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TEDxMaui

Gary Greenberg: The beautiful nano details of our world

ゲイリー・グリーンバーグ: 美しきナノの世界

April 10, 2012

3D顕微鏡で撮影すると、砂の粒がカラフルなキャンディのように見えます。花の雄しべが遊園地にある幻想的な塔のように見えます。ゲイリー・グリーンバーグがスリリングなミクロの世界を紹介します。

Gary Greenberg - Micro photographer
Gary Greenberg is a photographer, biomedical researcher and inventor intent on giving us all a view of the microscopic wonders all around us. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
So I want to talk a little bit about seeing the world
世界を全く独特の視点から見ることについて
00:17
from a totally unique point of view,
少しお話しします
00:19
and this world I'm going to talk about is the micro world.
お話しするのはミクロの世界についてです
00:22
I've found, after doing this for many, many years,
長年ミクロの世界を見てきて
現実の中には
00:25
that there's a magical world behind reality.
隠された魔法の世界があることを見つけました
00:27
And that can be seen directly through a microscope,
顕微鏡で直接見える世界を
00:30
and I'm going to show you some of this today.
今日はいくつか披露します
00:33
So let's start off looking at something rather not-so-small,
まずは さほど小さくないものから
00:35
something that we can see with our naked eye,
肉眼で見えるものから行きましょう
00:39
and that's a bee. So when you look at this bee,
ミツバチです
ミツバチは
00:41
it's about this size here, it's about a centimeter.
だいたいこのサイズ 1cm くらいです
00:44
But to really see the details of the bee, and really
でも もっと近づくと
00:47
appreciate what it is, you have to look a little bit closer.
その正体が はっきりと見えてきます
00:49
So that's just the eye of the bee with a microscope,
顕微鏡で見たミツバチの眼です
00:53
and now all of a sudden you can see that the bee has
こうなってはじめて ミツバチは
00:56
thousands of individual eyes called ommatidia,
複眼という無数の眼を持っていると判ります
00:58
and they actually have sensory hairs in their eyes
しかも その眼には感覚毛が生えており
01:01
so they know when they're right up close to something,
この毛で近づきすぎを判断します
01:03
because they can't see in stereo.
ミツバチは距離が判らないのです
01:06
As we go smaller, here is a human hair.
もっと小さくしましょう
人の髪の毛です
01:09
A human hair is about the smallest thing that the eye can see.
髪の毛は肉眼で見える最小のものでしょう
01:13
It's about a tenth of a millimeter.
10分の1 mm の大きさです
01:16
And as we go smaller again,
もっと小さくしましょう
01:19
about ten times smaller than that, is a cell.
さらに10分の1 これは細胞です
01:20
So you could fit 10 human cells
人間の細胞10個で
01:23
across the diameter of a human hair.
人の髪の毛の直径くらいになります
01:26
So when we would look at cells, this is how I really got
私は顕微鏡で
01:30
involved in biology and science is by looking
生きた細胞を見て 生物学 自然科学に
01:31
at living cells in the microscope.
本当に引き込まれました
01:34
When I first saw living cells in a microscope, I was
初めて生きた細胞を顕微鏡で見たときは
01:37
absolutely enthralled and amazed at what they looked like.
その姿にすっかり心を奪われ 驚かされました
01:39
So if you look at the cell like that from the immune system,
免疫細胞などは
01:43
they're actually moving all over the place.
あちこち動き回っているんですよ
01:46
This cell is looking for foreign objects,
この細胞は異物やバクテリアなどを
01:48
bacteria, things that it can find.
探しているんです
01:52
And it's looking around, and when it finds something,
周りを見渡して何かを見つけ
01:54
and recognizes it being foreign,
それが異物だと判ると
01:57
it will actually engulf it and eat it.
飲み込みます
01:59
So if you look right there, it finds that little bacterium,
あそこでは免疫細胞が小さなバクテリアを探し
02:00
and it engulfs it and eats it.
飲み込み 食べています
02:05
If you take some heart cells from an animal,
動物の心臓細胞を培養皿の上に乗せて見てみると
02:10
and put it in a dish, they'll just sit there and beat.
皿の上でも脈を打っているのです
02:13
That's their job. Every cell has a mission in life,
心臓の細胞はそれが仕事です
細胞には皆 使命があり
02:16
and these cells, the mission is
心臓細胞の場合は
02:20
to move blood around our body.
私たちの体に血を送ることです
02:22
These next cells are nerve cells, and right now,
次は神経細胞です
02:25
as we see and understand what we're looking at,
いま 目に映ったものを理解するとき
02:28
our brains and our nerve cells are actually doing this
実際には脳と神経細胞が働いています
02:31
right now. They're not just static. They're moving around
彼らはじっとはしておらず あちこち動いて
02:33
making new connections, and that's what happens when we learn.
新たな接続を作ります
これが学ぶということです
02:36
As you go farther down this scale here,
もっと小さな世界に行きましょう
02:39
that's a micron, or a micrometer, and we go
ミクロンやマイクロメートル
02:42
all the way down to here to a nanometer
ナノメートルよりももっと小さな世界
02:45
and an angstrom. Now, an angstrom is the size
1オングストロームです
このサイズは
02:47
of the diameter of a hydrogen atom.
水素原子の直径です
02:50
That's how small that is.
小さいですね
02:53
And microscopes that we have today can actually see
今日の顕微鏡では原子を見ることができます
02:55
individual atoms. So these are some pictures
いくつか原子の写真を
02:57
of individual atoms. Each bump here is an individual atom.
お見せしましょう
この突起がそれぞれ個々の原子です
03:00
This is a ring of cobalt atoms.
これはコバルト原子を並べた長円です
03:03
So this whole world, the nano world, this area in here
このサイズの世界を
03:06
is called the nano world, and the nano world,
ナノの世界と言いますが
03:09
the whole micro world that we see,
私たちが目にするミクロの世界には
03:12
there's a nano world that is wrapped up within that, and
内側にナノの世界が内包されています
03:15
the whole -- and that is the world of molecules and atoms.
ナノの世界は 分子と原子の世界です
03:18
But I want to talk about this larger world,
ですが
もう少し大きな世界の話をしますね
03:22
the world of the micro world.
ミクロの世界です
03:25
So if you were a little tiny bug living in a flower,
もしも皆さんが 花の中に棲む小さな虫なら
03:27
what would that flower look like, if the flower was this big?
花はどう見えるでしょうね
花はこれくらいのサイズです
03:31
It wouldn't look or feel like anything that we see
花を見ても 私たちが知っているものとは
03:34
when we look at a flower. So if you look at this flower here,
違って見えることでしょう
皆さんが小さな虫で
03:37
and you're a little bug, if you're on that surface
花の表面から 花を見ると
03:40
of that flower, that's what the terrain would look like.
その地形はこんなふうになります
03:42
The petal of that flower looks like that, so the ant
花びらはこんな風に見えるんです
03:46
is kind of crawling over these objects, and if you look
アリがこんな中を歩き回ったりしています
03:49
a little bit closer at this stigma and the stamen here,
雄しべの柱頭に少し近づきました
03:51
this is the style of that flower, and you notice
これが雄しべの花柱です
03:55
that it's got these little -- these are like little jelly-like things
ここに小さな ゼリー状の突起がありますね
03:57
that are what are called spurs. These are nectar spurs.
これは距(きょ)というもので 中に蜜が入っています
04:02
So this little ant that's crawling here, it's like
ここは小さなアリにとって
04:06
it's in a little Willy Wonka land.
小さな 『夢のチョコレート工場』 であり
04:09
It's like a little Disneyland for them. It's not like what we see.
小さな 『ディズニーランド』 です
私たちとは見え方が違います
04:11
These are little bits of individual grain of pollen
花粉の粒がいくつか見えますね
04:15
there and there, and here is a --
そこにも ここにも
04:19
what you see as one little yellow dot of pollen,
黄色く小さな花粉は1粒に見えても
04:22
when you look in a microscope, it's actually made
顕微鏡で見ると 実は
04:25
of thousands of little grains of pollen.
小さな花粉が無数に集まっています
04:27
So this, for example, when you see bees flying around
たとえば それらの小さな惑星の中を
04:31
these little plants, and they're collecting pollen,
ミツバチは飛び回って 花粉を集め
04:33
those pollen grains that they're collecting, they pack
集めた花粉を足にくっつけて
04:36
into their legs and they take it back to the hive,
巣に持ち帰ります
04:38
and that's what makes the beehive,
花粉は巣の蜜蝋になります
04:40
the wax in the beehive. And they're also collecting nectar,
また 集めた蜜は
04:43
and that's what makes the honey that we eat.
私たちが口にする蜂蜜になるのです
04:47
Here's a close-up picture, or this is actually a regular picture
大写しになっているのは
実は普通に撮ったホテイアオイの写真です
04:51
of a water hyacinth, and if you had really, really good vision,
皆さんの目が 本当に良ければ
04:54
with your naked eye, you'd see it about that well.
肉眼でこんなふうに見えますよ
04:57
There's the stamen and the pistil. But look what the stamen
雄しべと雌しべがあります
04:59
and the pistil look like in a microscope. That's the stamen.
しかし これらは
顕微鏡で見たかのようですね
05:02
So that's thousands of little grains of pollen there,
これが雄しべ
無数の小さな花粉がそこにありますね
05:05
and there's the pistil there, and these are the little things
これが雌しべ
毛状体という小さい毛が生えています
05:08
called trichomes. And that's what makes the flower give
これが花の香りを
05:11
a fragrance, and plants actually communicate
作っており 草花は実のところ
05:15
with one another through their fragrances.
香りを使って別の個体と会話しています
05:19
I want to talk about something really ordinary,
では ごく普通の ごく平凡な砂の話を
05:24
just ordinary sand.
しようと思います
05:27
I became interested in sand about 10 years ago,
砂に興味を持ったのは10年ほど前で
05:29
when I first saw sand from Maui,
マウイ島の砂を見たときでした
05:31
and in fact, this is a little bit of sand from Maui.
これが実際のマウイの砂です
05:33
So sand is about a tenth of a millimeter in size.
砂は10分の1mmのサイズです
05:36
Each sand grain is about a tenth of a millimeter in size.
砂粒それぞれが10分の1mmくらいなのです
05:39
But when you look closer at this, look at what's there.
何があるのか 近づいて見てみましょう
05:42
It's really quite amazing. You have microshells there.
実に驚きです
小さな貝が見えますね
05:45
You have things like coral.
サンゴみたいなものが見えます
05:48
You have fragments of other shells. You have olivine.
他の貝の欠片や カンラン石が見えます
05:51
You have bits of a volcano. There's a little bit
小さな火山のようです
噴火口に棲む
05:54
of a volcano there. You have tube worms.
チューブワームです
05:56
An amazing array of incredible things exist in sand.
砂の中に 信じられないものがズラリです
05:59
And the reason that is, is because in a place like this island,
その原因は この島の場所にあります
06:04
a lot of the sand is made of biological material
砂の多くは 生物由来の物質です
06:06
because the reefs provide a place where all these
それは サンゴ礁が 微小生物から巨大生物まで
06:09
microscopic animals or macroscopic animals grow,
あらゆる生物の育つ環境を提供していて
06:12
and when they die, their shells and their teeth
死んだあとに殻や歯や骨が粉々になった砂や
06:16
and their bones break up and they make grains of sand,
サンゴのようなものが
06:18
things like coral and so forth.
残されるからです
06:20
So here's, for example, a picture of sand from Maui.
たとえば マウイの砂の写真を見てください
06:23
This is from Lahaina,
これはラハイナのもので
06:27
and when we're walking along a beach, we're actually
海岸沿いを歩くことで 実は
06:30
walking along millions of years of biological and geological history.
何百万年もの生物学的 地質学的な
歴史を歩いています
06:31
We don't realize it, but it's actually a record
見過ごしがちですが 海岸はつまり
06:35
of that entire ecology.
全生態系の記録なのです
06:37
So here we see, for example, a sponge spicule,
たとえば 海綿の骨針
06:40
two bits of coral here,
サンゴの欠片が2つ
06:43
that's a sea urchin spine. Really some amazing stuff.
これはウニのとげ
本当に面白いものばかりです
06:46
So when I first looked at this, I was -- I thought,
初めてこれを見たとき 思いました
06:49
gee, this is like a little treasure trove here.
おお これは宝の山だ 信じられない
06:52
I couldn't believe it, and I'd go around dissecting
いたるところを調べに調べて
06:53
the little bits out and making photographs of them.
片っ端から写真に収めたい と
06:56
Here's what most of the sand in our world looks like.
世界の砂の大半は こんな感じです
06:59
These are quartz crystals and feldspar,
石英の結晶と 長石です
07:01
so most sand in the world on the mainland
アメリカ大陸の砂はほとんど
07:05
is made of quartz crystal and feldspar. It's the erosion of granite rock.
石英の結晶と 長石です
それらは花こう岩が侵食されて できました
07:07
So mountains are built up, and they erode away by water
山ができ 水や 雨や 氷などによって
07:11
and rain and ice and so forth,
侵食され
07:15
and they become grains of sand.
砂になります
07:17
There's some sand that's really much more colorful.
これはかなりカラフルな砂ですね
07:19
These are sand from near the Great Lakes,
グレート湖 近辺の砂です
07:21
and you can see that it's filled with minerals
鉱石がいっぱいありますね
07:23
like pink garnet and green epidote, all kinds of amazing stuff,
ピンクのガーネット 緑色の緑れん石
素晴らしいもので一杯です
07:25
and if you look at different sands from different places,
別の場所で別の砂を見ると
07:29
every single beach, every single place you look at sand,
浜辺ごとに 場所ごとに みな 砂が
07:31
it's different. Here's from Big Sur, like they're little jewels.
違っているのです
これはビッグ・サーの砂ですが 宝石みたいです
07:34
There are places in Africa where they do the mining
アフリカに宝石を採掘する場所があり
07:39
of jewels, and you go to the sand where the rivers have
宝石が砂になって川に流れんで
07:42
the sand go down to the ocean, and it's like literally looking
海に出ます
そうして 顕微鏡で見ると
07:46
at tiny jewels through the microscope.
まさに小さな宝石が見えるのです
07:48
So every grain of sand is unique. Every beach is different.
だから砂の粒はどれも独特です
浜辺ごとにみな違います
07:51
Every single grain is different. There are no two grains
粒ごとにみな違います
世界に同じ砂粒なんて
07:54
of sand alike in the world.
1つもありません
07:58
Every grain of sand is coming somewhere and going somewhere.
砂の粒はみな どこかで生まれ
どこかに運ばれます
07:59
They're like a snapshot in time.
今たまたま ここにあるのです
08:03
Now sand is not only on Earth, but sand is
砂があるのは地球上だけでなく
08:06
ubiquitous throughout the universe. In fact, outer space
宇宙のどこにでも存在します
08:10
is filled with sand, and that sand comes together
事実 宇宙は
砂で溢れており 砂が集まって
08:12
to make our planets and the Moon.
惑星や月を造っています
08:16
And you can see those in micrometeorites.
これは微小隕石です
08:19
This is some micrometeorites that the Army gave me,
これは軍からもらった微小隕石で
08:21
and they get these out of the drinking wells in the South Pole.
軍が南極の飲み水の井戸から取ったものです
08:23
And they're quite amazing-looking, and these are the
それらは とても面白いもので
08:27
tiny constituents that make up the world that we live in --
この小さな物質が 私たちの住む惑星や月を
08:29
the planets and the Moon.
構成しているのです
08:34
So NASA wanted me to take some pictures of Moon sand,
NASAから 月の砂を撮影してほしいと
08:36
so they sent me sand from all the different landings
砂を送ってきました
08:39
of the Apollo missions that happened 40 years ago.
40年前のアポロ計画で
着陸した色々な場所の砂です
08:41
And I started taking pictures with my three-dimensional microscopes.
こうして三次元顕微鏡で写真を撮り始めました
08:46
This was the first picture I took. It was kind of amazing.
これが1枚目の写真です
わりといい感じです
08:49
I thought it looked kind of a little bit like the Moon, which is sort of interesting.
なんとなく月に似ているような気がしました
興味深いです
08:52
Now, the way my microscopes work is, normally
顕微鏡で一度に合わせられる焦点は
08:56
in a microscope you can see very little at one time,
通常 実に狭いものなので
08:59
so what you have to do is you have to refocus the microscope,
ピントを何度も合わせ直し
09:01
keep taking pictures, and then I have a computer program
写真を撮るのです
そうして コンピュータ・プログラムで
09:04
that puts all those pictures together
1枚の写真につなげます
09:08
into one picture so you can see actually what it looks like,
こんな風にね
09:10
and I do that in 3D. So there, you can see,
3Dにします
09:14
is a left-eye view. There's a right-eye view.
これが左目用で これが右目用
09:17
So sort of left-eye view, right-eye view.
左目用 右目用です
09:19
Now something's interesting here. This looks very different
面白いことがあるのです
これまで見た地球の砂とは
09:22
than any sand on Earth that I've ever seen, and I've
ずいぶん違って見えました
09:24
seen a lot of sand on Earth, believe me. (Laughter)
地球の砂だって見たことあります
本当に(笑)
09:27
Look at this hole in the middle. That hole was caused
真ん中の穴に注目してください
この穴を開けたのは
09:31
by a micrometeorite hitting the Moon.
月にぶつかった微小隕石です
09:33
Now, the Moon has no atmosphere, so micrometeorites
月に大気はありませんから 微小隕石が絶えず
09:36
come in continuously, and the whole surface of the Moon
降り注いでいます
月の表面が
09:38
is covered with powder now, because for four billion years
粉末で覆われているのは 微小隕石が
09:41
it's been bombarded by micrometeorites,
40億年間 降り注いだせいです
09:44
and when micrometeorites come in at about
微小隕石は 時速3~10万キロの
09:47
20 to 60,000 miles an hour, they vaporize on contact.
速度で衝突し 蒸発します
09:49
And you can see here that that is --
ここにあるのは
09:53
that's sort of vaporized, and that material is holding this
蒸発した際に その原石と 小さな砂粒の一塊が
09:55
little clump of little sand grains together.
合体したものです
09:58
This is a very small grain of sand, this whole thing.
これ全体は とても小さな砂の粒です
10:00
And that's called a ring agglutinate.
リング・アグルチネートというもので
10:02
And many of the grains of sand on the Moon look like that,
月の砂は大抵 このようになっていますが
10:05
and you'd never find that on Earth.
地球の砂はそうなってません
10:09
Most of the sand on the Moon,
月の砂は大抵
10:12
especially -- and you know when you look at the Moon,
特に
―月を見ると判りますが―
10:15
there's the dark areas and the light areas. The dark areas
暗いところと明るいところがありますね
10:17
are lava flows. They're basaltic lava flows,
暗いところは溶岩流です
それらは玄武岩の溶岩流で
10:19
and that's what this sand looks like, very similar
その砂は マウイの火山の砂よりも
10:23
to the sand that you would see in Haleakala.
とても小さいのです
10:26
Other sands, when these micrometeorites come in,
微小隕石が衝突して溶け
10:30
they vaporize and they make these fountains,
溶岩となって噴き上がります
10:33
these microscopic fountains that go up into the --
極小の溶岩が空気中に―
10:36
I was going to say "up into the air," but there is no air --
とは言え 空気はありませんが―
10:39
goes sort of up, and these microscopic glass beads
上空に巻き上がり 顕微鏡サイズのガラス玉になり
10:41
are formed instantly, and they harden, and by the time
そのまま固まって
10:46
they fall down back to the surface of the Moon,
月の地面に落ちるのです
10:48
they have these beautiful colored glass spherules.
美しい色のガラス玉になります
10:52
And these are actually microscopic;
実際に顕微鏡で見てみましょう
10:54
you need a microscope to see these.
顕微鏡でなければ見えないんですよ
10:56
Now here's a grain of sand that is from the Moon,
これが 月の砂です
10:59
and you can see that the entire
全体の結晶構造が
11:02
crystal structure is still there.
残ったままになっていますね
11:05
This grain of sand is probably about
この砂の粒はおそらく
11:07
three and a half or four billion years old,
35~40億年前のものでしょう
11:09
and it's never eroded away like the way we have sand
地球の砂のように 侵食されていません
11:11
on Earth erodes away because of water and tumbling,
水も 空気もありませんし 転がることも
11:14
air, and so forth. All you can see is a little bit of erosion
ないからです
わずかな侵食は
11:18
down here by the Sun, has these solar storms,
太陽 つまり太陽風によるもので
11:21
and that's erosion by solar radiation.
これが太陽からの放射による侵食です
11:25
So what I've been trying to tell you today is
私が今日 皆さんに伝えたいのは
11:30
things even as ordinary as a grain of sand
砂粒ような ありきたりの物でさえ
11:33
can be truly extraordinary if you look closely
近づいて 新しい視点で見てみると
11:36
and if you look from a different and a new point of view.
実に素晴らしいものになりうる ということです
11:39
I think that this was best put by William Blake when he said,
ウィリアム・ブレイクが
うまく言い表した言葉があります
11:43
"To see a world in a grain of sand
「一粒の砂に世界を見る
11:47
and a heaven in a wild flower,
一輪の野花に天界を見る
11:50
hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
君の手のひらに無限をつかめ
11:52
and eternity in an hour."
一刻の中に永遠を」
11:55
Thank you. (Applause)
ありがとう(拍手)
11:57
Translator:Wataru Terada
Reviewer:Natsuhiko Mizutani

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Gary Greenberg - Micro photographer
Gary Greenberg is a photographer, biomedical researcher and inventor intent on giving us all a view of the microscopic wonders all around us.

Why you should listen

A photographer and filmmaker with a Ph.D. in biomedical research, Gary Greenberg creates new ways to capture the spectacular landscapes that are hidden from everyday perception inside grains of sand, human cells and flower petals. Using high-definition, three-dimensional light microscopes -- for which he holds 18 patents -- Greenberg makes the miracles of nature tangible, exposing their hidden details. Most recently, Greenberg turned his attention to sand grains, photographing samples from around the world for the book, A Grain of Sand: Nature's Secret Wonder. For it, Greenberg even photographed moon sand returned from NASA’s Apollo 11 Mission.

Greenberg has also taught at the University of Southern California and has been a featured artist at the Science Museum of Minnesota. 

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