21:13
TED2007

Steven Pinker: The surprising decline in violence

スティーブン・ピンカー: 暴力にまつわる社会的通念

Filmed:

聖書の時代から現在まで暴力が減少してきていることをスティーブン・ピンカーは図示して説明します。イラクやダルフールの非論理的で腹立たしい現実もありますが、それでも人類史上もっとも平和な時代を我々は生きていると語ります。

- Psychologist
Steven Pinker questions the very nature of our thoughts -- the way we use words, how we learn, and how we relate to others. In his best-selling books, he has brought sophisticated language analysis to bear on topics of wide general interest. Full bio

アウシュビッツ強制収容所のようなイメージが
00:25
Images like this, from the Auschwitz concentration camp,
20世紀を通して 我々の意識に焼きついて
00:29
have been seared into our consciousness during the twentieth century
我々という人間の正体や 我々のたどった道 我々が生きる時代の
00:34
and have given us a new understanding of who we are,
新しい解釈をもたらしました
00:39
where we've come from and the times we live in.
20世紀には数々の残虐行為が見られました
00:42
During the twentieth century, we witnessed the atrocities
スターリン ヒトラー 毛沢東 ポルポト ルワンダやその他の集団虐殺
00:46
of Stalin, Hitler, Mao, Pol Pot, Rwanda and other genocides,
21世紀に突入して まだ7年しか経過していませんが
00:51
and even though the twenty-first century is only seven years old,
既に ダルフール紛争やイラクの日常となった
00:55
we have already witnessed an ongoing genocide in Darfur
酷い状況を目にしてきました
00:59
and the daily horrors of Iraq.
こうしてある共通の理解に至りました
01:02
This has led to a common understanding of our situation,
現代社会は 暴力にあふれ
01:05
namely that modernity has brought us terrible violence, and perhaps
調和のとれた原始の時代から離れてしまったから今の危難があるのです
01:09
that native peoples lived in a state of harmony that we have departed from, to our peril.
例えば 数年前の感謝祭のときの
01:12
Here is an example
ボストングローブ紙の論評です
01:17
from an op-ed on Thanksgiving, in the Boston Globe
“インディアンの生活は苦しいものであったが
01:20
a couple of years ago, where the writer wrote, "The Indian life
雇用問題は無く 仲間意識が強く
01:24
was a difficult one, but there were no employment problems,
薬物乱用など存在せず
01:27
community harmony was strong, substance abuse unknown,
犯罪は ほぼ皆無で 部族間の争いは
01:30
crime nearly non-existent, what warfare there was between tribes
主に儀式的で 無差別虐殺や
01:34
was largely ritualistic and seldom resulted in indiscriminate
大量虐殺につながることは滅多になかった” よく聞くお話です
01:37
or wholesale slaughter." Now, you're all familiar with this treacle.
子どもに教え テレビや絵本でも耳にします
01:42
We teach it to our children. We hear it on television
このセッションのテーマは“常識を疑う” ですが
01:45
and in storybooks. Now, the original title of this session
今述べた常識的な理解の誤りについて
01:50
was, "Everything You Know Is Wrong," and I'm going to present evidence
論証したいと思います
01:53
that this particular part of our common understanding is wrong,
実際に我々の祖先は非常に残虐で
01:56
that, in fact, our ancestors were far more violent than we are,
暴力は長い事 減少してきており
02:00
that violence has been in decline for long stretches of time,
我々は おそらく人類史上 もっとも平和な時を生きています
02:04
and that today we are probably living in the most peaceful time in our species' existence.
ダルフールやイラクでの紛争が起きている時代に
02:07
Now, in the decade of Darfur and Iraq,
このような陳述は 幻覚か不当にすら感じますが
02:12
a statement like that might seem somewhere between hallucinatory
これが正しい理解であると説明していきます
02:15
and obscene. But I'm going to try to convince you
暴力の減少はフラクタル現象です
02:18
that that is the correct picture. The decline of violence
これは数千年 数百年 数十年
02:24
is a fractal phenomenon. You can see it over millennia,
そして数年のスケールで観測できます
02:27
over centuries, over decades and over years,
16世紀の理性の時代の始まりが
02:31
although there seems to have been a tipping point at the onset
転換点だったようです
02:33
of the Age of Reason in the sixteenth century. One sees it
一様ではなくとも世界中に見られます
02:37
all over the world, although not homogeneously.
啓蒙運動の時代 英国やオランダで始まり
02:41
It's especially evident in the West, beginning with England
特に西洋では顕著です
02:44
and Holland around the time of the Enlightenment.
では数千年から数年のスケールで
02:47
Let me take you on a journey of several powers of 10 --
説明していきましょう
02:51
from the millennium scale to the year scale --
一万年前まで人間は狩猟採集型の生活をして
02:53
to try to persuade you of this. Until 10,000 years ago, all humans
永住地や政府はありませんでした
02:57
lived as hunter-gatherers, without permanent settlements
これは一般に原始的な調和の一つとして
03:00
or government. And this is the state that's commonly thought
考えられる状態ですが
03:03
to be one of primordial harmony. But the archaeologist
考古学者のローレンス キーリーは
03:09
Lawrence Keeley, looking at casualty rates
現代の狩猟採取者の死亡率を参考にして
03:13
among contemporary hunter-gatherers, which is our best source
狩猟採取社会の新しい姿を描きました
03:17
of evidence about this way of life, has shown a rather different conclusion.
キーリーはこんなグラフに
03:23
Here is a graph that he put together
数々の狩猟採取社会での
03:25
showing the percentage of male deaths due to warfare
争いによる男性死者の割合をまとめました
03:28
in a number of foraging, or hunting and gathering societies.
赤い棒線は 自然死ではなくて
03:33
The red bars correspond to the likelihood that a man will die
誰かに殺される確率を示しています
03:39
at the hands of another man, as opposed to passing away
ニューギニア高地やアマゾン熱帯雨林の
03:42
of natural causes, in a variety of foraging societies
様々な原住民社会におけるものです
03:46
in the New Guinea Highlands and the Amazon Rainforest.
殺される確率が60%の場所もあれば
03:50
And they range from a rate of almost a 60 percent chance that a man will die
わずか15%の場所もあります
03:53
at the hands of another man to, in the case of the Gebusi,
左下に見られる短い青い棒線は
03:57
only a 15 percent chance. The tiny, little blue bar in the lower
20世紀の欧米の統計を表わしたもので
04:01
left-hand corner plots the corresponding statistic from United States
2度の世界大戦の犠牲者を含んでいます
04:05
and Europe in the twentieth century, and includes all the deaths
もし同じ死亡率のまま20世紀を迎えていたら
04:09
of both World Wars. If the death rate in tribal warfare had prevailed
1億人どころか20億人が死んでいたでしょう
04:14
during the 20th century, there would have been two billion deaths rather than 100 million.
千年スケールの話の続きですが 聖書から
04:20
Also at the millennium scale, we can look
古代文明における社会の風習を見ることができます
04:23
at the way of life of early civilizations such as the ones described
道徳的価値の源泉と考えられる聖書の中に
04:28
in the Bible. And in this supposed source of our moral values,
戦争に対する見方がわかる記述があります
04:33
one can read descriptions of what was expected in warfare,
例えば 31章には“わが主がモーゼに命令すると
04:37
such as the following from Numbers 31: "And they warred
彼らはミデヤン人と戦い 彼らは
04:40
against the Midianites as the Lord commanded Moses,
すべての男どもを殺した そしてモーゼは言った
04:43
and they slew all the males. And Moses said unto them,
女は生かしておいたか? 直ちに 男の子たちを皆 殺せ
04:46
'Have you saved all the women alive? Now, therefore, kill every male
男と寝て男を知っている女も皆殺せ
04:50
among the little ones and kill every woman that hath known man
ただし 男を知らない娘は あなたたちのために
04:53
by lying with him, but all the women children that have not know a man
生かしておくがよい” と書かれています
04:57
by lying with him keep alive for yourselves.'" In other words,
これは男や子どもは殺し 処女を見つけた時は生かしておいて
05:00
kill the men; kill the children; if you see any virgins,
強姦してもよい という意味です
05:05
then you can keep them alive so that you can rape them.
聖書には このような記述が4~5か所に見られます
05:08
You can find four or five passages in the Bible of this ilk.
また聖書によると 死刑が容認される罪は
05:12
Also in the Bible, one sees that the death penalty
同性愛 姦通 冒涜
05:15
was the accepted punishment for crimes such as homosexuality,
偶像崇拝 親への口答え
05:20
adultery, blasphemy, idolatry, talking back to your parents --
安息日に枝を拾うことなどが含まれます
05:24
(Laughter) -- and picking up sticks on the Sabbath.
では一桁分ズームインして
05:28
Well, let's click the zoom lens
世紀のスケールで見てみましょう
05:31
down one order of magnitude, and look at the century scale.
中世から現代に至る期間の 戦争の統計はありませんが
05:34
Although we don't have statistics for warfare throughout
歴史をたどれば 社会的に
05:39
the Middle Ages to modern times,
容認された暴力が減少してきたのは
05:40
we know just from conventional history -- the evidence
はっきりとしています
05:43
was under our nose all along that there has been a reduction
例えば どんな社会でも 手足の切断や拷問は
05:47
in socially sanctioned forms of violence.
刑罰として規定された形式でした
05:50
For example, any social history will reveal that mutilation and torture
現在 違反行為に課せられるのは罰金ですが
05:54
were routine forms of criminal punishment. The kind of infraction
当時は舌や耳を切られたり 目をつぶされたり
05:57
today that would give you a fine, in those days would result in
手を切断されたりしたのです
06:01
your tongue being cut out, your ears being cut off, you being blinded,
死刑も火あぶりや解体刑 車裂きの刑
06:05
a hand being chopped off and so on.
八つ裂きの刑など
06:07
There were numerous ingenious forms of sadistic capital punishment:
残酷なものは多々ありました
06:12
burning at the stake, disemboweling, breaking on the wheel,
王様の批判や パン泥棒など 暴力とは関係のない罪にも
06:15
being pulled apart by horses and so on.
死刑は適用され 労働力を確保するために
06:18
The death penalty was a sanction for a long list of non-violent crimes:
奴隷制が多用されていました
06:22
criticizing the king, stealing a loaf of bread. Slavery, of course,
娯楽も残酷で 一番強烈なのは
06:27
was the preferred labor-saving device, and cruelty was
猫の火あぶりです 吊るされた猫が
06:31
a popular form of entertainment. Perhaps the most vivid example
火の中に入れられ 痛みで鳴き声を上げ
06:34
was the practice of cat burning, in which a cat was hoisted
焼死する姿を見て 観客はギャーッと声をあげながら
06:37
on a stage and lowered in a sling into a fire,
笑っていたのです
06:40
and the spectators shrieked in laughter as the cat, howling in pain,
殺人に関しては 多くの行政機関が
06:46
was burned to death.
死因を記録しているので 統計データが出されています
06:48
What about one-on-one murder? Well, there, there are good statistics,
犯罪学者のマヌエル アイズナーは
06:51
because many municipalities recorded the cause of death.
ヨーロッパ全域で見つけた
06:57
The criminologist Manuel Eisner
殺人の全記録を研究し そのデータを
07:02
scoured all of the historical records across Europe
国家の統計と
07:04
for homicide rates in any village, hamlet, town, county
継ぎ合わせました
07:09
that he could find, and he supplemented them
対数スケールでプロットすると 年間に10万人あたり100件の殺人という
07:11
with national data, when nations started keeping statistics.
中世の代表的な値から始まりますが
07:15
He plotted on a logarithmic scale, going from 100 deaths
その数字はどんどん低下して
07:22
per 100,000 people per year, which was approximately the rate
ヨーロッパ諸国では 年間に 10万人あたり1件以下まで減ります
07:28
of homicide in the Middle Ages. And the figure plummets down
そして 1960年に少し上昇が見られます
07:33
to less than one homicide per 100,000 people per year
ロックンロールが道徳的価値観を下げるという指摘は
07:38
in seven or eight European countries. Then, there is a slight uptick
あながち間違いとも言えないようです
07:42
in the 1960s. The people who said that rock 'n' roll would lead
ともかく 殺人件数は現代に至るまで
07:46
to the decline of moral values actually had a grain of truth to that.
16世紀初頭を境に
07:50
But there was a decline from at least two orders of magnitude
少なくとも二桁の減少を遂げました
07:54
in homicide from the Middle Ages to the present,
10年単位で見てみましょう
07:57
and the elbow occurred in the early sixteenth century.
非政府組織の統計によれば
08:02
Let's click down now to the decade scale.
ヨーロッパと南北アメリカでは1945年以来
08:04
According to non-governmental organizations
戦争や犠牲者を出す民族暴動
08:07
that keep such statistics, since 1945, in Europe and the Americas,
虐殺や軍事クーデターは減少しています
08:11
there has been a steep decline in interstate wars,
世界的にも 戦争による犠牲者は激減しています
08:15
in deadly ethnic riots or pogroms, and in military coups,
黄色の棒線は1950年から現在に至るまでの
08:19
even in South America. Worldwide, there's been a steep decline
一つの戦争の年間犠牲者を示しています
08:23
in deaths in interstate wars. The yellow bars here show the number
50年代には一つの戦争の年間犠牲者数が 6万5千人でしたが
08:29
of deaths per war per year from 1950 to the present.
2000年以降は酷い状況とは言え
08:34
And, as you can see, the death rate goes down from 65,000 deaths
年間犠牲者数は2千人以下まで減少しています
08:38
per conflict per year in the 1950s to less than 2,000 deaths
一年スケールで見ても 暴力の減少がわかります
08:42
per conflict per year in this decade, as horrific as it is.
冷戦終結の後 内戦や集団虐殺は減りました
08:46
Even in the year scale, one can see a decline of violence.
第二次世界大戦後 90%の減少です
08:50
Since the end of the Cold War, there have been fewer civil wars,
殺人や暴力犯罪における60年代の上昇分も取り返しました
08:53
fewer genocides -- indeed, a 90 percent reduction since post-World War II highs --
これは FBI がまとめた他殺の統計です
08:59
and even a reversal of the 1960s uptick in homicide and violent crime.
50年代と60年代は暴力が抑えられていましたが
09:05
This is from the FBI Uniform Crime Statistics. You can see
その後 何十年か高めの数字を経て
09:09
that there is a fairly low rate of violence in the '50s and the '60s,
1990年代に激減し始め
09:13
then it soared upward for several decades, and began
ほぼ60年代のレベルへと戻りました
09:17
a precipitous decline, starting in the 1990s, so that it went back
クリントン大統領 ありがとう
09:21
to the level that was last enjoyed in 1960.
(笑)
09:25
President Clinton, if you're here, thank you.
さて これだけ大切な事実に対し
09:27
(Laughter)
誤解が生じる理由は多々あると思います
09:29
So the question is, why are so many people so wrong
報道が充実したということも理由の一つです
09:32
about something so important? I think there are a number of reasons.
AP通信は16世紀の修道士よりも
09:36
One of them is we have better reporting. The Associated Press
戦争に関して上をいく年代史家です
09:39
is a better chronicler of wars over the surface of the Earth
認知的錯覚によって ある具体的な事例を思い出すのが簡単になるほど
09:43
than sixteenth-century monks were.
先入観が強くなるというのが
09:47
There's a cognitive illusion. We cognitive psychologists know that the easier it is
認知心理学の知見です
09:52
to recall specific instances of something,
新聞で目にする残虐な写真やニュースは
09:55
the higher the probability that you assign to it.
老衰で亡くなるお年寄りよりも 記憶に焼きつきやすいのです
09:58
Things that we read about in the paper with gory footage
世論や政策提言における力学の問題として
10:02
burn into memory more than reports of a lot more people dying
状況は改善し続けていると訴え 注目をあびて
10:06
in their beds of old age. There are dynamics in the opinion
支持や支援を集めることはできません
10:12
and advocacy markets: no one ever attracted observers, advocates
(笑)
10:17
and donors by saying
先住民に対して罪悪感があるため
10:19
things just seem to be getting better and better.
現代の知識人たちは西洋文化の特長を
10:21
(Laughter)
素直に認めようとはしません
10:22
There's guilt about our treatment of native peoples
道徳の変化が行動の変化を追い抜くこともあるでしょう
10:25
in modern intellectual life, and an unwillingness to acknowledge
暴力が減少した理由の一つは
10:28
there could be anything good about Western culture.
人々が当時の大虐殺や残酷な行為に嫌気がさしたからです
10:31
And of course, our change in standards can outpace the change
今もそうですが 道徳が行動を追い越して
10:36
in behavior. One of the reasons violence went down
変化してしまうと 当時の歴史的な基準に照らした場合以上に
10:39
is that people got sick of the carnage and cruelty in their time.
野蛮であったと見なされます
10:42
That's a process that seems to be continuing,
よって 15年の司法手続を経た殺人犯たちが
10:45
but if it outstrips behavior by the standards of the day,
薬殺刑で死刑になることが 気にかかるのも無理はありません
10:49
things always look more barbaric than they would have been
数百年前であれば王様を批判したことで
10:52
by historic standards. So today, we get exercised -- and rightly so --
10分程度の裁判にかけられ
10:56
if a handful of murderers get executed by lethal injection
火あぶりの刑に処せられたかもしれません
11:02
in Texas after a 15-year appeal process. We don't consider
むしろ 幾度となく繰り返されたことだったでしょう
11:07
that a couple of hundred years ago, they may have been burned
今日 死刑制度は野蛮な行為として
11:10
at the stake for criticizing the king after a trial
捉えられています
11:13
that lasted 10 minutes, and indeed, that that would have been repeated
基準の向上とは見なされません
11:16
over and over again. Today, we look at capital punishment
なぜ暴力が減少したのか 誰もわかりませんが
11:21
as evidence of how low our behavior can sink,
私が知っている4つの説明は どれも
11:24
rather than how high our standards have risen.
ある程度うなずけるものです
11:28
Well, why has violence declined? No one really knows,
一つ目はトマスホッブズが正しいというものです
11:31
but I have read four explanations, all of which, I think,
ホッブズによると 人間の自然状態とは “孤独で貧しく
11:36
have some grain of plausibility. The first is, maybe
不機嫌で残酷 しかも短命”
11:39
Thomas Hobbes got it right. He was the one who said
血の渇望や 攻撃的な本能や
11:42
that life in a state of nature was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish
縄張り争いが原因なのではなく
11:47
and short." Not because, he argued,
無政府状態のロジックが原因だと言っています
11:51
humans have some primordial thirst for blood
無政府状態では やられる前にやらなければおしまいです
11:54
or aggressive instinct or territorial imperative,
トーマス シェリングがこれについて
11:58
but because of the logic of anarchy. In a state of anarchy,
自宅の地下で物音がした状況で例示しています
12:01
there's a constant temptation to invade your neighbors preemptively,
アメリカ人の常として
12:05
before they invade you. More recently, Thomas Schelling
ベッド脇から銃を掴み 階下へ降ります
12:08
gives the analogy of a homeowner who hears a rustling
目に飛び込んだのは 銃を持った侵入者
12:11
in the basement. Being a good American, he has a pistol
お互いに考えるのは
12:13
in the nightstand, pulls out his gun, and walks down the stairs.
“人殺しはいやだが 撃たれるぐらいなら
12:17
And what does he see but a burglar with a gun in his hand.
その前に撃った方がよさそうだ
12:20
Now, each one of them is thinking,
奴も殺す気はないかもしれないが
12:21
"I don't really want to kill that guy, but he's about to kill me.
殺される可能性があることを
12:25
Maybe I had better shoot him, before he shoots me,
恐れているだろう”
12:29
especially since, even if he doesn't want to kill me,
狩猟採集の部族はこの一連の考えをたどり
12:31
he's probably worrying right now that I might kill him
襲われる恐怖から 相手を襲うのです
12:34
before he kills me." And so on.
さて 抑止力がこの問題の解決策の一つです
12:37
Hunter-gatherer peoples explicitly go through this train of thought,
先制攻撃はしませんが もしも侵略されたら
12:42
and will often raid their neighbors out of fear of being raided first.
はげしく報復するという方針を公言しておくのです
12:47
Now, one way of dealing with this problem is by deterrence.
このポリシーは 虚勢と見なされがちですが
12:50
You don't strike first, but you have a publicly announced policy
本気だと思われたときにだけ効力を発揮します
12:55
that you will retaliate savagely if you are invaded.
本気と知らせるためには 全ての侵入に復讐を果たし
12:58
The only thing is that it's
借りは必ず返して やがて血の復讐に至るのです
13:00
liable to having its bluff called, and therefore can only work
ギャング映画の世界です ホッブスの解決策である「リヴァイアサン」では
13:05
if it's credible. To make it credible, you must avenge all insults
暴力の公使における正統性を
13:10
and settle all scores, which leads to the cycles of bloody vendetta.
リヴァイアサンという民主的機関だけに帰属させた状態なら
13:14
Life becomes an episode of "The Sopranos." Hobbes' solution,
攻撃の企てが減るというものでした
13:19
the "Leviathan," was that if authority for the legitimate use
なぜなら いかなる攻撃も罰せられ
13:23
of violence was vested in a single democratic agency -- a leviathan --
そこから得られるものは無いので 自分が襲われる恐怖からの
13:29
then such a state can reduce the temptation of attack,
先制攻撃を抑止するのです
13:32
because any kind of aggression will be punished,
抑止力では 本気だと示すために一触即発で復讐する必要があったのが
13:35
leaving its profitability as zero. That would remove the temptation
不要となり こうして平和へと至るのです
13:40
to invade preemptively, out of fear of them attacking you first.
先ほどお見せ出来なかった 殺人件数の割合を
13:44
It removes the need for a hair trigger for retaliation
グラフにしたアイズナーは
13:48
to make your deterrent threat credible. And therefore, it would lead
ヨーロッパで殺人が減少した時期は
13:51
to a state of peace. Eisner -- the man who plotted the homicide rates
中央集権国家の勃興と期を同じくすると指摘しています
13:57
that you failed to see in the earlier slide --
リヴァイアサン理論のちょっとした裏付けです
14:00
argued that the timing of the decline of homicide in Europe
今日 無政府状態の地域で暴力が吹き荒れることも
14:04
coincided with the rise of centralized states.
理論を裏付けます 破たん国家や崩壊した帝国
14:08
So that's a bit of a support for the leviathan theory.
辺境地帯 マフィアやストリートギャング等です
14:11
Also supporting it is the fact that we today see eruptions of violence
二つ目の説明は 人生は取るに足らないものと
14:15
in zones of anarchy, in failed states, collapsed empires,
見られていた時代と場所が多かったことです
14:19
frontier regions, mafias, street gangs and so on.
苦しみや若死にが普通であった昔
14:25
The second explanation is that in many times and places,
他人に危害を加えることに抵抗は感じませんでした
14:28
there is a widespread sentiment that life is cheap.
テクノロジーや経済効率が人生をより長く楽しくさせるにつれて
14:32
In earlier times, when suffering and early death were common
人間は一般的に人生への価値を高めるようになります
14:36
in one's own life, one has fewer compunctions about inflicting them
これは政治学者のジェームズ ペインの議論です
14:40
on others. And as technology and economic efficiency make life
三つ目の説明は“非ゼロ和” の概念を連想させます
14:44
longer and more pleasant, one puts a higher value on life in general.
ジャーナリストであるロバート ライトは
14:48
This was an argument from the political scientist James Payne.
ある種の状況下で 非暴力を含む協力は
14:52
A third explanation invokes the concept of a nonzero-sum game,
双方に利益があると指摘しています
14:56
and was worked out in the book "Nonzero" by the journalist
過剰な物資の貿易を行い 両者が争いをしないこと 又は
15:00
Robert Wright. Wright points out that in certain circumstances,
戦時編制を解き いわゆる平和の配当を分配することで
15:04
cooperation or non-violence can benefit both parties
いかなる時でも 戦う必要がなくなることに
15:07
in an interaction, such as gains in trade when two parties trade
つながると言っています
15:13
their surpluses and both come out ahead, or when two parties
ライトは 人が関わる
15:17
lay down their arms and split the so-called peace dividend
ポジティブサムゲームの件数が増えたと言います
15:20
that results in them not having to fight the whole time.
テクノロジーが 物資やサービスやアイデアの交換を
15:24
Wright argues that technology has increased the number
より遠方と より大人数で行えるようにしたからです
15:26
of positive-sum games that humans tend to be embroiled in,
その結果 死者よりも生きている他者の価値が高まり
15:31
by allowing the trade of goods, services and ideas
自己中心的な理由での暴力は減るのです ライトに言わせると
15:34
over longer distances and among larger groups of people.
“日本への爆弾投下はいけない
15:38
The result is that other people become more valuable alive than dead,
彼らは私のミニバンを作ってくれたのだ”
15:41
and violence declines for selfish reasons. As Wright put it,
(笑)
15:47
"Among the many reasons that I think that we should not bomb
四つ目の説明は哲学者であるピーター シンガーが書いた
15:49
the Japanese is that they built my mini-van."
本のタイトルに示されています
15:52
(Laughter)
彼は 進化によって人間は共感できるようになったと論じています
15:54
The fourth explanation is captured in the title of a book
他人の利害を自らのものとして考える力です
15:58
called "The Expanding Circle," by the philosopher Peter Singer,
残念ながら 我々がそうするのは基本的に
16:02
who argues that evolution bequeathed humans with a sense
非常に限られた仲間や身内だけです
16:05
of empathy, an ability to treat other peoples' interests
それ以外の人は人間以下の扱いを受け
16:10
as comparable to one's own. Unfortunately, by default
当然のことのように食い物にされるのです しかし時間が経つうちに
16:14
we apply it only to a very narrow circle of friends and family.
その範囲は広がり 歴史上の記録には
16:18
People outside that circle are treated as sub-human,
村から一族へ 部族へ
16:21
and can be exploited with impunity. But, over history,
国家へ 他の人種へ 男女へと広がり
16:25
the circle has expanded. One can see, in historical record,
シンガー自身の議論では 感覚をもつ他の種にも
16:29
it expanding from the village, to the clan, to the tribe,
広げるべきものだとしています
16:33
to the nation, to other races, to both sexes,
そこで この広がりの原動力は何かという問いが生じます
16:36
and, in Singer's own arguments, something that we should extend
可能性はたくさんあります
16:38
to other sentient species. The question is,
ロバート ライトが論じる相互依存の輪の増加や黄金律などです
16:43
if this has happened, what has powered that expansion?
つまり他者のことを考え影響しあうほどに
16:46
And there are a number of possibilities, such as increasing circles
相手に耳を傾けてほしい場合には
16:49
of reciprocity in the sense that Robert Wright argues for.
自分の利益を優先するのは
16:54
The logic of the golden rule -- the more you think about and interact
良くないことがわかります
16:58
with other people, the more you realize that it is untenable
自己中心的な態度は不適切です
17:02
to privilege your interests over theirs,
自分が今いる場所が
17:06
at least not if you want them to listen to you. You can't say
宇宙の中で特別な場所だと言えないのと
17:09
that my interests are special compared to yours,
同じことです
17:12
anymore than you can say that the particular spot
世界主義も理由かもしれません
17:15
that I'm standing on is a unique part of the universe
歴史 報道 記憶 リアルな小説 旅行記 識字―
17:18
because I happen to be standing on it that very minute.
こうして かつて人間以下に見ていた他人の姿に
17:21
It may also be powered by cosmopolitanism, by histories,
自分の姿を重ね合わせることを可能にして
17:25
and journalism, and memoirs, and realistic fiction, and travel,
自分の人生の立場が偶然の結果と気づかせます
17:29
and literacy, which allows you to project yourself into the lives
誰にでも起こり得るということです
17:33
of other people that formerly you may have treated as sub-human,
原因は何にせよ 暴力の減少には
17:37
and also to realize the accidental contingency of your own station
深い意味があるため “なぜ戦争をするのか” と問わずに
17:41
in life, the sense that "there but for fortune go I."
“なぜ平和があるのか” と問うべきです
17:46
Whatever its causes, the decline of violence, I think,
“我々の過ち” だけではなく “我々の正しい行い”も問うべきです
17:49
has profound implications. It should force us to ask not just, why
そこを追究するのは
17:53
is there war? But also, why is there peace? Not just,
価値あることだと思います
17:58
what are we doing wrong? But also, what have we been doing right?
どうもありがとう
18:02
Because we have been doing something right,
(拍手)
18:04
and it sure would be good to find out what it is.
素晴らしい内容でした ピーターシンガーが書いた内容ですが
18:06
Thank you very much.
あの広がりとは テクノロジーや
18:07
(Applause).
目に見える他者の増加が 引き起こしたと
18:18
Chris Anderson: I loved that talk. I think a lot of people here in the room would say
感じる人も多いと思います そして それゆえに世界が
18:22
that that expansion of -- that you were talking about,
小さくなっているという感覚 これも真実なのでしょうか?
18:25
that Peter Singer talks about, is also driven by, just by technology,
はい どちらもライト氏の理論にあてはまります
18:28
by greater visibility of the other, and the sense that the world
ずっと大きな輪の中での協力はメリットが大きいのです
18:32
is therefore getting smaller. I mean, is that also a grain of truth?
また 他人の立場に思いを馳せることの
18:36
Steven Pinker: Very much. It would fit both in Wright's theory,
手助けにもなっています
18:40
that it allows us to enjoy the benefits of cooperation
中世の恐ろしい拷問の話を読んだら
18:44
over larger and larger circles. But also, I think it helps us
なぜ そんなことが出来たのか
18:49
imagine what it's like to be someone else. I think when you read
犠牲者をかわいそうだと思わなかったのかと
18:52
these horrific tortures that were common in the Middle Ages, you think,
思うでしょうが 彼らにとっては
18:55
how could they possibly have done it,
自分と似た存在だとは思いようもない―
18:57
how could they have not have empathized with the person
ただのよそ者に過ぎなかったのです
19:00
that they're disemboweling? But clearly,
他人と立場を入れ替える想像を
19:03
as far as they're concerned, this is just an alien being
容易にするものは何でも 他人への配慮を
19:06
that does not have feelings akin to their own. Anything, I think,
高めるのです
19:09
that makes it easier to imagine trading places
大切なことなので 近いうちに報道機関にも聴いてもらいたいですね
19:12
with someone else means that it increases your moral consideration
どうもありがとう
19:15
to that other person.
どういたしまして
19:16
CA: Well, Steve, I would love every news media owner to hear that talk
19:20
at some point in the next year. I think it's really important. Thank you so much.
19:22
SP: My pleasure.
Translated by Takako Sato
Reviewed by Natsuhiko Mizutani

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About the Speaker:

Steven Pinker - Psychologist
Steven Pinker questions the very nature of our thoughts -- the way we use words, how we learn, and how we relate to others. In his best-selling books, he has brought sophisticated language analysis to bear on topics of wide general interest.

Why you should listen

Steven Pinker's books have been like bombs tossed into the eternal nature-versus-nurture debate. Pinker asserts that not only are human minds predisposed to certain kinds of learning, such as language, but that from birth our minds -- the patterns in which our brain cells fire -- predispose us each to think and behave differently.

His deep studies of language have led him to insights into the way that humans form thoughts and engage our world. He argues that humans have evolved to share a faculty for language, the same way a spider evolved to spin a web. We aren't born with “blank slates” to be shaped entirely by our parents and environment, he argues in books including The Language Instinct; How the Mind Works; and The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature.

Time magazine named Pinker one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2004. His book The Stuff of Thought was previewed at TEDGlobal 2005. His 2012 book The Better Angels of Our Nature looks at our notion of violence.

For the BBC, he picks his Desert Island Discs >>

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Steven Pinker | Speaker | TED.com