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TEDGlobal 2012

Julian Treasure: Why architects need to use their ears

ジュリアン・トレジャー 「なぜ建築家に耳が必要なのか?」

June 26, 2012

粗末な音響特性が原因で、就学児童は教師の話の半分を聞き落しています。また、入院患者は病院の騒音に絶えずストレスを感じて 睡眠障害に陥っています。 音の専門家ジュリアン・トレジャーは音響特性を考慮した”見えない建築術”に注目するようデザイナーに呼びかけます。

Julian Treasure - Sound consultant
Julian Treasure studies sound and advises businesses on how best to use it. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
It's time to start designing for our ears.
耳に配慮したデザインをはじめる時です
00:16
Architects and designers tend to focus
建築士やデザイナーは
00:20
exclusively on these.
見た目を重視してしまう傾向にあります
00:22
They use these to design with and they design for them,
視覚による視覚のための
設計をするからです
00:23
which is why we end up sitting in restaurants that look
だからこそ こんなに素敵なレストランでも
00:26
like this — (loud crowd noise) — and sound like this,
(ざわめき)
このように騒がしく
00:29
shouting from a foot away to try and be heard
食事相手とは
00:31
by our dinner companion,
大声で会話をすることになるのです
00:33
or why we get on airplanes -- (flight attendant announcements) -- which cost 200 million pounds,
また1機 約250億円の旅客機に乗っても
00:34
with somebody talking through an old-fashioned telephone handset
(乗務員のアナウンス)
アナウンスが 古い受話器を通して
00:38
on a cheap stereo system,
安物のスピーカーから聞こえてきて
00:41
making us jump out of our skins.
心臓が飛び出るほどゾッとします
00:43
We're designing environments that make us crazy. (Laughter)
人が設計する物が
人をいら立たせているのです (笑)
00:46
And it's not just our quality of life which suffers.
騒音は生活の質だけではなく
00:49
It's our health,
私達の健康や
00:52
our social behavior, and our productivity as well.
社会性 生産性をも害しています
00:53
How does this work? Well, two ways.
音が生活にどう影響しているのか?
2つあります
00:58
First of all, ambience. I have a whole TEDTalk about this.
1つは“環境”です
私は以前TEDで
00:59
Sound affects us physiologically, psychologically,
騒音が我々の生理や心理
認知や行動に
01:03
cognitively and behaviorally all the time.
影響を及ぼすことを
話しました
01:06
The sound around us is affecting us
人を取り囲む様々な“音”が
01:08
even though we're not conscious of it.
気付かないうちに
影響を与えています
01:10
There's a second way though, as well.
2つ目は
01:12
That's interference. Communication requires sending
音による障害です
コミュニケーションには
01:14
and receiving, and I have another whole TEDTalk
送受信が不可欠です
私はTEDのスピーチで
01:17
about the importance of conscious listening,
意識して聞くことが
大切だと話しました
01:21
but I can send as well as I like,
ただ どんなに上手く伝え
01:24
and you can be brilliant conscious listeners.
どれほど熱心に聞いたとしても
01:26
If the space I'm sending it in is not effective,
情報をやりとりする
空間に問題があれば
01:28
that communication can't happen.
コミュニケーションは
成立しません
01:32
Spaces tend to include noise and acoustics.
空間にはノイズも
音響特性もあります
01:34
A room like this has acoustics, this one very good acoustics.
この部屋の音響特性は 実に素晴しい
01:37
Many rooms are not so good.
大抵の部屋は あまりよくありません
01:40
Let me give you some examples from a couple of areas
ここに2つの例をあげます
01:43
which I think we all care about: health and education.
注目を集めている分野である
医療と教育です
01:45
(Hospital noises) When I was visiting my terminally ill father
(病院の音)
末期症状の父を見舞いに行った時
01:48
in a hospital, I was asking myself,
私は自分自身に問いました
01:50
how does anybody get well in a place that sounds like this?
こんな騒音の中で
回復する患者がいるだろうか?
01:52
Hospital sound is getting worse all the time.
病室の騒音は
どんどん悪化しています
01:57
Noise levels in hospitals have doubled
騒音レベルは
01:59
in the last few years, and it affects not just the patients
1972年に比べて
2倍になり 患者だけでなく
02:01
but also the people working there.
病院で働く人にも影響を及ぼしています
02:04
I think we would like for dispensing errors to be zero,
投薬ミスがなくなって
欲しいと思いませんか?
02:06
wouldn't we? And yet, as noise levels go up, so do
それなのに騒音レベルは上がる一方で
02:10
the errors in dispensing made by the staff in hospitals.
投薬ミスの原因にもなっています
02:14
Most of all, though, it affects the patients,
何より 被害を受けるのは患者なので
02:17
and that could be you, it could be me.
皆さんや私も被害者になりかねません
02:20
Sleep is absolutely crucial for recovery.
健康が回復するのに
睡眠は不可欠です
02:22
It's when we regenerate, when we rebuild ourselves,
もし治療を受けている時に
02:25
and with threatening noise like this going on,
このような騒音の中に置かれていれば
02:28
your body, even if you are able to sleep, your body
眠ることができたとしても 体は
02:30
is telling you, "I'm under threat. This is dangerous."
”危険にさらされている”と
悲鳴をあげるでしょう
02:33
And the quality of sleep is degraded, and so is our recovery.
睡眠の質が低下すると
回復は遅くなります
02:36
There are just huge benefits to come
音を考慮して設計されたものは
02:40
from designing for the ears in our health care.
健康管理に大きな効果が期待できます
02:42
This is an area I intend to take on this year.
もう一つは
私が今年課題としている分野
02:45
Education.
教育です
02:48
When I see a classroom that looks like this,
こんな教室では
02:50
can you imagine how this sounds?
音はどのように聞こえるでしょうか?
02:51
I am forced to ask myself a question.
私はこんなことを考えてしまいます
02:53
("Do architects have ears?") (Laughter)
("建築士に耳はあるのか?")(笑)
02:55
Now, that's a little unfair. Some of my best friends
ちょっと意地悪ですね
私の親友にも何人か
02:58
are architects. (Laughter) And they definitely do have ears.
建築士がいます(笑)
彼等に耳はあります
03:01
But I think sometimes they don't use them
でも時々 耳を使わずに
03:04
when they're designing buildings. Here's a case in point.
設計しているようです
こちらが良い例です
03:06
This is a 32-million-pound flagship academy school
約40億円かけて作られた
大規模な校舎で
03:08
which was built quite recently in the U.K. and designed
ごく最近イギリスに建てられました
03:12
by one of Britain's top architects.
設計したのはイギリスの超一流の建築士
03:14
Unfortunately, it was designed like a corporate
だだっ広い吹き抜けがある
03:17
headquarters, with a vast central atrium
企業の本社ビルのようです
03:19
and classrooms leading off it with no back walls at all.
教室を仕切る壁がないので
03:21
The children couldn't hear their teachers.
教師の話が子供に聞こえません
03:26
They had to go back in and spend 600,000 pounds
結局 7千万円もかけて
壁を作りました
03:28
putting the walls in. Let's stop this madness
“壁の無い教室”なんて馬鹿げています
03:30
of open plan classrooms right now, please.
今すぐ止めてもらいましょう
03:33
It's not just these modern buildings which suffer.
新しく設計された教室だけでなく
03:37
Old-fashioned classrooms suffer too.
旧式の教室にも問題があります
03:41
A study in Florida just a few years ago found
数年前フロリダでの調査で
明らかになりましたが
03:43
that if you're sitting where this photograph was taken
この写真の場所に座って
03:46
in the classroom, row four, speech intelligibility
授業を受けた場合 理解度は
03:47
is just 50 percent.
たった50パーセントです
03:50
Children are losing one word in two.
授業内容の半分を聞き落としています
03:53
Now that doesn't mean they only get half their education,
半分しか習得できない
訳ではありませんが
03:55
but it does mean they have to work very hard
授業内容を理解するために
03:58
to join the dots and understand what's going on.
大変苦労するということです
03:59
This is affected massively by reverberation time,
これには残響時間
つまり音の響き具合が
04:02
how reverberant a room is.
関係しています
04:05
In a classroom with a reverberation time of 1.2 seconds,
ある教室の残響時間は1.2秒です
04:07
which is pretty common, this is what it sounds like.
よくある状況なのですが
こんな風に聞こえます
04:11
(Inaudible echoing voice)
(反響して聞きづらい声)
04:14
Not so good, is it?
聞きづらいでしょう?
04:27
If you take that 1.2 seconds down to 0.4 seconds
残響時間を1.2秒から
0.4秒に落とすために
04:28
by installing acoustic treatments, sound absorbing materials
音響処理技術や
04:33
and so forth, this is what you get.
吸音材などを使うと
こうなります
04:36
Voice: In language, infinitely many words can be written
「言語では 少数の文字で
04:39
with a small set of letters. In arithmetic,
無限に単語を作ることができます
04:42
infinitely many numbers can be composed
算数では 少数の数字とゼロで
04:45
from just a few digits with the help of the simple zero.
無限に数を作ることができます」
04:48
Julian Treasure: What a difference.
大きな違いです
04:51
Now that education you would receive,
これからの教育は
後者のようになります
04:53
and thanks to the British acoustician Adrian James
イギリスの音響学者
エイドリアン・ジェームスの
04:55
for those simulations. The signal was the same,
この模擬実験のお陰です
音声信号は同じで
04:58
the background noise was the same.
背景の雑音も同じでした
05:00
All that changed was the acoustics of the classroom
違うのは2つの教室の
05:02
in those two examples.
音響特性だけです
05:04
If education can be likened to watering a garden,
教育を 庭に水をやることに
例えるなら
05:06
which is a fair metaphor, sadly, much of the water
残念なことに ほとんどの水が
05:08
is evaporating before it reaches the flowers,
花に届く前に蒸発しています
05:12
especially for some groups,
これが特に当てはまるのは
05:15
for example, those with hearing impairment.
例えば“聴覚障害がある子供”です
05:17
Now that's not just deaf children. That could be any child
これは耳が不自由な場合に限らず
05:21
who's got a cold, glue ear, an ear infection,
風邪や中耳炎 感染症や花粉症の
05:24
even hay fever. On a given day, one in eight children
子供も含まれます
05:26
fall into that group, on any given day.
8人に1人は
このグループに入ります
05:28
Then you have children for whom English is a second language,
次に “母語以外の言語で
05:31
or whatever they're being taught in is a second language.
学習している子供” です
05:34
In the U.K., that's more than 10 percent of the school population.
イギリスでは就学児童の
10パーセントを超えます
05:37
And finally, after Susan Cain's wonderful TEDTalk in February,
また スーザン・ケインが
言っていたように
05:41
we know that introverts find it very difficult to relate
“内向的な人” にとって
05:45
when they're in a noisy environment doing group work.
騒音の中で
共同作業するのは大変困難です
05:48
Add those up. That is a lot of children
つまり 多くの子供が
05:50
who are not receiving their education properly.
適切な教育を受けていないのです
05:53
It's not just the children who are affected, though.
影響はそれだけではありません
05:56
(Noisy conversation) This study in Germany found
(ざわめき)
ドイツの研究で明らかになりましたが
05:58
the average noise level in classrooms is 65 decibels.
教室の平均的な
騒音レベルは65デシベルです
05:59
I have to really raise my voice to talk over 65 decibels
この騒音の中では
06:03
of sound, and teachers are not just raising their voices.
教師は声を張り上げる
必要がありますが
06:07
This chart maps the teacher's heart rate
実は声だけでなく
06:11
against the noise level.
心拍数も上がっているのです
06:14
Noise goes up, heart rate goes up.
騒音と共に心拍数も上昇します
06:16
That is not good for you.
これは健康に良くありません
06:19
In fact, 65 decibels is the very level at which this big survey
騒音と健康に関する
大規模な調査の結果 ―
06:21
of all the evidence on noise and health found that, that is
65デシベルとは
06:25
the threshold for the danger of myocardial infarction.
心筋梗塞の危険がある
レベルだとわかっています
06:29
To you and me, that's a heart attack.
心臓発作を引き起こすのです
06:33
It may not be pushing the boat out too far to suggest
こう言ってもよいでしょう
06:36
that many teachers are losing significant life expectancy
このような環境で授業をすることで
06:39
by teaching in environments like that day after day.
教師は寿命を縮めているのです
06:43
What does it cost to treat a classroom
残響時間を0.4秒にするには
06:47
down to that 0.4-second reverberation time?
一体いくらかかるでしょう?
06:50
Two and a half thousand pounds.
約30万円です
06:52
And the Essex study which has just been done in the U.K.,
イギリスのエセックス大学の
06:55
which incidentally showed that when you do this,
最近の研究で明らかになりましたが
06:58
you do not just make a room that's suitable
残響時間が短い部屋では
07:01
for hearing-impaired children, you make a room
聴覚障害だけでなく
07:03
where behavior improves, and results improve significantly,
行動も著しく改善しました
07:04
this found that sending a child out of area to a school
でも このような部屋がある学校に
07:10
that does have such a room, if you don't have one,
子供を入れようとすると
07:14
costs 90,000 pounds a year.
年間約1,130万円かかります
07:16
I think the economics are pretty clear on this.
どちらが経済的か明白です
07:20
I'm glad that debate is happening on this.
議論が起きたのは喜ばしいことです
07:22
I just moderated a major conference in London
私は数週間前にロンドンで
07:24
a few weeks ago called Sound Education,
“サウンド エデュケイション”という
会議の司会をしました
07:27
which brought together top acousticians,
参加したのは
07:29
government people, teachers, and so forth.
一流の音響学者
政府関係者 教師などです
07:31
We're at last starting to debate this issue, and the benefits
やっと教育における
音を意識したデザインの
07:33
that are available for designing for the ears in education,
課題と効果について
07:37
unbelievable.
議論がはじまったのです
07:40
Out of that conference, incidentally, also came
この会議を通して
07:41
a free app which is designed to help children study
フリーアプリを開発しました
07:44
if they're having to work at home, for example,
子供たちが家に帰って
騒がしいキッチンで
07:47
in a noisy kitchen.
勉強する時などに使います
07:50
And that's free out of that conference.
会議を通してできた
無料のアプリです
07:51
Let's broaden the perspective a little bit
少し視野を広げて
07:55
and look at cities.
街を見渡して下さい
07:58
We have urban planners.
都市プランナーはいますが
07:59
Where are the urban sound planners?
“都市音響プランナー”はいますか?
08:02
I don't know of one in the world, and the opportunity is there
そういう人は知りませんが
都市での経験を改良する
08:05
to transform our experience in our cities.
機会なら すぐ近くにあるのです
08:08
The World Health Organization estimates
WHOの推定では
08:10
that a quarter of Europe's population is having its sleep
ヨーロッパの人口の4分の1が
08:13
degraded by noise in cities. We can do better than that.
都市の騒音のせいで
睡眠を妨げられています
08:15
And in our offices, we spend a lot of time at work.
仕事ではオフィスで過ごす
時間が多いですが
08:19
Where are the office sound planners?
オフィス音響プランナーはいるでしょうか?
08:22
People who say, don't sit that team next to this team,
例えば 「こっちの騒々しいチームは
08:25
because they like noise and they need quiet.
静かなチームの隣にするな」 とか
08:26
Or who say, don't spend all your budget on a huge screen
「30人規模の会議室なら
スクリーンに予算を使うより
08:29
in the conference room,
「30人規模の会議室なら
スクリーンに予算を使うより
08:32
and then place one tiny microphone
小さなマイクを置く方がいい」 と
08:32
in the middle of a table for 30 people. (Laughter)
アドバイスする人です (笑)
08:34
If you can hear me, you can understand me
聞こえれば 話を理解できます
08:38
without seeing me. If you can see me without hearing me,
姿は見えなくてもいい
でも 聞こえなければ
08:40
that does not work.
話は理解できませんね
08:43
So office sound is a huge area, and incidentally,
オフィスの騒音は
あらゆる場面に影響します
08:45
noise in offices has been shown to make people
オフィスの騒音が人の能力を低下させ
08:48
less helpful, less enjoy their teamwork,
チームワークを退屈にし
08:50
and less productive at work.
生産性を低下させます
08:53
Finally, we have homes. We use interior designers.
家を建てる時は
室内装飾デザイナーに依頼します
08:56
Where are the interior sound designers?
では室内音響デザイナーはどこでしょう?
08:59
Hey, let's all be interior sound designers,
実は誰でも
室内音響デザイナーになれます
09:01
take on listening to our rooms and designing sound
室内の音を聞いてください
09:04
that's effective and appropriate.
そして効果的で
望ましい音をデザインしましょう
09:07
My friend Richard Mazuch, an architect in London,
ロンドンの建築士 リチャード・マズフは
09:08
coined the phrase "invisible architecture."
“見えない建築術”という
09:11
I love that phrase.
素晴らしい表現を作りました
09:14
It's about designing, not appearance, but experience,
外観ではなく
経験をデザインすることです
09:15
so that we have spaces that sound as good as they look,
その結果 見た目だけでなく
音響に優れ 目的にも合い
09:21
that are fit for purpose, that improve our quality of life,
生活をより良くする
空間を作ることができます
09:24
our health and well being, our social behavior
さらに健康と心の平和 社会的マナー
09:28
and our productivity.
生産性も改善されます
09:31
It's time to start designing for the ears.
耳のためのデザインをはじめる時です
09:33
Thank you. (Applause)
ありがとうございました(拍手)
09:36
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:39
Thank you. (Applause)
ありがとう(拍手)
09:41
Translator:Yuko Masubuchi
Reviewer:Kazunori Akashi

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Julian Treasure - Sound consultant
Julian Treasure studies sound and advises businesses on how best to use it.

Why you should listen

Julian Treasure is the chair of the Sound Agency, a firm that advises worldwide businesses -- offices, retailers, hotels -- on how to use sound. He asks us to pay attention to the sounds that surround us. How do they make us feel: productive, stressed, energized, acquisitive?

Treasure is the author of the book Sound Business and keeps a blog by the same name that ruminates on aural matters (and offers a nice day-by-day writeup of TEDGlobal 2009). In the early 1980s, Treasure was the drummer for the Fall-influenced band Transmitters.

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