09:00
TEDxUSC

Doris Kim Sung: Metal that breathes

ドリス・キム・サン:呼吸する金属

Filmed:

近代建築は床から天井までの窓で壮観な視界をもたらします。しかし、冷却に多大なエネルギーを必要とします。ドリス・キム・サンはサーモバイメタルという皮膚のように環境に応じて動くスマートマテリアルに取り組んでいます。これは日除けとなり自動的に換気してくれる素材なのです。

- Architect
Doris Kim Sung is a biology student turned architect interested in thermo-bimetals, smart materials that respond dynamically to temperature change. Full bio

I was one of those kids that, every time I got in the car,
私は車に乗ると必ず
00:16
I basically had to roll down the window.
窓を開けずにはいられない子供でした
00:19
It was usually too hot, too stuffy or just too smelly,
どんなに暑くても 息苦しくても 臭くても
00:22
and my father would not let us use the air conditioner.
父はエアコンをつけてくれませんでした
00:27
He said that it would overheat the engine.
エンジンがオーバーヒートするから
ダメだと言うのです
00:29
And you might remember, some of you,
覚えている方もいるでしょう
00:32
how the cars were back then, and it was
当時の車は
00:33
a common problem of overheating.
オーバーヒートする事が よくありました
00:35
But it was also the signal that capped the use,
でもそれはエネルギーの浪費を
00:38
or overuse, of energy-consuming devices.
制限していたのです
00:42
Things have changed now. We have cars that we take across country.
状況は変わり
今の車は大陸を横断の運転で
00:46
We blast the air conditioning the entire way,
エアコンをつけっぱなしにしても
00:49
and we never experience overheating.
オーバーヒートすることはありません
00:52
So there's no more signal for us to tell us to stop.
使いたい放題に使えるのです
00:54
Great, right? Well, we have similar problems in buildings.
これって良いことなのでしょうか?
建物に関しても同様のことが言えます
00:57
In the past, before air conditioning, we had thick walls.
かつてエアコンがなかった時代
建物には厚い壁がありました
01:02
The thick walls are great for insulation. It keeps the interior
厚い壁には断熱効果があり
室内を夏季には涼しく
01:06
very cool during the summertime, and warm during the wintertime,
冬季には暖かく保ちます
01:09
and the small windows were also very good because
小さな窓も上手くできていました
01:12
it limited the amount of temperature transfer
室内外の熱の移動を
01:15
between the interior and exterior.
制限していたのです
01:17
Then in about the 1930s, with the advent of plate glass,
1930年代
板ガラスや圧延鋼板の発明
01:20
rolled steel and mass production, we were able
大量生産技術により
01:23
to make floor-to-ceiling windows and unobstructed views,
私たちは床から天井までの窓と
遮る物のない視界を手に入れました
01:27
and with that came the irreversible reliance on
引き換えに 太陽に温められた
室内を冷やすために
01:30
mechanical air conditioning to cool our solar-heated spaces.
私達はすっかりエアコンに
依存するようになりました
01:34
Over time, the buildings got taller and bigger,
刻々とビルは高く大きくなり
技術もさらに進化し
01:41
our engineering even better, so that the mechanical systems
空調システムは巨大なものになりました
01:44
were massive. They require a huge amount of energy.
それらは大量のエネルギーを必要としています
01:46
They give off a lot of heat into the atmosphere,
大気中に大量の熱を放出し
01:50
and for some of you may understand the heat island effect
ご存じのとおり
ヒートアイランド現象を引き起こします
01:53
in cities, where the urban areas are much more warm
都市部において 都会が
01:56
than the adjacent rural areas,
近接する郊外部より
暖かくなる現象のことです
02:00
but we also have problems that, when we lose power,
しかし他にも問題があります
02:03
we can't open a window here, and so
停電すると 窓が開けられないので
02:06
the buildings are uninhabitable and have to be made vacant
私たちはビルに居られなくなり
02:09
until that air conditioning system can start up again.
エアコンのシステムが再起動するまで
ビルは使えません
02:12
Even worse, with our intention of trying to make buildings
さらに悪いことに
02:15
move towards a net-zero energy state, we can't do it
ネット・ゼロ・エネルギー・ビルを
目指していますが
02:19
just by making mechanical systems more and more efficient.
空調の効率化だけでは不十分です
02:24
We need to look for something else, and we've gotten ourselves a little bit into a rut.
何か他の手段が必要ですが
現在 行き詰まりの状態です
02:27
So what do we do here? How do we pull ourselves and dig us
そこでどんな対策を講じられるか?
02:30
out of this hole that we've dug?
私たち自ら掘った穴から
どうしたら抜け出せるでしょう?
02:35
If we look at biology, and many of you probably don't know,
生物学的に見るとどうでしょう
02:37
I was a biology major before I went into architecture,
実は私は建築に関わる前に
生物学を専攻していました
02:40
the human skin is the organ that naturally regulates
ヒトの肌は体温を自然に調節する機能を持つ
02:44
the temperature in the body, and it's a fantastic thing.
素晴しい器官です
02:48
That's the first line of defense for the body.
肌は体を守る最初の砦なのです
02:52
It has pores, it has sweat glands, it has all these things
そのために肌の毛穴や 汗腺などは
02:54
that work together very dynamically and very efficiently,
協調して絶えず効率的に働きます
02:58
and so what I propose is that our building skins
ビルの表面は
03:01
should be more similar to human skin,
皮膚に非常に似たものであるべきではないでしょうか
03:04
and by doing so can be much more dynamic, responsive
そうすれば 壁は場所に応じて
より動的に
03:07
and differentiated, depending on where it is.
かつ敏感に変化できるのです
03:11
And this gets me back to my research.
これが私の研究につながります
03:15
What I proposed first doing is looking at a different material palette to do that.
私が最初に提案したことは
数多くの異なる素材を調査することです
03:17
I presently, or currently, work with smart materials,
最近研究しているのは
スマートマテリアルと
03:22
and a smart thermo-bimetal.
スマート・サーモ・バイメタルです
03:25
First of all, I guess we call it smart because it requires
まずこれを「スマート(賢い)」と
称するのは
03:26
no controls and it requires no energy,
外部からの制御や
エネルギーが一切不要で
03:29
and that's a very big deal for architecture.
これが建築に重要な変化をもたらすのです
03:32
What it is, it's a lamination of two different metals together.
これは二種の異なる金属を
貼り合せたたシートで
03:35
You can see that here by the different reflection on this side.
見ると表裏で光り方が
違いますね
03:38
And because it has two different coefficients of expansion,
それぞれの面が 二種の
異なる熱膨張率を持つため
03:41
when heated, one side will expand faster than the other
温められると一方の面が
他方の面より早く膨張し
03:45
and result in a curling action.
結果的に湾曲するのです
03:48
So in early prototypes I built these surfaces to try to see
初期の試作品ではこれらの表面が
03:52
how the curl would react to temperature and possibly allow
温度に応じてどのように
湾曲し
03:55
air to ventilate through the system,
換気に応用できるか観察しました
04:00
and in other prototypes did surfaces where the multiplicity
また他の試作品では
この素材の短冊状のものを
04:03
of having these strips together can try to make
何本も使い 温まった時に
04:06
bigger movement happen when also heated,
表面がより歪曲するように設計しました
04:08
and currently have this installation at the Materials & Applications gallery
これはマテリアル&アプリケーション・ギャラリーに
展示されています
04:13
in Silver Lake, close by, and it's there until August, if you want to see it.
すぐ近くのシルバーレイクで
8月まで展示しているので 是非 御覧下さい
04:17
It's called "Bloom," and the surface is made completely
タイトルは「Bloom」
その表面は全て
04:20
out of thermo-bimetal, and its intention is to make this canopy
サーモバイメタルで作っています
それによりこの覆いは
04:23
that does two things. One, it's a sun-shading device, so that
二つの機能を持っています
一つ目は 日傘の機能
04:27
when the sun hits the surface, it constricts the amount of sun passing through,
太陽が表面に当たる部分では
太陽光の透過を防ぎます
04:31
and in other areas, it's a ventilating system,
また他の場所は
風通しを良くする役目を担い
04:35
so that hot, trapped air underneath can actually
内部の熱され閉じ込められた空気は
04:38
move through and out when necessary.
必要に応じ外部へと移動するのです
04:40
You can see here in this time-lapse video that the sun,
これは低速度撮影したビデオで
04:44
as it moves across the surface, as well as the shade,
太陽の当たる場所と影の移動に従い
04:48
each of the tiles moves individually.
それぞれの薄片が動くのがわかります
04:51
Keep in mind, with the digital technology that we have today,
実は 現代のデジタル技術を駆使し
04:54
this thing was made out of about 14,000 pieces
1万4千枚の金属片から
作られています
04:56
and there's no two pieces alike at all. Every single one is different.
金属片は一つとして同じものはなく
全て異なります
04:59
And the great thing with that is the fact that we can calibrate
素晴らしいことに
それぞれの金属片は
05:04
each one to be very, very specific to its location,
配置される場所や
太陽の角度 湾曲率に合うよう
05:06
to the angle of the sun, and also how the thing actually curls.
一枚一枚を
正確に調整できるのです
05:10
So this kind of proof of concept project
この様なコンセプト検証実験は
05:15
has a lot of implications
将来的に実際に建築へ導入する際
05:18
to actual future application in architecture,
大きな意味を持ちます
05:20
and in this case, here you see a house,
例えば この家は
05:24
that's for a developer in China,
中国の宅地開発業者のもので
05:26
and it's actually a four-story glass box.
4階建のガラスの家なんです
05:29
It's still with that glass box because we still want that visual access,
視界が妨げられないよう
ガラスのままですが
05:31
but now it's sheathed with this thermo-bimetal layer,
これをサーモバイメタルで包み込みました
05:35
it's a screen that goes around it, and that layer can actually
家全体を覆うスクリーンで
05:39
open and close as that sun moves around on that surface.
太陽の動きに合わせて開閉するのです
05:42
In addition to that, it can also screen areas for privacy,
加えてスクリーンはプライバシー確保になります
05:46
so that it can differentiate from some of the public areas
時間によって プライベートな空間を
05:50
in the space during different times of day.
変化させることができます
05:53
And what it basically implies is that, in houses now,
つまり将来は建物に
05:55
we don't need drapes or shutters or blinds anymore
カーテン 雨戸 ブラインドなどは不要になり
05:58
because we can sheath the building with these things,
この素材で建物を覆えば
06:02
as well as control the amount of air conditioning you need inside that building.
同時に建物内の空調の量も
コントロールできるわけです
06:04
I'm also looking at trying to develop some building components for the market,
市場に向けた建築資材の開発も
視野に入れています
06:10
and so here you see a pretty typical
これはごく典型的な二重ガラス窓です
06:13
double-glazed window panel, and in that panel,
この二重ガラス窓のパネルの
06:15
between those two pieces of glass, that double-glazing,
二枚のガラスの間に
06:20
I'm trying to work on making
サーモバイメタルシステムを
組み込むことに挑戦しています
06:23
a thermo-bimetal pattern system
サーモバイメタルシステムを
組み込むことに挑戦しています
06:25
so that when the sun hits that outside layer
太陽光が外側のガラスに当たり
06:27
and heats that interior cavity, that thermo-bimetal
内部の空洞を暖めたときに
06:30
will begin to curl, and what actually will happen then
中のバイメタルが湾曲し始めます
06:35
is it'll start to block out the sun
そして建物の ある部分だけ
06:37
in certain areas of the building,
太陽光を遮断するのです
06:40
and totally, if necessary.
必要であれば全体でも良いのです
06:42
And so you can imagine, even in this application, that
想像してください
これが実用化されれば
06:44
in a high-rise building where the panel systems go
高層ビルの30階や40階でも
06:46
from floor to floor up to 30, 40 floors, the entire surface
このシステムを設置すれば
外壁全体が
06:49
could be differentiated at different times of day
太陽の動き方や日光の当たり方に応じて
06:54
depending on how that sun moves across and hits that surface.
時間によって変化させられるのです
06:56
And these are some later studies that I'm working on
こちらは
07:01
right now that are on the boards, where you can see,
私が最近取り組んでいる研究です
07:04
in the bottom right-hand corner, with the red, it's actually
右下隅の 赤いものは
07:06
smaller pieces of thermometal, and it's actually going to,
実はとても小さなサーモメタルです
07:10
we're trying to make it move like cilia or eyelashes.
これを睫毛や繊毛のように
動かそうとしています
07:12
This last project is also of components.
最後のプロジェクトも建築要素です
07:17
The influence -- and if you have noticed, one of my
お気付きかもしれませんが
これも生物学から影響を受けました
07:20
spheres of influence is biology -- is from a grasshopper.
バッタです
07:23
And grasshoppers have a different kind of breathing system.
バッタは変わった呼吸器官を持っています
07:27
They breathe through holes in their sides called spiracles,
気門と呼ばれる
身体側面の孔で呼吸します
07:30
and they bring the air through and it moves through their system to cool them down,
空気がその孔を通過し
身体を冷却するのです
07:33
and so in this project, I'm trying to look at how we can
このプロジェクトでは
07:37
consider that in architecture too, how we can bring
どのようにそれを建築に応用するか
07:40
air through holes in the sides of a building.
どのように建物側面の穴に空気を通すか
それを調べています
07:42
And so you see here some early studies of blocks,
初期研究のブロックです
07:45
where those holes are actually coming through,
それぞれの孔は貫通しており
07:48
and this is before the thermo-bimetal is applied,
こちらがバイメタルを施したもの
07:50
and this is after the bimetal is applied. Sorry, it's a little
こちらはバイメタルを
使用していないものです
07:54
hard to see, but on the surfaces, you can see these red arrows.
すこし見え難いですが
表面に赤い矢印が見えるでしょう
07:57
On the left, it's when it's cold and the thermo-bimetal
左側は低温時
サーモバイメタルは平らで
08:00
is flat so it will constrict air from passing through the blocks,
ブロック内の
空気の通過を遮断しています
08:03
and on the right, the thermo-bimetal curls
右側の
サーモバイメタルは湾曲し
08:07
and allows that air to pass through, so those are two different
空気が通過するようになっています
08:09
components that I'm working on, and again,
これが私が現在取り組んでいる
二つの構成要素です
08:12
it's a completely different thing, because you can imagine
また これらはとても特別な物です
08:14
that air could potentially be coming through the walls
全く新しい考え方です
08:16
instead of opening windows.
窓を開ける代わりに
自動的に空気が壁を通するのです
08:19
So I want to leave you with one last impression about
このスマートマテリアルは
08:22
the project, or this kind of work and using smart materials.
本当に素晴らしいものなんです
08:25
When you're tired of opening and closing those blinds
毎日ブラインドの開閉に疲れたとき
08:29
day after day, when you're on vacation
休暇中や週末に
08:32
and there's no one there on the weekends to be turning off and on the controls,
空調を制御する人が居ないとき
08:35
or when there's a power outage, and you have
または大規模停電で電力がなくなっても
08:39
no electricity to rely on, these thermo-bimetals
このサーモバイメタルは
08:42
will still be working tirelessly, efficiently
疲れることなく効率的に
08:45
and endlessly. Thank you. (Applause)
永遠に動き続けるのです
ありがとうございました
08:49
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:52
Translated by Takafusa Kitazume
Reviewed by Ikumi Aihara

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About the Speaker:

Doris Kim Sung - Architect
Doris Kim Sung is a biology student turned architect interested in thermo-bimetals, smart materials that respond dynamically to temperature change.

Why you should listen

Architect Doris Kim Sung asks: Why can't building materials be more adaptable? Why can't they function more like clothing, or even human skin? Having studied biology at Princeton University intending to go to medical school, Sung applies principles of biology to her work as an assistant professor of architecture at the University of Southern California. She explores architecture as an extension of the body, challenging the notion that buildings ought to be static and climate-controlled. Rather, they should be able to adapt to their environment through self-ventilation. In November 2011, Sung exhibited her art installation "Bloom" in Silver Lake, Los Angeles. The installation is 20 feet tall and made with 14,000 completely unique pieces of thermo-bimetal, a smart material made of two different metals laminated together. This metal is dynamic and responsive, curling as air temperatures rise, resulting in a beautiful sculpture that breathes.

More profile about the speaker
Doris Kim Sung | Speaker | TED.com