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TEDSalon London Fall 2012

Markham Nolan: How to separate fact and fiction online

マーカム・ノーラン 「オンライン上で 事実とフィクションを区別する方法」

November 7, 2012

この話が終わる頃には、YouTubeで864時間分のビデオ、FacebookとInstagramで250万枚の写真が増えているでしょう。では、私達はこのような情報の洪水を、どう整理したらいいのでしょうか。ロンドンでのTEDSalonでマーカム・ノーランが語るのは、彼がチームとともにリアル・タイムで情報を確認するために使う、調査のテクニックです。ハリケーンに襲われた自由の女神の写真やシリアから流出したビデオは本物でしょうか。

Markham Nolan - Journalist
The managing editor of Storyful.com, Markham Nolan has watched journalism evolve from the pursuit of finding facts to the act of verifying those floating in the ether. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I've been a journalist now since I was about 17,
17才の頃から
ジャーナリストをしていますが
00:15
and it's an interesting industry to be in at the moment,
この業界は今 とても面白いです
00:18
because as you all know, there's a huge amount of upheaval
ご存じの通り メディア業界では
00:22
going on in media, and most of you probably know this
ものすごい変化が
起きているからです
00:24
from the business angle, which is that the business model
ただ ほとんどの人は
ビジネスモデルの崩壊や
00:26
is pretty screwed, and as my grandfather would say,
Googleの一人勝ちといった
00:30
the profits have all been gobbled up by Google.
観点から変化を捉えています
00:33
So it's a really interesting time to be a journalist,
ジャーナリストとして
本当に面白いですが
00:35
but the upheaval that I'm interested in is not on the output side.
私が興味あるのは記事自体の
変化ではありません
00:38
It's on the input side. It's concern with
書く前の段階の変化
つまり情報入手や ―
00:41
how we get information and how we gather the news.
取材方法に関心があります
00:44
And that's changed, because we've had a huge shift
力関係は新聞社から読者へと
00:46
in the balance of power from
大きくシフトし
00:49
the news organizations to the audience.
取材が様変わりしたからです
00:52
And the audience for such a long time was in a position
読み手はこれまで ニュースに
00:54
where they didn't have any way of affecting news
影響も変化も与えられませんでした
00:56
or making any change. They couldn't really connect.
接点がなかったのです
00:59
And that's changed irrevocably.
でも状況は変わりました
01:01
My first connection with the news media was
私が初めてメディアに関心をもったのは
01:02
in 1984, the BBC had a one-day strike.
1984年 BBCがストを実施したときです
01:05
I wasn't happy. I was angry. I couldn't see my cartoons.
マンガまで休みになり
怒っていたのです
01:09
So I wrote a letter.
だから手紙を書きました
01:12
And it's a very effective way of ending your hate mail:
嫌がらせの手紙に
最高の結びは こうです
01:15
"Love Markham, Aged 4." Still works.
「愛を込めて マーカム 4才」
これは今でも通用します
01:18
I'm not sure if I had any impact on the one-day strike,
ストに与えた
インパクトは不明です
01:21
but what I do know is that it took them three weeks to get back to me.
ただ わかったのは
返事に3週間もかかったこと
01:24
And that was the round journey. It took that long for anyone
行動を起こして 結果を知りたくても
01:27
to have any impact and get some feedback.
そんなに時間がかかったのです
01:29
And that's changed now because, as journalists,
それもすっかり変わりました
01:31
we interact in real time. We're not in a position
誰もが瞬時にやり取りします
01:33
where the audience is reacting to news.
読者が記事に反応した時代は終わり
01:37
We're reacting to the audience, and we're actually relying on them.
今ではジャーナリストが
読者に頼っているのです
01:39
They're helping us find the news. They're helping us
読者がニュースを探してくれます
01:43
figure out what is the best angle to take and what is the stuff that they want to hear.
取材の切り口も 皆が知りたい事も
読者が教えてくれます
01:45
So it's a real-time thing. It's much quicker. It's happening
全部リアルタイムで
あっという間です
01:50
on a constant basis, and the journalist is always playing catch up.
いつもこんな状態で
追いつくのに必死です
01:54
To give an example of how we rely on the audience,
どのくらい読者に頼っているか ―
02:00
on the 5th of September in Costa Rica, an earthquake hit.
9月5日 コスタリカの
地震を例に 見てみましょう
02:02
It was a 7.6 magnitude. It was fairly big.
M7.6の大地震でした
02:07
And 60 seconds is the amount of time it took
地震が起きて60秒後 ―
02:09
for it to travel 250 kilometers to Managua.
250km先のマナグアが揺れました
02:12
So the ground shook in Managua 60 seconds after it hit the epicenter.
マナグアが揺れるまでに
60秒かかっているのです
02:15
Thirty seconds later, the first message went onto Twitter,
その30秒後
第一報がツイートされます
02:19
and this was someone saying "temblor," which means earthquake.
"temblor" 地震というつぶやきでした
02:21
So 60 seconds was how long it took
地震が到達するのに
02:24
for the physical earthquake to travel.
60秒かかりました
02:27
Thirty seconds later news of that earthquake had traveled
その30秒後には 地震のニュースが
02:28
all around the world, instantly. Everyone in the world,
瞬時に世界中を駆け巡ります
02:31
hypothetically, had the potential to know that an earthquake
世界中の誰もが マナグアの地震を
02:34
was happening in Managua.
知り得たのです
02:37
And that happened because this one person had
きっかけは最初の1人が
02:40
a documentary instinct, which was to post a status update,
状況を伝えたいと思い
投稿したことです
02:42
which is what we all do now, so if something happens,
いまは誰もが投稿します
02:46
we put our status update, or we post a photo,
最新情報や写真やビデオは
02:48
we post a video, and it all goes up into the cloud in a constant stream.
絶え間なくクラウドに
流れ込んでいきます
02:50
And what that means is just constant,
常に膨大なデータが
02:54
huge volumes of data going up.
アップロードされています
02:57
It's actually staggering. When you look at the numbers,
データによれば
02:59
every minute there are 72 more hours
YouTubeでは毎分72時間以上の
ビデオが投稿されます
03:02
of video on YouTube.
YouTubeでは毎分72時間以上の
ビデオが投稿されます
03:05
So that's, every second, more than an hour of video gets uploaded.
1秒間に1時間分を超える
投稿があるのです
03:06
And in photos, Instagram, 58 photos are uploaded to Instagram a second.
Instagramでは1秒に58枚の写真 ―
03:09
More than three and a half thousand photos go up onto Facebook.
Facebookでは 3,500枚以上の
写真が投稿されます
03:14
So by the time I'm finished talking here, there'll be 864
だから 私がこの話を終える頃には
03:17
more hours of video on Youtube than there were when I started,
YouTubeには864時間分のビデオ ―
03:21
and two and a half million more photos on Facebook and Instagram than when I started.
FacebookとInstagramには
250万枚の写真が投稿されています
03:25
So it's an interesting position to be in as a journalist,
あらゆる情報が入手可能な立場は
03:29
because we should have access to everything.
ジャーナリストにとって面白い状況です
03:32
Any event that happens anywhere in the world, I should be able to know about it
世界中の出来事を
03:35
pretty much instantaneously, as it happens, for free.
ほぼ同時に しかもタダで
知ることができます
03:38
And that goes for every single person in this room.
この状況は 誰にとっても同じです
03:42
The only problem is, when you have that much information,
ただ問題があって 情報が大量になると
03:45
you have to find the good stuff, and that can be
価値があるものを見つけるのが
03:48
incredibly difficult when you're dealing with those volumes.
難しくなります
03:50
And nowhere was this brought home more than during
これを痛切に感じたのが
03:52
Hurricane Sandy. So what you had in Hurricane Sandy was
ハリケーン・サンディのときです
03:54
a superstorm, the likes of which we hadn't seen for a long time,
長らく経験していなかった
巨大ハリケーンが
03:57
hitting the iPhone capital of the universe -- (Laughter) --
iPhoneの総本山を襲ったのです
(笑)
04:00
and you got volumes of media like we'd never seen before.
さらに多種多様なメディアを
みんなが持っています
04:03
And that meant that journalists had to deal with fakes,
だからニセモノや
04:07
so we had to deal with old photos that were being reposted.
再投稿された古い写真 ―
04:10
We had to deal with composite images
過去の写真を使った合成写真を
04:13
that were merging photos from previous storms.
ジャーナリストは
見分ける必要があります
04:15
We had to deal with images from films like "The Day After Tomorrow." (Laughter)
映画『デイ・アフター・トゥモロー』の
写真まで混じっています (笑)
04:18
And we had to deal with images that were so realistic
中には リアルすぎて
04:24
it was nearly difficult to tell if they were real at all.
本物かどうかわからないものも
04:27
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:29
But joking aside, there were images like this one from Instagram
冗談はさておき
Instagramからの この写真では
04:33
which was subjected to a grilling by journalists.
徹底した検証が必要でした
04:37
They weren't really sure. It was filtered in Instagram.
Instagramでフィルタが
かけられています
04:39
The lighting was questioned. Everything was questioned about it.
光の当たり方が疑わしく見えました
04:41
And it turned out to be true. It was from Avenue C
でも これは本物でした
04:44
in downtown Manhattan, which was flooded.
水没したマンハッタン アベニューCです
04:46
And the reason that they could tell that it was real
本物と判明したのは
04:48
was because they could get to the source, and in this case,
情報源が特定できたからです
04:51
these guys were New York food bloggers.
NYのフード・ブロガーで
04:53
They were well respected. They were known.
よく知られ 尊敬されていました
04:55
So this one wasn't a debunk, it was actually something that they could prove.
この場合は本物だと証明できました
04:57
And that was the job of the journalist. It was filtering all this stuff.
これがジャーナリストの仕事
情報の確認です
05:00
And you were, instead of going and finding the information
外に出て情報を集め
05:03
and bringing it back to the reader, you were holding back
それを読者に見せる代わりに
05:05
the stuff that was potentially damaging.
問題になりそうな情報を止めます
05:08
And finding the source becomes more and more important --
信頼できる情報源の
発見が重要になるため
05:10
finding the good source -- and Twitter is where most journalists now go.
ジャーナリストは
Twitterを頻繁に利用します
05:13
It's like the de facto real-time newswire,
大量の情報が集まるので
使い方がわかれば
05:17
if you know how to use it, because there is so much on Twitter.
まるで記事配信サービスのように
利用できます
05:20
And a good example of how useful it can be
役に立つ反面
難しい面もあることが
05:23
but also how difficult was the Egyptian revolution in 2011.
2011年のエジプト革命でわかりました
05:25
As a non-Arabic speaker, as someone who was looking
アラビア語が話せず エジプトではなく
05:29
from the outside, from Dublin,
ダブリンにいる私にとっては
05:31
Twitter lists, and lists of good sources,
Twitterリストや
05:34
people we could establish were credible, were really important.
質の高い情報源のリストや
信頼できる人が 重要でした
05:36
And how do you build a list like that from scratch?
そんなリストを 一から作るには
どうしたらよいか?
05:39
Well, it can be quite difficult, but you have to know what to look for.
何を探すべきか知らないと
とても大変です
05:42
This visualization was done by an Italian academic.
これはイタリアの学者
アンドレ・パニソンが
05:44
He's called André Pannison, and he basically
タハリール広場での
Twitter上のやり取りを
05:47
took the Twitter conversation in Tahrir Square
視覚化したものです
05:50
on the day that Hosni Mubarak would eventually resign,
ムバラク大統領が
辞任した その日です
05:53
and the dots you can see are retweets, so when someone
点はリツイートで
誰かがメッセージを
05:56
retweets a message, a connection is made between two dots,
リツイートすると
2点がつながります
05:59
and the more times that message is retweeted by other people,
回数が多い程 ―
06:01
the more you get to see these nodes, these connections being made.
つながりが増えていきます
06:04
And it's an amazing way of visualizing the conversation,
すごい方法で会話を視覚化しています
06:07
but what you get is hints at who is more interesting
ただ ここから得られるのは
誰に関心をもち
06:09
and who is worth investigating.
誰を調べるべきかを
知る手がかりだけです
06:12
And as the conversation grew and grew, it became
会話が展開すると
どんどん活発になり
06:15
more and more lively, and eventually you were left
最終的に 会話は
06:17
with this huge, big, rhythmic pointer of this conversation.
巨大な リズムを刻む点の塊になります
06:20
You could find the nodes, though, and then you went,
つながりを見て こう思うかも
06:25
and you go, "Right, I've got to investigate these people.
「彼らについて調べよう
06:26
These are the ones that are obviously making sense.
何か知ってるかもしれない
06:29
Let's see who they are."
どんな人間か 調べてみよう」
06:30
Now in the deluge of information, this is where
私たちジャーナリストは
情報があふれる今 ―
06:33
the real-time web gets really interesting for a journalist like myself,
ウェブの同時性に
とても興味を覚えます
06:35
because we have more tools than ever
この種の調査に使えるツールが
06:39
to do that kind of investigation.
今はたくさんあるからです
06:41
And when you start digging into the sources, you can go
以前よりも とても詳しく
06:43
further and further than you ever could before.
情報源を調べることができます
06:46
Sometimes you come across a piece of content that
よさそうなネタを見つけたと思っても
06:49
is so compelling, you want to use it, you're dying to use it,
本当に使えるかどうか ―
06:52
but you're not 100 percent sure if you can because
確信がもてない場合があります
06:55
you don't know if the source is credible.
信頼できる情報源か ―
06:58
You don't know if it's a scrape. You don't know if it's a re-upload.
合成か 再投稿か
わからないからです
06:59
And you have to do that investigative work.
調べる必要があります
07:01
And this video, which I'm going to let run through,
ご覧頂いているビデオは
07:03
was one we discovered a couple of weeks ago.
2週間前に見つけました
07:06
Video: Getting real windy in just a second.
ビデオ 「風が強くなってきたわ」
07:08
(Rain and wind sounds)
(風雨の音)
07:11
(Explosion) Oh, shit!
(爆発音)「大変!」
07:16
Markham Nolan: Okay, so now if you're a news producer, this is something
プロデューサーなら
放送したくなるはずです
07:19
you'd love to run with, because obviously, this is gold.
すごい掘り出し物ですから
07:22
You know? This is a fantastic reaction from someone,
生々しい反応です
07:24
very genuine video that they've shot in their back garden.
裏庭で撮影されました
07:26
But how do you find if this person, if it's true, if it's faked,
でも 本物か ニセモノか 古いものか
07:29
or if it's something that's old and that's been reposted?
再投稿かを知る方法は?
07:33
So we set about going to work on this video, and
ビデオを調べて わかったのは
07:35
the only thing that we had to go on was the username on the YouTube account.
YouTubeのユーザー名だけでした
07:37
There was only one video posted to that account,
このアカウントの投稿は 1件だけ
07:40
and the username was Rita Krill.
ユーザー名は "Rita Krill"
07:43
And we didn't know if Rita existed or if it was a fake name.
本名か 偽名かはわかりません
07:44
But we started looking, and we used free Internet tools to do so.
そこで ネット上の
無料ツールで調べ始めました
07:47
The first one was called Spokeo, which allowed us to look for Rita Krills.
まずSpokeoで名前を探しました
07:50
So we looked all over the U.S. We found them in New York,
全米を調べ NY ペンシルベニア ―
07:54
we found them in Pennsylvania, Nevada and Florida.
ネバダ フロリダで この名を見つけました
07:56
So we went and we looked for a second free Internet tool
次にWolfram Alphaを使って
07:59
called Wolfram Alpha, and we checked the weather reports
ビデオが投稿された日の
08:01
for the day in which this video had been uploaded,
気象情報をチェックしました
08:04
and when we went through all those various cities,
名前が挙がった場所の内 ―
08:06
we found that in Florida, there were thunderstorms and rain on the day.
その日 フロリダが雷雨でした
08:08
So we went to the white pages, and we found,
だからWhitePagesの
08:12
we looked through the Rita Krills in the phonebook,
電話帳でRita Krillをいくつか見つけ
08:14
and we looked through a couple of different addresses,
住所を洗ったところ ―
08:17
and that took us to Google Maps, where we found a house.
Google Mapsで 家を見つけました
08:19
And we found a house with a swimming pool that looked
ビデオと よく似た ―
08:22
remarkably like Rita's. So we went back to the video,
プールがある家です
再びビデオを見て
08:24
and we had to look for clues that we could cross-reference.
ヒントを探しました
08:27
So if you look in the video, there's the big umbrella,
ビデオをよく見ると
大きなパラソルと
08:30
there's a white lilo in the pool,
白いエアマットがあり
08:33
there are some unusually rounded edges in the swimming pool,
プールの角は曲線を描いています
08:35
and there's two trees in the background.
背景には木が2本
08:38
And we went back to Google Maps, and we looked a little bit closer,
Google Mapsに戻り よく見ると
08:40
and sure enough, there's the white lilo,
エアマットも
08:42
there are the two trees,
2本の木も パラソルもあります
08:45
there's the umbrella. It's actually folded in this photo.
写真では閉じています
08:48
Little bit of trickery. And there are the rounded edges on the swimming pool.
少し工夫すると
プールの角が丸いこともわかります
08:50
So we were able to call Rita, clear the video,
調査をもとにリタに電話をかけ
08:53
make sure that it had been shot, and then our clients
自分で撮ったものだと確認しました
08:57
were delighted because they were able to run it without being worried.
クライアントは安心して放映できました
08:59
Sometimes the search for truth, though,
一方 真実を知ることが
09:02
is a little bit less flippant, and it has much greater consequences.
重大な結果をともなう場合があります
09:04
Syria has been really interesting for us, because obviously
私達がシリアに注目するのは
09:08
a lot of the time you're trying to debunk stuff that can be
戦争犯罪の証拠となりうる情報の
09:11
potentially war crime evidence, so this is where YouTube
真偽を判断することが
当然 多くなるからです
09:14
actually becomes the most important repository
この場合 YouTubeが
09:18
of information about what's going on in the world.
世界情勢を知るために
重要な情報源です
09:20
So this video, I'm not going to show you the whole thing,
このビデオは かなり残酷なので
09:24
because it's quite gruesome, but you'll hear some of the sounds.
音声の一部を お聞きください
09:27
This is from Hama.
出所はシリアのハマーです
09:30
Video: (Shouting)
(叫び声)
09:32
And what this video shows, when you watch the whole thing through,
映像は血だらけの死体が
09:35
is bloody bodies being taken out of a pickup truck
ピックアップトラックから降ろされて
09:39
and thrown off a bridge.
橋から投げ落とされる場面です
09:41
The allegations were that these guys were Muslim Brotherhood
ムスリム同胞団のメンバーが
09:44
and they were throwing Syrian Army officers' bodies
シリア軍兵士の死体を
捨てる所とされています
09:47
off the bridge, and they were cursing and using blasphemous language,
でも男達は 呪いや
冒涜の言葉を言っており
09:50
and there were lots of counterclaims about who they were,
本当は何者なのか
09:53
and whether or not they were what the video said it was.
ビデオの説明通りなのかは
意見が分かれます
09:55
So we talked to some sources in Hama who we had been
そこでTwitterでやり取りしていた ―
09:57
back and forth with on Twitter, and we asked them about this,
ハマーにいる人達に
この件を尋ねました
10:01
and the bridge was interesting to us because it was something we could identify.
注目したのは橋です
特定できるかも知れません
10:03
Three different sources said three different things about the bridge.
3つの情報源の
証言はバラバラでした
10:07
They said, one, the bridge doesn't exist.
ある協力者は「橋はない」
10:10
Another one said the bridge does exist, but it's not in Hama. It's somewhere else.
別の協力者は「橋はあるが
ハマーではない」
10:12
And the third one said, "I think the bridge does exist,
3人目は「橋はあると思う
10:15
but the dam upstream of the bridge was closed,
でも上流のダムが閉鎖しており
10:18
so the river should actually have been dry, so this doesn't make sense."
川に水がないはずで
映像と一致しない」
10:21
So that was the only one that gave us a clue.
最後の証言がヒントになりました
10:25
We looked through the video for other clues.
手がかりを探して
10:27
We saw the distinctive railings, which we could use.
ビデオを見ると 特徴のある
手すりに気づきました
10:29
We looked at the curbs. The curbs were throwing shadows south,
歩道上の影が 南へ伸びているので
10:32
so we could tell the bridge was running east-west across the river.
橋は東西方向にかかっています
10:35
It had black-and-white curbs.
歩道は白と黒に塗られています
10:38
As we looked at the river itself, you could see there's
川面を見ると
10:40
a concrete stone on the west side. There's a cloud of blood.
西側にコンクリート護岸
血の流れが見えます
10:42
That's blood in the river. So the river is flowing
つまり川が南から北へ
10:45
south to north. That's what that tells me.
流れているのです
10:46
And also, as you look away from the bridge,
橋から向こうを見ると
10:48
there's a divot on the left-hand side of the bank,
土手に削られた部分があり
10:50
and the river narrows.
川幅が狭まっています
10:52
So onto Google Maps we go, and we start
次にGoogle Mapsで
10:54
looking through literally every single bridge.
橋を全部見ていきました
10:57
We go to the dam that we talked about, we start just
先ほどのダムから下流に向かって
10:59
literally going through every time that road crosses the river,
橋がある場所を すべて確認し
11:03
crossing off the bridges that don't match.
該当しないものを外しました
11:06
We're looking for one that crosses east-west.
探すのは東西にかかる橋です
11:08
And we get to Hama. We get all the way from the dam
でもダムからハマーまで見ましたが
11:10
to Hama and there's no bridge.
橋がありません
11:12
So we go a bit further. We switch to the satellite view,
でも航空写真に切り替えると
11:14
and we find another bridge, and everything starts to line up.
橋がひとつあったのです
証拠がまとまり始めます
11:16
The bridge looks like it's crossing the river east to west.
この橋は東西にかかっているようです
11:19
So this could be our bridge. And we zoom right in.
この橋でしょうか
ズームしてみましょう
11:22
We start to see that it's got a median, so it's a two-lane bridge.
橋の中央に線があり
2車線だとわかります
11:25
And it's got the black-and-white curbs that we saw in the video,
白と黒に塗られた歩道もあります
11:28
and as we click through it, you can see someone's
さらにクリックすると
11:32
uploaded photos to go with the map, which is very handy,
アップロードされた写真が
マップ上に現れます
11:34
so we click into the photos. And the photos start showing us
写真をクリックすると
11:37
more detail that we can cross-reference with the video.
細部を見て ビデオと照合できます
11:40
The first thing that we see is we see black-and-white curbing,
最初に気づくのは
白と黒の縁石です
11:42
which is handy because we've seen that before.
手がかりになりそうです
11:46
We see the distinctive railing that we saw the guys
特徴のある手すりも見えます
ここから男達が
11:48
throwing the bodies over.
死体を投げ捨てていました
11:52
And we keep going through it until we're certain that this is our bridge.
これが探していた橋だと
確信するまで検証を続けました
11:54
So what does that tell me? I've got to go back now
ここから何がわかるでしょう?
11:57
to my three sources and look at what they told me:
思い出してほしいのは3人の情報 ―
11:58
the one who said the bridge didn't exist,
「橋がない」という情報と
12:01
the one who said the bridge wasn't in Hama,
「ハマーではない」という情報 ―
12:02
and the one guy who said, "Yes, the bridge does exist, but I'm not sure about the water levels."
そして「橋はあるが
水位がおかしい」という情報です
12:04
Number three is looking like the most truthful all of a sudden,
3人目の情報が急に
信頼できるものに見えて来ました
12:08
and we've been able to find that out using some free Internet tools
私達はそれを無料ツールで
確認する事ができました
12:11
sitting in a cubicle in an office in Dublin
ダブリンのオフィスにいながら
12:14
in the space of 20 minutes.
たった20分で です
12:17
And that's part of the joy of this. Although the web
これが作業の醍醐味です
12:18
is running like a torrent, there's so much information there
ネット上には大量の情報が
行き交っているので
12:21
that it's incredibly hard to sift and getting harder every day,
選別はとても大変ですし
日々 難しくなります
12:24
if you use them intelligently, you can find out incredible information.
でも情報を適切に使えば
素晴らしい情報が手に入ります
12:27
Given a couple of clues, I could probably find out
手がかりさえあれば
12:31
a lot of things about most of you in the audience that you might not like me finding out.
皆さんが知られたくない
情報だって探り出せるでしょう
12:33
But what it tells me is that, at a time when
今は これまでにない程 ―
12:37
there's more -- there's a greater abundance of information than there ever has been,
大量の情報があり
選別も難しいですが
12:40
it's harder to filter, we have greater tools.
強力なツールがあります
12:44
We have free Internet tools that allow us,
無料のツールで
12:46
help us do this kind of investigation.
お話ししたような調査が可能です
12:48
We have algorithms that are smarter than ever before,
洗練されたアルゴリズムや
12:50
and computers that are quicker than ever before.
高速なコンピュータもあります
12:52
But here's the thing. Algorithms are rules. They're binary.
でもアルゴリズムは
規則の集まりに過ぎず
12:55
They're yes or no, they're black or white.
YesかNo 白か黒なのです
12:58
Truth is never binary. Truth is a value.
真実はそうではありません
真実には価値があります
13:00
Truth is emotional, it's fluid, and above all, it's human.
真実は感情に訴え 流動的で
何より人間的なものです
13:03
No matter how quick we get with computers, no matter
コンピュータが どれほど速くなろうと
13:08
how much information we have, you'll never be able
情報がどれほど増えようと ―
13:10
to remove the human from the truth-seeking exercise,
真実を探すためには
人間が欠かせません
13:12
because in the end, it is a uniquely human trait.
真実の探求は
人間の特性なのですから
13:15
Thanks very much. (Applause)
ありがとうございました (拍手)
13:19
Translator:Kazunori Akashi
Reviewer:Akira Kan

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Markham Nolan - Journalist
The managing editor of Storyful.com, Markham Nolan has watched journalism evolve from the pursuit of finding facts to the act of verifying those floating in the ether.

Why you should listen

Markham calls himself a "literary mercenary." His main responsibility is to sift through news and information to see what's true and what's not. In the era of the ubiquitous and immediate cell phone photo, Twitter message and YouTube video, how do we verify and validate a piece of information arriving, say, from a region at war or one going through a natural disaster? As the managing editor of Storyful, that's a question he has to answer daily.

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