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TEDxBoston 2012

Amos Winter: The cheap all-terrain wheelchair

エイモス・ウィンター: 低コスト全地形型車いすの開発

June 22, 2012

泥地や砂地をものともしない車いすを、どうしたら200ドル以下で作れるでしょうか?MITで工学を研究するエイモス・ウィンターは、安価で製造が簡単な全地形対応型車いす--実際に誰でもが手に入れることができ、どこへでも行ける車いす--の仕組みについて解説します。さらにその過程で得た貴重な教訓を語ってくれます。

Amos Winter - Mechanical engineer
Amos Winter and his team at MIT built the Leveraged Freedom Chair, a cheap lever-powered wheelchair whose design and develop put the user first. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Living with a physical disability isn't easy
身体に障がいを抱えて生きるのは
00:15
anywhere in the world,
世界のどこであれ 大変です
00:19
but if you live in a country like the United States,
米国のような国では 生活を楽にしてくれる
00:21
there's certain appurtenances available to you that do make life easier.
設備や用具が使えます
00:24
So if you're in a building, you can take an elevator.
ビル内ではエレベータを使えます
00:27
If you're crossing the street, you have sidewalk cutouts.
横断歩道では歩道の縁石が低くなっています
00:30
And if you have to travel some distance farther
自力で行けない場所には
00:32
than you can do under your own power, there's accessible vehicles,
障がい者用に改造した車を利用できますし
00:34
and if you can't afford one of those,
特殊な車が買えなければ
00:37
there's accessible public transportation.
公共交通機関を利用できます
00:39
But in the developing world, things are quite different.
しかし途上国では事情が全く異なります
00:41
There's 40 million people who need a wheelchair but don't have one,
4千万人が車いすを必要としています
00:44
and the majority of these people live in rural areas,
その大多数は地方に住んでいるのです
00:47
where the only connections to community, to employment, to education,
職場や学校やコミュニティへは
00:51
are by traveling long distances on rough terrain
未舗装のデコボコ道を長距離
00:55
often under their own power.
自力で移動しなければなりません
00:57
And the devices usually available to these people
人々の手に入る用具は
01:00
are not made for that context, break down quickly,
土地に合わず すぐに壊れ
01:02
and are hard to repair.
修理できないものなのです
01:05
I started looking at wheelchairs in developing countries in 2005,
途上国の車いすに注目したのは2005年の夏
01:07
when I spent the summer assessing the state of technology in Tanzania,
タンザニアの工業技術の実態を調査したときです
01:12
and I talked to wheelchair users, wheelchair manufacturers, disability groups,
車いすの利用者 製造元 障がい者たちと
01:16
and what stood out to me
話し合うなかで気づいたのは
01:19
is that there wasn't a device available
地方の多様な土地の形状に対応して
01:21
that was designed for rural areas, that could go fast
効率的に速度が出るように設計された
01:24
and efficiently on many types of terrain.
車いすが ないということでした
01:26
So being a mechanical engineer,
MITで研究する機械工学者として
01:29
being at MIT and having lots of resources available to me,
私には使えるリソースがたくさんあるので
01:31
I thought I'd try to do something about it.
何かやってみようと思いました
01:33
Now when you're talking about trying to travel
デコボコの不整地を長距離
01:36
long distances on rough terrain,
移動するといえば
01:39
I immediately thought of a mountain bike,
すぐにマウンテンバイクを思いつきます
01:41
and a mountain bike's good at doing this
マウンテンバイクは悪路に適しています
01:43
because it has a gear train,
変速ギアを備えており
01:44
and you can shift to a low gear if you have to climb a hill
上り坂や泥や砂の多い道では
01:46
or go through mud or sand
ローギアに落とすと
01:49
and you get a lot of torque but a low speed.
スピードは出ませんが 強いトルクを得ます
01:50
And if you want to go faster, say on pavement,
舗装道路などでスピードを出したければ
01:52
you can shift to a high gear,
ハイギアに入れると
01:55
and you get less torque, but higher speeds.
トルクは小さいですが スピードが出ます
01:56
So the logical evolution here
論理的には マウンテンバイクの部品で
01:58
is to just make a wheelchair with mountain bike components,
車いすを作ればいいわけです
02:00
which many people have done.
すでに多くの人々が試みました
02:02
But these are two products available in the U.S. that
これらは米国で購入できる2つの製品ですが
02:04
would be difficult to transfer into developing countries
途上国では使えません
02:07
because they're much, much too expensive.
まず価格が高すぎます
02:10
And the context I'm talking about is where
私が対象としている国では
02:12
you need to have a product that is less than 200 dollars.
200ドル以下でなくてはなりません
02:14
And this ideal product would also be able to go
職場や学校に行くためには
02:18
about five kilometers a day so you could get to your job, get to school,
1日5キロを移動することになります
02:21
and do it on many, many different types of terrain.
しかも様々な地形に対応する必要があります
02:25
But when you get home or want to go indoors at your work,
自宅や 屋内の職場では
02:27
it's got to be small enough and maneuverable enough to use inside.
小さくて屋内で小回りがきく必要があります
02:30
And furthermore, if you want it to last a long time out in rural areas,
僻地で長期間の使用に耐えるものにするには
02:34
it has to be repairable using the local tools, materials and knowledge
地元で入手できる工具 材料 知識で
02:37
in those contexts.
修理できなければなりません
02:42
So the real crux of the problem here is,
この問題の要点は
02:44
how do you make a system that's a simple device
簡素でありながら 大きな機械効率を得る
02:47
but gives you a large mechanical advantage?
仕組みを いかにして作るかです
02:50
How do you make a mountain bike for your arms
マウンテンバイクの価格と複雑さのない
02:53
that doesn't have the mountain bike cost and complexity?
腕漕ぎマウンテンバイクを作れるかです
02:55
So as is the case with simple solutions,
簡単な答えはいつもそうなのですが
02:57
oftentimes the answer is right in front of your face, and for us it was levers.
答えは眼の前にありました レバーを使うことです
03:00
We use levers all the time, in tools, doorknobs, bicycle parts.
工具 ドアノブ 自転車部品など様々な所に使われます
03:03
And that moment of inspiration, that key invention moment,
発明のひらめきを得たのは
03:08
was when I was sitting in front of my design notebook
机でデザイン帳に向かっていたときでした
03:11
and I started thinking about somebody grabbing a lever,
車いすに座った人がレバーを握ります
03:13
and if they grab near the end of the lever,
先端を握れば
03:16
they can get an effectively long lever
レバーは長くなり
03:18
and produce a lot of torque as they push back and forth,
前後に動かせば大きなトルクが生じ
03:20
and effectively get a low gear.
ローギアとしての効果が得られます
03:23
And as they slide their hand down the lever,
手を下の方にずらして
03:25
they can push with a smaller effective lever length,
レバーの長さを短くして握り
03:28
but push through a bigger angle every stroke,
一漕ぎの角度を大きくすれば
03:31
which makes a faster rotational speed, and gives you an effective high gear.
回転速度が増し ハイギアの効果が得られます
03:32
So what's exciting about this system
この仕組みの優れた点は
03:36
is that it's really, really mechanically simple,
機械的には本当に簡素であることです
03:38
and you could make it using technology
数百年前から存在している技術で
03:41
that's been around for hundreds of years.
作ることができます
03:42
So seeing this in practice,
実際に動くところをお目にかけましょう
03:45
this is the Leveraged Freedom Chair that,
レバー式フリーダムチェアー(LFC)です
03:47
after a few years of development,
数年間の開発期間を経て
03:48
we're now going into production with,
量産段階に入っています
03:50
and this is a full-time wheelchair user --
この方は車いすの利用者で
03:52
he's paralyzed -- in Guatemala,
グアテマラ在住の下半身不随の方ですが
03:54
and you see he's able to traverse pretty rough terrain.
相当な悪路でも進めます
03:56
Again, the key innovation of this technology is that when he wants to go fast,
この車いすの革新性は 速度を増したければ
04:00
he just grabs the levers near the pivots and goes through a big angle every stroke,
レバーの下部を握り大きな角度で漕ぎますが
04:04
and as the going gets tougher, he just slides his hands up the levers,
進みにくい時には レバーの上部を握って
04:09
creates more torque, and kind of bench-presses his way
ベンチプレスのように動かせば さらに トルクを得て
04:11
out of trouble through the rough terrain.
悪路から脱出することができます
04:14
Now the big, important point here is that
ここで非常に重要なことは
04:16
the person is the complex machine in this system.
ここでは 人間こそが複雑な機械であることです
04:19
It's the person that's sliding his hands up and down the levers,
レバーの握り位置を変えるのは人間なのです
04:22
so the mechanism itself can be very simple
それで構造自体が簡素になり
04:25
and composed of bicycle parts you can get anywhere in the world.
どこででも手に入る自転車部品で作れるのです
04:28
Because those bicycle parts
これらの自転車部品は
04:31
are so ubiquitously available, they're super-cheap.
あらゆる国で入手できて 非常に安価です
04:33
They're made by the gazillions in China and India,
中国やインドで大量生産しており
04:35
and we can source them anywhere in the world,
世界中で部品を調達して車いすを作れます
04:37
build the chair anywhere, and most importantly repair it,
大切なのは 片田舎の村の修理工でも
04:39
even out in a village with a local bicycle mechanic
手に入る工具と部品と知識で
04:42
who has local tools, knowledge and parts available.
修理できることです
04:44
Now, when you want to use the LFC indoors,
LFCを屋内で使いたいときには
04:49
all you have to do is pull the levers out of the drivetrain,
レバーを外し 車体のフレームにおさめれば
04:51
stow them in the frame, and it converts into a normal wheelchair
通常の車いすとして使えます
04:55
that you can use just like any other normal wheelchair,
通常の車いすと何ら変わりなく使えるように
04:58
and we sized it like a normal wheelchair,
寸法もそのように作りました
05:01
so it's narrow enough to fit through a standard doorway,
規格サイズのドアを通過できる幅に作っています
05:03
it's low enough to fit under a table,
テーブルの下に入る高さにしています
05:07
and it's small and maneuverable enough to fit in a bathroom
トイレの中でも 小さく動きやすくしています
05:11
and this is important so the user can get up close to a toilet,
大切なのは 通常の車いすのように
05:15
and be able to transfer off
利用者が便器のそばに十分に近づいて
05:17
just like he could in a normal wheelchair.
自力で体を移せることです
05:19
Now, there's three important points that I want to stress
ここで3つの重要な点を 協調しておきます
05:25
that I think really hit home in this project.
この3つが プロジェクトの核心部分と言えます
05:28
The first is that this product works well because
1つ目はこの製品が使いやすいのは
05:32
we were effectively able to combine
徹底した技術的洗練と利用者目線での設計を
05:35
rigorous engineering science and analysis with user-centered design
うまく組み合わせたところにあります
05:37
focused on the social and usage and economic factors
そして途上国の車いす利用者にとって重要な
05:41
important to wheelchair users in the developing countries.
社会的 経済的 実用的要因に焦点を当てたことです
05:45
So I'm an academic at MIT, and I'm a mechanical engineer,
私はMITの研究者で機械エンジニアです
05:47
so I can do things like look at the type of terrain you want to travel on,
私は車いすを利用する土地の形状を調べ
05:50
and figure out how much resistance it should impose,
そこから発生する抵抗の大きさを推測し
05:53
look at the parts we have available and mix and match them
入手できる部品を調べ 組み合わせ
05:56
to figure out what sort of gear trains we can use,
使用するギア比を推測し
05:59
and then look at the power and force you can get out of your upper body
上半身からくり出すことのできる力を調べ
06:02
to analyze how fast you should be able to go in this chair
車いすでレバーを押し引きしたときに
06:05
as you put your arms up and down the levers.
どのくらいの速度で進むことができるか分析します
06:07
So as a wet-behind-the-ears student, excited,
駆け出しの研究者だったので 有頂天になり
06:09
our team made a prototype,
チームで試作機を作りました
06:13
brought that prototype to Tanzania, Kenya and Vietnam in 2008,
2008年にタンザニア ケニア ベトナムに持ち込んだところ
06:15
and found it was terrible
全く役に立たないことがわかりました
06:20
because we didn't get enough input from users.
利用者からの声を十分聞き入れていなかったからです
06:22
So because we tested it with wheelchair users,
そこで車いす利用者と製造元に
06:24
with wheelchair manufacturers, we got that feedback from them,
試乗してもらい 意見を取り入れ
06:28
not just articulating their problems, but articulating their solutions,
問題だけでなく解決への提案も聞き取り
06:30
and worked together to go back to the drawing board and make a new design,
一緒に設計図に戻り 設計し直し
06:33
which we brought back to East Africa in '09
2009年に東アフリカにもう一度持ち込みました
06:37
that worked a lot better than a normal wheelchair on rough terrain,
悪路では従来より飛躍的に性能が向上しました
06:39
but it still didn't work well indoors because it was too big,
屋内ではだめでした 大きすぎて
06:42
it was heavy, it was hard to move around,
重くて 小回りがきかなかったのです
06:45
so again with that user feedback, we went back to the drawing board,
利用者の声をもとに再度設計図に戻り
06:47
came up with a better design, 20 pounds lighter,
新型では 10キロそぎ落としました
06:50
as narrow as a regular wheelchair, tested that in a field trial in Guatemala,
従来型同様に細身になった新型をグアテマラで試しました
06:53
and that advanced the product to the point
改良の結果 この製品は
06:56
where we have now that it's going into production.
市場に出せる品質に達したのです
06:58
Now also being engineering scientists,
また 工業科学者として
07:02
we were able to quantify the performance benefits of the Leveraged Freedom Chair,
LFCの性能を計測できる立場にあったので
07:04
so here are some shots of our trial in Guatemala
グアテマラに持ち込み
07:08
where we tested the LFC on village terrain,
村の土地で実車テストを行いました
07:10
and tested people's biomechanical outputs,
利用者の生体力学的排出量や
07:14
their oxygen consumption, how fast they go,
酸素消費量や 車速や
07:16
how much power they're putting out,
操作に必要な筋力などについて
07:18
both in their regular wheelchairs and using the LFC,
従来型の車いすとLFCを比較しました
07:20
and we found that the LFC is about 80 percent faster
その結果 その土地ではLFCが
07:23
going on these terrains than a normal wheelchair.
従来型の車いすよりも80%速く進めること
07:25
It's also about 40 percent more efficient than a regular wheelchair,
40%効率がよいことがわかりました
07:27
and because of the mechanical advantage you get from the levers,
レバーの機械的特性のおかげで
07:31
you can produce 50 percent higher torque
50%増のトルクを得ることができるので
07:34
and really muscle your way through the really, really rough terrain.
大変な悪路でも腕力でこぎ進むことができます
07:35
Now the second lesson that we learned in this is that
このプロジェクトから学んだ 2つ目の重要な点は
07:40
the constraints on this design really push the innovation,
設計上の制約が革新を生み出したことです
07:43
because we had to hit such a low price point,
非常な低価格を目指す必要があり
07:46
because we had to make a device that could travel
実に様々な形状の土地に対応しつつ
07:48
on many, many types of terrain but still be usable indoors,
屋内でも使えるものでなければならず
07:50
and be simple enough to repair,
かつ簡単に修理できる必要があったので
07:53
we ended up with a fundamentally new product,
全く新しい製品を開発することになりました
07:56
a new product that is an innovation
100年間もほとんど変わらなかったものを
07:58
in a space that really hasn't changed in a hundred years.
革新的な製品にする必要があったのです
08:00
And these are all merits that are not just good in the developing world.
得られた成果は途上国ばかりでなく
08:03
Why not in countries like the U.S. too?
米国のような先進国にも有効です
08:06
So we teamed up with Continuum,
私たちはボストンのデザイン事務所
08:09
a local product design firm here in Boston
コンティヌウムと共同して
08:11
to make the high-end version, the developed world version,
先進国向け高級バージョンを作成しました
08:12
that we'll probably sell primarily in the U.S. and Europe,
これは米国やヨーロッパの
08:16
but to higher-income buyers.
高所得者層向けになるでしょう
08:18
And the final point I want to make is that I think
最後に このプロジェクトが成功したのは
08:21
this project worked well because we engaged
これに関わる重要な関係者すべてに
08:24
all the stakeholders that buy into this project and are important to consider
計画段階から テクノロジーを重視させつつ
08:27
in bringing the technology from inception of an idea
革新性 実現可能性 市場性 普及性などと
08:32
through innovation, validation, commercialization and dissemination,
すりあわせを行ったことです
08:35
and that cycle has to start and end with end users.
それは利用者に始まって終わるサイクルでした
08:39
These are the people that define the requirements of the technology,
利用者たちがテクノロジーに要求する内容を定め
08:43
and these are the people that have to give the thumbs-up at the end,
利用者たちに 「これはいい こんなのが欲しかったんだ」と
08:46
and say, "Yeah, it actually works. It meets our needs."
最終的に言ってもらう必要がありました
08:48
So people like me in the academic space,
私のような研究サイドの人間は
08:51
we can do things like innovate and analyze and test,
開発し分析しテストし
08:52
create data and make bench-level prototypes,
データをとり試作品を作ります
08:56
but how do you get that bench-level prototype to commercialization?
では それを商品にするにはどうすれば?
08:59
So we need gap-fillers like Continuum that can work on commercializing,
コンティヌウムなど商品化する会社の協力が必要です
09:02
and we started a whole NGO to bring our chair to market --
車いすを市場に出すために
09:06
Global Research Innovation Technology --
新たにGRITというNGOを立ち上げました
09:08
and then we also teamed up with a big manufacturer in India, Pinnacle Industries,
インドの製造大手ピナクルとも提携しました
09:11
that's tooled up now to make 500 chairs a month
現在月産500台の生産が可能です
09:14
and will make the first batch of 200 next month,
最初の200台が来月生産され
09:17
which will be delivered in India.
まずインドで販売されます
09:18
And then finally, to get this out to the people in scale,
さらに多くの人々に届けるために
09:20
we teamed up with the largest disability organization
世界最大の障がい者支援団体
09:23
in the world, Jaipur Foot.
ジャイプール・フットとも提携しました
09:25
Now what's powerful about this model
このビジネスモデルが強靱なのは
09:28
is when you bring together all these stakeholders
サイクルのかなめになる関係者を
09:30
that represent each link in the chain
構想段階からはじめて
09:33
from inception of an idea
現地での導入まで
09:35
all the way to implementation in the field,
1つ1つ繋いでいったことです
09:38
that's where the magic happens.
そこに魔法が起こりました
09:40
That's where you can take a guy like me, an academic,
私は研究者として
09:42
but analyze and test and create a new technology
分析し テストし 新たなテクノロジーを作り出し
09:44
and quantitatively determine how much better the performance is.
性能がどれだけ向上したかを量的に検証します
09:47
You can connect with stakeholders like the manufacturers
製造会社を巻き込むと
09:51
and talk with them face-to-face and leverage their
じかに話ができ 現地が持つ
09:53
local knowledge of manufacturing practices and their clients
生産方法と顧客の要求の知識を
09:55
and combine that knowledge with our engineering knowledge
我々の技術面の知識と結びつけて
09:59
to create something greater than either of us could have done alone.
単独では得られない相乗効果を生み出します
10:01
And then you can also engage the end user
さらに利用者が設計段階から加わることで
10:05
in the design process, and not just ask him what he needs,
利用者のニーズを把握するだけでなく
10:07
but ask him how he thinks it can be achieved.
ニーズを満たす方法を考えてもらうこともできます
10:10
And this picture was taken in India in our last field trial,
これはインドで最後の実地試験時に撮った写真です
10:13
where we had a 90-percent adoption rate where people
90%の人々が従来の車いすから
10:16
switched to using our Leveraged Freedom Chair over their normal wheelchair,
LFCに乗り換えています
10:19
and this picture specifically is of Ashok,
これはアショークの写真です
10:22
and Ashok had a spinal injury when he fell out of a tree,
アショークは木から落ちて脊髄を損傷しました
10:25
and he had been working at a tailor, but once he was injured
以前は仕立屋でしたが 負傷して以来
10:28
he wasn't able to transport himself from his house
1キロ離れた店までを通常の車いすで
10:31
over a kilometer to his shop in his normal wheelchair.
移動することができませんでした
10:34
The road was too rough.
道がデコボコだったからです
10:37
But the day after he got an LFC, he hopped in it,
彼はLFCを手に入れた翌日 車いすに飛び乗り
10:38
rode that kilometer, opened up his shop
1キロの道を走り 店を開けました
10:41
and soon after landed a contract to make school uniforms
まもなく学校の制服を作る契約を結び
10:43
and started making money, started providing for his family again.
稼ぎで再び家族を養えるようになりました
10:46
Ashok: You also encouraged me to work.
「私に働くようにと励ましてくれたね
10:49
I rested for a day at home.
家で一日休んで
10:51
The next day I went to my shop.
次の日自分で店まで来られたよ
10:54
Now everything is back to normal.
すべて普通どおりだ」
10:58
Amos Winter: And thank you very much for having me today.
今日はお招きいただきありがとうございました
11:01
(Applause)
(拍手)
11:05
Translator:Haruo Nishinoh
Reviewer:Masato Suzuki

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Amos Winter - Mechanical engineer
Amos Winter and his team at MIT built the Leveraged Freedom Chair, a cheap lever-powered wheelchair whose design and develop put the user first.

Why you should listen

Amos Winter wants to know: How do you redesign the wheelchair, an essential aid for millions, to be even better, more affordable, adaptable for the developing world, and able to face any type of terrain or weather? The answer is: the Leveraged Freedom Chair. Integrating science, engineering and user-driven design, Winter has developed a wheelchair that uses arm-powered levers that yield surprisingly simple, highly effective mechanical results. Even better, cheap parts means the chair costs under $200 and can be repaired easily, even in rural communities where resources are scarce.

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The developer's blog is here.