重要です
07:53
because it makes towns safer and more resilient.
そうすることで地域は
より安全で回復力を持ちます
07:57
Imagine if we could have these systems ready to go in a place
このようなシステムの準備が
災害前に整っているたら
08:00
before a disaster.
すばらしいですね
08:02
So that's what we're working on.
それが現在のゴールです
08:04
We're working on getting the software to places
私たちが開発したソフトウェアを
08:06
so people expect it, so people know how to use it
必要とされる場所に配置し
使い方を教えました
08:08
and so it can be filled ahead of time
復興に役立つ
細かい情報も
08:11
with that microinformation that drives recovery.
前もって入力できるようにしました
08:12
MO: It's not rocket science.
複雑なことではありません
08:15
These tools are obvious and people want them.
このようなツールは
当然あるべきで必要とされています
08:16
In our hometown, we trained a half-dozen residents
実家の町では5~6人に
このウェブツールの
08:19
to run these Web tools on their own.
使い方を教えました
08:21
Because Caitria and I live here in Boston.
私とケイトリアはボストンにいるからです
08:23
They took to it immediately,
すぐにシステムを気に入って
08:26
and now they are forces of nature.
すでにしっかりと根付いています
08:27
There are over three volunteer groups working almost every day,
去年の6月1日からほぼ毎日
働いてきた
08:29
and have been since June 1st of last year,
3組のボランティア団体は
08:31
to make sure that these residents get what they need and get back in their homes.
被災者に必要なものを届け
自宅に戻れるよう支援しています
08:34
They have hotlines and spreadsheets and data.
被災地にはホットラインも集計もデータもあります
08:37
CO: And that makes a difference.
そこに違いがあります
08:40
June 1st this year marked the one-year anniversary
今年の6月1日で
モンソン竜巻から
08:41
of the Monson tornado.
ちょうど1年です
08:44
And our community's never been more connected or more empowered.
住民たちは今までになく
繋がり 自信を持っています
08:46
We've been able to see the same transformation
同じような変化を
08:49
in Texas and in Alabama.
テキサスとアラバマでも見ました
08:51
Because it doesn't take Harvard or MIT
災害を乗り越えるために
08:53
to fly in and fix problems after a disaster,
必要なのは 一流大学の
研究者ではありません
08:55
it takes a local.
地域住民なのです
08:57
No matter how good an aid organization is at what they do,
いかに素晴らしい救援組織でも
08:59
they eventually have to go home.
永遠に被災地に留まるわけではありません
09:01
But if you give locals the tools,
でも地域住人にツールを与え
09:03
if you show them what they can do to recover,
災害復興に何ができるか伝えられれば
09:05
they become experts.
誰もが復興の専門家になれるのです
09:08
(Applause) MO: All right. Let's go.
(拍手) あなたも参加しましょう!
09:12
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:14
Translator:Yuko Masubuchi
Reviewer:Marika Taniguchi

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Caitria O'Neill - Disaster relief expert
When a freak tornado hit her Massachusetts hometown, Caitria O’Neill wasn't an expert in disaster relief recovery. But she learned quickly and is now passing her knowledge on through the website Recovers.org.

Why you should listen

Caitria O'Neill, then 20, had just graduated from college in the summer of 2011, and was preparing to begin a Master's program in Moscow. But on June 1, an EF3 tornado hit her hometown of Monson, Massachusetts. Caitria, along with her older sister Morgan, quickly took action. Working as lead volunteer coordinators, the two created a flexible framework for an "unofficial" community relief effort. By leveraging the short term spike in national interest, along with social media and database organization, Monson recorded more volunteer hours than any surrounding town -- hundreds more hours, in fact.

After this intense experience, Catria and Morgan have translated their system into organizing software for local coordinators, through the website Recovers.org. This “recovery in a box” can be rolled out in minutes, helping local relief organizers turn interest into action. Caitria serves as Chief Executive Officer.

Morgan O'Neill - Disaster relief expert
Pursuing her PhD in atmospheric science did not prepare Morgan O'Neill for a freak tornado hitting her hometown. With her sister, she helped coordinate a local relief effort and is teaching other towns to do the same through the website Recovers.org.

Why you should listen

Morgan O'Neill was in MIT's Museum of Science, playing with the tornado display, when she got a call informing her that a tornado was ripping through her hometown of Monson, Massachusetts. After driving home, Morgan -- alongside sister Caitria -- took the reins of the relief effort. Working as lead volunteer coordinators, the two created a flexible framework for an "unofficial" community response. By leveraging the short term spike in national interest, along with social media and database organization, Monson recorded more volunteer hours than any surrounding town -- hundreds more hours, in fact.

After this intense experience, Catria and Morgan have translated their system into organizing software for local coordinators, through the website Recovers.org.  This “recovery in a box” can be rolled out in minutes, helping local relief organizers turn interest into action. Morgan serves as Chief Operating Officer.

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