TEDGlobal 2007

Zeresenay Alemseged: The search for humanity's roots

ゼレゼネイ・アレムゼゲドが人類の起源に迫る

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古生物学者ゼレゼネイ・アレムゼゲドがエチオピアの荒地で人類の起源に迫ります。ヒトの祖先で最古の子供の骨格を発見した模様と、アフリカが今後も人類の鍵を握るという持論を紹介します。

- Paleoanthropologist
Zeresenay "Zeray" Alemseged digs in the Ethiopian desert, looking for the earliest signs of humanity. His most exciting find: the 3.3-million-year-old bones of Selam, a 3-year-old hominid child, from the species Australopithecus afarensis. Full bio

I have 18 minutes to tell you what happened
私は18分の持ち時間で
00:25
over the past six million years.
過去6百万年間に起きたことを お話しします
00:27
All right.
では始めます
00:30
We all have come from a long way,
私達は長い距離を旅して
00:32
here in Africa, and converged in this region of Africa,
アフリカの この場所にやってきました
00:35
which is a place where 90 percent of our evolutionary process took place.
人類の進化の90%はアフリカで起きました
00:38
And I say that not because I am African,
私がアフリカ人だから言うのではなく
00:44
but it's in Africa that you find the earliest evidence
理由はアフリカで直立歩行する
00:47
for human ancestors, upright walking traces,
人類の祖先の最初の形跡と
00:50
even the first technologies in the form of stone tools.
石器が発見されたからです
00:55
So we all are Africans, and welcome home.
私達全員アフリカ人なのです
皆さんの故郷にようこそ
00:58
All right.
さて
01:01
I'm a paleoanthropologist, and my job is to define
私は古生物学者で自然界の中のヒトの役割および
01:03
man's place in nature and explore what makes us human.
我々をヒトと成すのは何か研究しています
01:06
And today, I will use Selam, the earliest child ever discovered,
今日は発見した最古の子供 セラムを紹介しながら
01:10
to tell you a story of all of us.
私達の物語をお話しします
01:14
Selam is our most complete skeleton of a three-year-old girl
セラムはもっとも完全な骨格が残っている
01:16
who lived and died 3.3 million years ago.
3.3百万年前に生きた 3歳の女の子です
01:20
She belongs to the species known as Australopithecus afarensis.
アウストラロピテクス・アファレンシスという種に属します
01:24
You don't need to remember that.
覚える必要はないですよ
01:28
That's the Lucy species, and was found by my research team
ルーシー種とも呼ばれ 私の研究チームが発見しました
01:30
in December of 2000 in an area called Dikika.
2000年12月のこと ディキカという所でした
01:34
It's in the northeastern part of Ethiopia.
エチオピア北東部に位置します
01:37
And Selam means peace in many Ethiopian languages.
セラムとはエチオピアの多くの言語で平和を意味します
01:39
We use that name to celebrate peace in the region and in the planet.
この名前は地域と世界の平和を祈願して付けました
01:42
And the fact that it was the cover story of all these famous magazines
多くの有名な雑誌の表紙を飾ったことで
01:48
gives you already an idea of her significance, I think.
彼女の意義がお分かりになると思います
01:52
After I was invited by TED, I did some digging,
TED の招待を受けてから少しTEDの調査をしました
01:55
because that's what we do, to know about my host.
招待してくれた人に敬意を払うためです
01:58
You don't just jump into an invitation.
黙って招待は受けません
02:01
And I learned that the first technology appeared
分かったのは最初の石器作りが
02:03
in the form of stone tools, 2.6 million years ago.
始まったのは 2.6百万年前ということです
02:05
First entertainment comes evidence from flutes that are 35,000 years old.
最初の娯楽道具はフルートで
3.5万年前に作られました
02:08
And evidence for first design comes 75,000 years old -- beads.
最初の装飾品はビーズで
7.5万年前に作られました
02:13
And you can do the same with your genes and track them back in time.
皆さんの遺伝子についても
同様に時間を遡ってみましょう
02:19
And DNA analysis of living humans and chimpanzees
現在のヒトとチンパンジーを分析すると
02:24
teaches us today that we diverged sometime around seven million years ago
約7百万年前に分岐したことが分かります
02:28
and that these two species share over 98 percent of the same genetic material.
2つの種は同じ遺伝物質を98%以上共有しています
02:32
I think knowing this is a very useful context
我々の祖先を考える上で
02:38
within which we can think of our ancestry.
たいへん有益な情報です
02:40
However, DNA analysis informs us only about
しかしながら この分析だけでは
02:44
the beginning and the end, telling us nothing
始めと終わりしか分からず中間で起こったことは
02:48
about what happened in the middle.
何も分かりません
02:52
So, for us, paleoanthropologists, our job is to find the hard evidence,
そこで我々古生物学者は
化石等の確固な証拠を探して
02:54
the fossil evidence, to fill in this gap
ギャップを埋めようとするのです
02:59
and see the different stages of development.
そして発展の段階を辿ろうとします
03:02
Because it's only when you do that, that you can talk about --
これでようやく お話できる
03:05
(Laughter) --
(笑)
03:08
it's only when you do that, [that] you can talk about
これでようやく別々の時間に
03:12
how we looked like and how we behaved at different times,
我々の祖先の容姿と行動について
03:15
and how those likes and looks and behaviors changed through time.
また時間を経てそれらがどう変化したか
語ることができるのです
03:19
That then gives you an access
そうすることで
03:24
to explore the biological mechanisms
今日の私達を作りだした
03:26
and forces that are responsible for this gradual change
緩やかな進化を司る 生物学的な仕組みや
03:29
that made us what we are today.
力について探究できるのです
03:32
But finding the hard evidence is a very complicated endeavor.
確固たる証拠を探すのはとても複雑な作業です
03:35
It's a systematic and scientific approach,
整然とした科学的手法をとりますが
03:39
which takes you to places that are remote, hot, hostile and often with no access.
行く先は たどり着くのも困難な高温で
厳しい環境の僻地なのです
03:42
Just to give you an example, when I went to Dikika,
例をあげると
03:48
where Selam was found, in '99 -- and it's about 500 kilometers
99年にセラムを発見したディキカは
03:50
from Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.
エチオピア首都アジスアベバから
約500キロの所です
03:54
It took us only seven hours to do the first 470 kilometers of the 500,
はじめの470キロを旅するのに
要したのはわずか7時間でしたが
03:58
but took four, solid hours to do the last only 30 kilometers.
残りの30キロは4時間もかかりました
04:05
With the help of the locals and using just shovels and picks, I made my way.
現地の人の助けや シャベルとツルハシを使って進みました
04:10
I was the first person to actually drive a car to the spot.
現地に最初に到達したのは私が運転した車でした
04:14
When you get there, this is what you see,
着いた景色がこれです
04:18
and it's the vastness of the place which makes you feel helpless and vulnerable.
何もない場所なので とても不安になります
04:21
And once you make it there, the big question is where to start.
そして着くと同時に どこから始めるんだ
という疑問が湧きます
04:26
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:30
And you find nothing for years and years.
そして何年かけても何も見つかりません
04:32
When I go to places like this, which are paleontological sites,
このような古生物学的地点に行くと
04:35
it's like going to a game park, an extinct game park.
そこは まるで自然動物保護区です― それも絶滅した
04:39
But what you find are not the human remains,
セラムやルーシーのような人類の形跡を
04:43
such as Selam and Lucy, on a day-to-day basis.
いつも発見できるとは限りません
04:46
You find elephants, rhinos, monkeys, pigs, etc.
見つかるのはゾウ サイ サル ブタ等です
04:49
But you could ask, how could these large mammals
なぜこんな砂漠にそんな大きな
04:53
live in this desert environment?
哺乳類が棲めたのか と思うでしょう?
04:55
Of course, they cannot, but I'm telling you already
もちろん無理です
04:57
that the environment and the carrying capacity
つまり今日と当時の環境や生物の
04:59
of this region was drastically different from what we have today.
収容能力は大きく異なっていたのです
05:02
A very important environmental lesson could be learned from this.
この事実から重要な環境の教訓を得ることができます
05:07
Anyway, once we made it there, then it's a game park, as I said, an extinct game park.
いずれにせよ ここは自然動物保護区 絶滅保護区です
05:11
And our ancestors lived in that game park,
我々の祖先もそこに暮らしていたのですが
05:17
but were just the minorities. They were not as successful
少数派でした
05:20
and as widespread as the Homo sapiens that we are.
我々ホモサピエンスほど うまく適用して
広く存在してはいませんでした
05:22
To tell you just an example, an anecdote about their rarity,
いかに稀小な生き物だったかを示す逸話です
05:27
I was going to this place every year and would do fieldwork here,
私は毎年この場所に出かけて発掘調査をしました
05:30
and the assistants, of course, helped me do the surveys.
もちろん調査を手伝う助手がいます
05:35
They would find a bone and tell me, "Here is what you're looking for."
彼らは骨を見つけては私に言います
“探していたのはこれじゃない?”
05:38
I would say, "No, that's an elephant."
私は “いや それはゾウだ”
05:40
Again, another one, "That's a monkey." "That's a pig," etc.
別の骨には “それはサルだ” “それはブタだ” 等々
05:41
So one of my assistants, who never went to school, said to me, "Listen, Zeray.
学校に行ったことがない助手たちは言うのです
05:44
You either don't know what you're looking for,
“もしかして探しているのが何か知らないか
05:47
or you're looking in the wrong place," he said.
探す場所を間違えてるんじゃないの”
05:49
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:52
And I said, "Why?" "Because there were elephants and lions,
“どうして” と言うと
“だってゾウやライオンがいるから
05:53
and the people were scared and went somewhere else.
人は怖くてどっかに逃げたんだよ
05:56
Let's go somewhere else."
違う場所いこうよ”
05:58
Well, he was very tired, and it's really tiring.
とても疲れていました 本当に疲れます
06:00
It was then, after such hard work and many frustrating years that we found Selam,
そのような苦労と困難を乗り越えて
ようやくセラムを発見しました
06:02
and you see the face here covered by sandstone.
砂岩に囲まれた顔です
06:07
And here is actually the spinal column
これは背骨です
06:10
and the whole torso encased in a sandstone block,
上半身が砂岩の塊に埋もれています
06:12
because she was buried by a river.
川の側に埋められたのです
06:16
What you have here seems to be nothing,
見た目は大したことありませんが
06:19
but contains an incredible amount of scientific information
我々をヒトと成すのは何かを解き明かす
06:21
that helps us explore what makes us human.
驚くべきほどの科学的情報がここにあります
06:25
This is the earliest and most complete juvenile human ancestor
古生物学の歴史上 発見された
最も古く 最も保存状態のよい
06:28
ever found in the history of paleoanthropology,
人類の祖先の子供です
06:32
an amazing piece of our long, long history.
長い歴史の中でも特筆すべきことです
06:34
There were these three people and me, and I am taking the pictures,
発見した3人と私です
私は写真を撮っていたので
06:38
that's why I am not in.
写っていません
06:41
How would you feel if you were me? You have something extraordinary in your hand,
皆さんだったらどう思うでしょう
とても貴重な物を手にしているのに
06:43
but you are in the middle of nowhere?
何もない場所にいるのですから
06:46
The feeling I had was a deep and quiet happiness and excitement,
私は深く静かな喜びと興奮に包まれました
06:48
of course accompanied by a huge sense of responsibility,
もちろん同時に重大な責任感をもって
06:53
of making sure everything is safe.
全てが無事であることに努めました
06:56
Here is a close-up of the fossil, after five years of cleaning,
これが化石のクローズアップです 5年の歳月をかけて
06:59
preparation and description, which was very long,
清掃 準備 分類した結果です
07:04
as I had to expose the bones from the sandstone block
先のスライドでお見せした砂岩から骨を
07:08
I just showed you in the previous slide.
すべて取り出したのです
07:11
It took five years.
5年かかりました
07:13
In a way, this was like the second birth for the child, after 3.3 million years,
いわば この子にとっては
3.3百万年を経た 二度目の出産ですが
07:14
but the labor was very long.
陣痛はとても長かったわけです
07:19
And here is full scale -- it's a tiny bone.
全体図です 小さな骨です
07:22
And in the middle is the minister of Ethiopian tourism,
中央がエチオピア観光相です
07:26
who came to visit the National Museum of Ethiopia while I was working there.
エチオピア国立博物館で
私が作業中に訪問を受けました
07:29
And you see me worried and trying to protect my child,
私が子供を守ろうとして心配顔をしています
07:33
because you don't leave anyone with this kind of child,
相手が大臣でもこのような子供は
07:36
even a minister.
放っておけません
07:39
So then, once you've done that, the next stage is to know what it is.
それが終わると次に
これがいったい何なのか調べます
07:42
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:46
Once that was done, then it was possible to compare.
それが終わると比較が可能になります
07:49
We were able to tell that she belonged
彼女が人類に属していたのは明らかでした
07:53
to the human family tree because the legs, the foot,
なぜならば脚部や足 その他の特徴が
07:55
and some features clearly showed that she walked upright,
直立歩行していたことを示しました
07:59
and upright walking is a hallmark in humanity.
直立歩行は人類の印です
08:03
But in addition, if you compare the skull
さらに頭蓋骨を同年齢のチンパンジーと
08:06
with a comparably aged chimpanzee and little George Bush here,
小さなジョージ・ブッシュで比較すると
08:09
you see that you have vertical forehead.
ヒトの額は垂直です
08:12
And you see that in humans, because of the development
ヒトには前頭前皮質と呼ばれる発達した
08:16
of the pre-frontal cortex, it's called.
脳があるためです
08:19
You don't see that in chimpanzees,
チンパンジーにはありません
08:21
and you don't see this very projecting canine.
鋭く突き出した犬歯も見られません
08:24
So she belongs to our family tree, but within that, of course,
つまり彼女は人類に属しています
08:28
you do detailed analysis, and we know now
範囲を絞ってさらに調査を続け
08:31
that she belongs to the Lucy species,
彼女がアウストラロピテクス・アファレンシスと
08:33
known as Australopithecus afarensis.
呼ばれるルーシー種であることが分かりました
08:35
The next exciting question is, girl or boy?
次の大いなる疑問は女の子か男の子か
08:38
And how old was she when she died?
そして死んだのは何歳の時かです
08:41
You can determine the sex of the individual
性別は歯の大きさで識別できます
08:43
based on the size of the teeth.
性別は歯の大きさで識別できます
08:46
How?
どうやって?
08:49
You know, in primates, there is this phenomenon
類人猿には性的二形という特徴があります
08:50
called sexual dimorphism, which simply means
類人猿には性的二形という特徴があります
08:52
males are larger than females and males have larger teeth
簡単にいうとオスはメスより大きく
オスはメスより大きな歯をもっています
08:54
than the females.
簡単にいうとオスはメスより大きく
オスはメスより大きな歯をもっています
08:56
But to do that, you need the permanent dentition,
比較するには永久歯が必要です
08:58
which you don't see here, because what you have here
この個体には乳歯しかありません
09:00
are the baby teeth.
この個体には乳歯しかありません
09:02
But using the CT scanning technology,
しかし 普段医療目的のCTスキャン技術を使って
09:04
which is normally used for medical purposes,
しかし 普段医療目的のCTスキャン技術を使って
09:06
you can go deep into the mouth and come up with this beautiful image
口の中を詳しく検査するとこのように
09:08
showing you both the baby teeth here
美しい乳歯と成長中の
09:11
and the still-growing adult teeth here.
永久歯両方のイメージを得えられます
09:13
So when you measure those teeth,
これらの歯を測定すると
09:17
it was clear that she turned out to be a girl
この子は犬歯が小さことから
女の子だと分かりました
09:19
with very small canine teeth.
この子は犬歯が小さことから
女の子だと分かりました
09:22
And to know how old she was when she died, what you do is
彼女の死亡年齢の特定には
09:25
you do an informed estimate, and you say, how much time would be required
これだけの歯が形成されるに要する時間等の
09:27
to form this amount of teeth, and the answer was three.
知りうる情報から判断して3歳と割り出しました
09:33
So, this girl died when she was about three,
この子は3歳で死んだのです
09:38
3.3 million years ago.
3.3百万年前です
09:41
So, with all that information, the big question is --
これらが分かったところで 大きな疑問は
09:43
what do we actually -- what does she tell us?
彼女が語りかけることは何か?
09:46
To answer this question, we can phrase another question.
この疑問に答えるために質問を言い換えると
09:50
What do we actually know about our ancestors?
私達は祖先について何を知っているのか?
09:52
We want to know how they looked like, how they behaved,
知りたいのは彼らの容姿 どう行動して
09:55
how they walked around,
どのように歩き回ったか
09:57
and how they lived and grew up.
どのような生活をして成長したか等です
09:59
And among the answers that you can get from this skeleton
この骨格から得られる答えは次のとおりです
10:02
are included: first, this skeleton documents,
まず この骨格から 3百万年以上前の
幼児の形が初めて分かりました
10:07
for the first time, how infants looked over three million years ago.
まず この骨格から 3百万年以上前の
幼児の形が初めて分かりました
10:12
And second, she tells us that she walked upright,
次に彼女は直立歩行しましたが
10:17
but had some adaptation for tree climbing.
木登りにも適していたことが分かります
10:20
And more interesting, however,
さらに面白いのは
10:23
is the brain in this child was still growing.
この子の脳が依然発達中だということです
10:25
At age three, if you have a still-growing brain,
この年齢で脳が発達中なのはヒトの特徴です
10:27
it's a human behavior.
この年齢で脳が発達中なのはヒトの特徴です
10:30
In chimps, by age three, the brain is formed over 90 percent.
チンパンジーの場合はこの年齢では
脳の9割以上は出来上がっています
10:32
That's why they can cope with their environment
従って生後すぐに私達より早く
環境に適応できるのです
10:37
very easily after birth -- faster than us, anyway.
従って生後すぐに私達より早く
環境に適応できるのです
10:40
But in humans, we continue to grow our brains.
ヒトの場合 脳は成長を続けます
10:43
That's why we need care from our parents.
それが親の世話が必要な理由です
10:45
But that care means also you learn.
世話するということは学ぶことです
10:48
You spend more time with your parents.
親といる時間がさらに長くなります
10:50
And that's very characteristic of humans and it's called childhood,
これもヒトの特徴で幼少期と呼ばれます
10:52
which is this extended dependence of human children
ヒトの子供は長期間家族や親に依存します
10:55
on their family or parents.
ヒトの子供は長期間家族や親に依存します
10:58
So, the still-growing brain in this individual
つまりこの子の脳が成長中だったということは
11:01
tells us that childhood, which requires
幼少期があり そのためには
11:05
an incredible social organization,
とても信じられない位に複雑な社会組織が
11:08
a very complex social organization,
3百万年以上前に既に存在したことを示します
11:11
emerged over three million years ago.
3百万年以上前に既に存在したことを示します
11:13
So, by being at the cusp of our evolutionary history,
人類の進化の歴史の幕開けにおいて
11:15
Selam unites us all and gives us a unique account
セラムは私達全てに共通する我々をヒトと成す
11:19
on what makes us human.
特徴を示しているのです
11:24
But not everything was human, and I will give you
しかし全てがヒトの特徴ではありませんでした
11:27
a very exciting example.
とても興味深い例をあげましょう
11:30
This is called the hyoid bone. It's a bone which is right here.
舌骨です ここにあります
11:32
It supports your tongue from behind.
舌を後ろ側から支えます
11:34
It's, in a way, your voice box.
いわば声帯です
11:36
It determines the type of voice you produce.
発声する音質がこれで決まります
11:39
It was not known in the fossil record,
それまでの化石では分かりませんでしたが
11:43
and we have it in this skeleton.
この骨格で判明しました
11:45
When we did the analysis of this bone, it was clear
この骨を分析した所
明らかにチンパンジーと似ていました
11:48
that it looked very chimp-like, chimpanzee-like.
この骨を分析した所
明らかにチンパンジーと似ていました
11:52
So if you were there 3.3 million years ago,
なので 3.3百万年前に この子が母を呼ぶ声は
11:56
to hear when this girl was crying out for her mother,
なので 3.3百万年前に この子が母を呼ぶ声は
12:00
she would have sounded more like a chimpanzee than a human.
ヒトよりもチンパンジーに近かったはずです
12:03
Maybe you're wondering, "So, you see this ape feature, human feature, ape feature.
皆さんは思うでしょう
“このサルの特徴 ヒトの特徴 サルの特徴
12:06
What does that tell us?"
それが意味するのは何?”
12:10
You know, that is very exciting for us,
私達にとって とても興味深いのは
12:12
because it demonstrates that things were changing slowly and progressively,
色んな特徴がゆっくりと確実に変化しており
12:14
and that evolution is in the making.
進化の過程を見られることです
12:17
To summarize the significance of this fossil,
この化石の意義をまとめると次のとおりです
12:20
we can say the following.
この化石の意義をまとめると次のとおりです
12:23
Up to now, the knowledge that we had about our ancestors
従来 我々の祖先に関する知識は
12:25
came essentially from adult individuals
大人の個体から得ました
12:29
because the fossils, the baby fossils, were missing.
幼児の化石がなかったからです
12:33
They don't preserve well, as you know.
幼児は化石になりにくいです
12:36
So the knowledge that we had about our ancestors,
なので我々の祖先の容姿や
行動の仕方についての知識は
12:38
on how they looked like, how they behaved,
なので我々の祖先の容姿や
行動の仕方についての知識は
12:42
was kind of biased toward adults.
大人に限定されていました
12:44
Imagine somebody coming from Mars
想像してみてください 誰かが火星からやって来て
12:49
and his job is to report on the type of people
地球上にいるヒトの調査をする際に
12:52
occupying our planet Earth, and you hide all the babies,
私達が赤ん坊や子供を全て隠していたら
12:54
the children, and he goes back and reports.
どんな調査結果ができるでしょう
12:57
Can you imagine how much biased his report would be?
とても限定的な結果になりますよね
13:01
That's what somehow we were doing so far
子供の化石がなかったので
13:05
in the absence of the fossil children,
私達も似たような状態だったのです
13:07
so I think the new fossil fixes this problem.
この化石のおかげで その問題が解決しました
13:09
So, I think the most important question at the end is,
最後に私が考える最も重要な疑問は
13:14
what do we actually learn from specimens like this
このような種あるいは過去全般から
13:19
and from our past in general?
私達は何を学べるのでしょう?
13:22
Of course, in addition to extracting this huge amount
もちろん莫大な科学情報を抽出して
13:25
of scientific information as to what makes us human,
我々をヒトと成すのは何か探究します
13:28
you know, the many human ancestors that have existed
過去6百万年間にたくさんのヒトの祖先が存在し
13:31
over the past six million years -- and there are more than 10 --
その数は 10以上と言われますが
13:34
they did not have the knowledge, the technology and sophistications
彼らは現代のホモサピエンスが有する技術や
13:38
that we, Homo sapiens, have today.
高度な知識は持っていなかったわけです
13:41
But if this species, ancient species,
もし古代の種が時間を超えて
13:43
would travel in time and see us today,
今の私達に会いに来たら
13:47
they would very much be very proud of their legacy,
彼らが先鞭をつけた遺産を誇りに思うことでしょう
13:50
because they became the ancestors of
宇宙で一番成功した種の
13:55
the most successful species in the universe.
祖先ですから
13:57
And they were probably not aware of this future legacy,
彼らが残した将来の遺産は知らなくとも
13:59
but they did great.
よくやったわけです
14:01
Now the question is, we Homo sapiens today
今の問題は我々ホモサピエンスは
14:03
are in a position to decide about the future of our planet, possibly more.
地球の運命とそれ以上のことを
決める立場にいるわけです
14:06
So the question is, are we up to the challenge?
そこで問題とは 私達はその挑戦に見合うのでしょうか?
14:12
And can we really do better than these primitive,
私達は原始的な小さな脳を持った
14:15
small-brained ancestors?
祖先よりもよくやれるのでしょうか?
14:18
Among the most pressing challenges that our species
アフリカの慢性的な問題は私達が抱える
14:21
is faced with today are the chronic problems of Africa.
課題のなかでも緊急度が高いです
14:25
Needless to list them here, and there are more competent people
具体例はここでは触れません
私よりもっと優秀な方々が
14:30
to talk about this.
お話ししますから
14:33
Still, in my opinion, we have two choices.
しかしながら私達には二つの選択があると思います
14:36
One is to continue to see a poor, ill, crying Africa,
一つは今のまま貧困 病気にあえぎ続けるアフリカ
14:42
carrying guns, that depends on other people forever,
武装し他の人々に永遠に頼るアフリカ
14:48
or to promote an Africa which is confident,
あるいは山積みの課題と大きな価値を同時に認識して
14:53
peaceful, independent, but cognizant of its huge problems
自信をもって平和で独立した姿を
14:58
and great values at the same time.
促進しようとするアフリカ
15:02
I am for the second option, and I'm sure many of you are.
私は二つめの意見を支持します
みなさんの多くもそうだと確信します
15:06
And the key is to promote a positive African attitude towards Africa.
鍵はアフリカに対して
前向きなアフリカを促進することです
15:11
That's because we Africans concentrate --
理由はアフリカ人は―
15:21
I am from Ethiopia, by the way --
ちなみに私はエチオピア出身です―
15:25
we concentrate too much on how we are seen
外からアフリカがどう見られているか
注目しすぎだからです
15:27
from elsewhere, or from outside.
外からアフリカがどう見られているか
注目しすぎだからです
15:29
I think it's important to promote in a more positive way
私達自身について前向きな
姿勢を促進することが重要です
15:32
on how we see ourselves.
私達自身について前向きな
姿勢を促進することが重要です
15:37
That's what I call positive African attitude.
これこそ前向きなアフリカの姿勢です
15:40
So finally, I would like to say,
最後に申し上げたいのは
15:43
so let's help Africa walk upright and forward,
アフリカが直立して前進するよう努力しましょう
15:46
then we all can be proud of our future legacy as a species.
そうすれば種として将来の
遺産に私達も誇りを持てるでしょう
15:51
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
15:56
(Applause)
(拍手)
15:58
Translated by Akira Kan
Reviewed by Takahiro Shimpo

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About the Speaker:

Zeresenay Alemseged - Paleoanthropologist
Zeresenay "Zeray" Alemseged digs in the Ethiopian desert, looking for the earliest signs of humanity. His most exciting find: the 3.3-million-year-old bones of Selam, a 3-year-old hominid child, from the species Australopithecus afarensis.

Why you should listen

Paleoanthropologist Zeresenay Alemseged studies the origins of humanity. Through his Dikika Research Project (DRP) in the Afar desert of Ethiopia, he has discovered the earliest known skeleton of a hominid child, the 3.3-million-year-old bones of Selam, a 3-year-old girl of the species Australopithecus afarensis. She is a member of the same species as Lucy, discovered nearby in 1974.

In studying Selam's tiny bones, Alemseged is searching for the points at which we humans diverged from apes. For instance, Selam may have had ape-like shoulders, made for climbing trees -- but her legs were angled for walking upright. Her young brain, at age 3, was still growing, which implies that she was set to have a long human-style childhood. And in the hyoid bone of her throat, Alemseged sees the beginning of human speech.

Born in Axum, Ethiopia, Alemseged is based in San Francisco at the California Academy of Sciences where is is the Director and Curator of the Anthropology department. Prior to this, he was a senior researcher at the  Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig. To see more video from Alemseged, visit the video archives of Nature.

More profile about the speaker
Zeresenay Alemseged | Speaker | TED.com