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TED2013

Freeman Hrabowski: 4 pillars of college success in science

フリーマン・ラバウスキー:大学が科学で成果を上げるための4つの柱

February 28, 2013

12歳にしてマーチン・ルーサー・キング牧師とデモ行進に参加したフリーマン・ラバウスキーは、今や メリーランド大学ボルティモア・カウンティー校(UMBC)の学長です。この学校で彼は、アフリカ系アメリカ人、 ラテン系アメリカ人、あるいは低所得者層出身の学生などの、少数派学生が 理数系分野の学位を取得するための環境作りに取り組んでいます。このスピーチでは、UMBCの取り組みの中心に据えている4つの柱について語ってくれています。

Freeman Hrabowski - Educator
During his 20-year tenure as president of UMBC, Freeman Hrabowski has helped students of all backgrounds pursue degrees in arts, humanities and the sciences. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
So I'll be talking about the success of my campus,
本日お話したいのは
私の大学であるUMBC
00:12
the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, UMBC,
メリーランド大学
ボルティモア・カウンティー校の取り組みについてです
00:16
in educating students of all types,
我が校では あらゆるタイプの学生に対して
00:19
across the arts and humanities and the science and engineering areas.
美術や人文科学、理工学において
質の高い教育を提供してきました
00:22
What makes our story especially important
ここでとくに重要なのは
00:26
is that we have learned so much from a group of students
我々が 通常は成績優秀者とは
目されない生徒達
00:30
who are typically not at the top of the academic ladder --
つまり非白人系の生徒や
00:35
students of color, students underrepresented in selected areas.
特定の分野で存在感の薄い生徒達から
多くを学んだ点です
00:39
And what makes the story especially unique
また 私の話が特に
ユニークなのは
00:43
is that we have learned how to help African-American students, Latino students,
アフリカ系やラテン系-
いわゆる低所得層出身の
00:45
students from low-income backgrounds,
生徒達が理工学分野で
00:50
to become some of the best in the world in science and engineering.
一流の人材になれるよう
支援する方法を学んだ事です
00:52
And so I begin with a story about my childhood.
まず私の子供のころの
話から始めましょう
00:56
We all are products of our childhood experiences.
大人は皆 幼少期の経験の
産物ですからね
00:59
It's hard for me to believe that it's been 50 years
それにしても アラバマ州バーミンガムで
中学3年生だったあの時から
01:02
since I had the experience of being a ninth grade kid in Birmingham, Alabama,
既に50年もたったとは信じられません
01:06
a kid who loved getting A's,
子供の頃の私は
いい成績をとるのが好きで
01:12
a kid who loved math, who loved to read,
数学と読書を愛し
01:14
a kid who would say to the teacher --
先生が10問出題すると
01:17
when the teacher said, "Here are 10 problems," to the class,
先生が10問出題すると
01:20
this little fat kid would say, "Give us 10 more."
「あと10問だして」というような子供でした
01:23
And the whole class would say, "Shut up, Freeman."
するとクラスメート皆が言うのです
「フリーマン 黙れ」
01:27
And there was a designated kicker every day.
僕を蹴る役も
当番制で決まっていました
01:30
And so I was always asking this question:
私はいつも
思ったものです
01:34
"Well how could we get more kids to really love to learn?"
「どうしたらもっと多くの子供が
勉強好きになってくれるのだろう?」
01:36
And amazingly, one week in church,
奇遇にも
ある日嫌々ながら行った教会の
01:42
when I really didn't want to be there
部屋の後ろの方で
01:45
and I was in the back of the room being placated by doing math problems,
気を紛らすために
数学の問題を解いていると
01:47
I heard this man say this:
ある男性が語る声が
聞こえました
01:52
"If we can get the children
「もしも子供達が
バーミンガムで行う
01:55
to participate in this peaceful demonstration here in Birmingham,
今回の平和的なデモに
参加してくれたなら
01:57
we can show America that even children know the difference between right and wrong
アメリカ全土に 子供ですら
善悪の区別がつくこと
02:03
and that children really do want to get the best possible education."
そして彼らが最高の教育を
切望していると示すことが出来ます」
02:08
And I looked up and said, "Who is that man?"
私は顔を上げ
「あの人誰?」と聞くと
02:13
And they said his name was Dr. Martin Luther King.
「キング牧師だよ」
と言われました
02:15
And I said to my parents, "I've got to go.
私が両親に
「僕行きたい
02:18
I want to go. I want to be a part of this."
デモに参加させて」と言うと
02:20
And they said, "Absolutely not."
「絶対だめだ」と言われました
02:22
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:23
And we had a rough go of it.
散々もめました
02:25
And at that time, quite frankly, you really did not talk back to your parents.
当時は親には口答えなどしないものでした
02:27
And somehow I said, "You know, you guys are hypocrites.
でも私は言ったのです
「父さん達は偽善者だ
02:30
You make me go to this. You make me listen.
普段は『あれに行け
話を聞け』と言うのに
02:32
The man wants me to go, and now you say no."
あの人の呼びかけは
応えるなと言う」
02:34
And they thought about it all night.
両親は一晩中考え
02:37
And they came into my room the next morning.
翌朝
私の部屋に来ました
02:38
They had not slept.
両親は一睡もせず
02:40
They had been literally crying and praying and thinking,
泣いて祈って
考えたのです
02:42
"Will we let our 12-year-old
「12歳の我が子が
デモに参加すれば
02:44
participate in this march and probably have to go to jail?"
たぶん刑務所行きだろう」
02:48
And they decided to do it.
熟慮の末 彼らは参加を
認めました
02:52
And when they came in to tell me,
両親の判断に
02:54
I was at first elated.
私は初め大喜びでした
02:55
And then all of a sudden I began thinking about the dogs and the fire hoses,
しかし突然
犬や消防ホースが
02:57
and I got really scared, I really did.
目に浮かび
心底 怖くなりました
03:01
And one of the points I make to people all the time
私が常に強調するのは
03:04
is that sometimes when people do things that are courageous,
時として
勇気ある行動は
03:06
it doesn't really mean that they're that courageous.
その人の勇気の
度合いではなく
03:09
It simply means that they believe it's important to do it.
単に信念の強さに
基づいているという点です
03:11
I wanted a better education.
私は良い教育を
受けたかった
03:14
I did not want to have to have hand-me-down books.
お下がりの教科書が
嫌だった
03:16
I wanted to know that the school I attended
優秀な先生だけでなく
03:19
not only had good teachers, but the resources we needed.
必要な設備が整った
学校に通いたかった
03:22
And as a result of that experience,
デモに参加した結果
03:24
in the middle of the week, while I was there in jail,
刑務所に入れられた
数日後
03:26
Dr. King came and said with our parents,
キング牧師が両親と共に
来て こう言いました
03:28
"What you children do this day
「今子供である君たちが
取る行動は
03:31
will have an impact on children who have not been born."
これから生まれる未来の子供たちの
将来を左右するよ」
03:34
I recently realized that two-thirds of Americans today
最近気がつきました
今のアメリカ人の三分の二は
03:38
had not been born at the time of 1963.
1963年以降に
生まれています
03:43
And so for them, when they hear about the Children's Crusade in Birmingham,
彼らがバーミンガムの
少年少女十字軍について
03:47
in many ways, if they see it on TV,
テレビで見たり聞いたりするのは
03:50
it's like our looking at the 1863 "Lincoln" movie:
私達が1863年のリンカーンを
映画で観るのと似ています
03:52
It's history.
歴史なのです
03:55
And the real question is, what lessons did we learn?
ここで問うべきは
「我々はその経験から何を学んだか」です
03:57
Well amazingly, the most important for me was this:
私にとって一番
大きかったのは
04:00
That children can be empowered to take ownership of their education.
子供でも自分の教育に
責任が持てるということでした
04:03
They can be taught to be passionate
学問に対して情熱を抱く事も
04:08
about wanting to learn and to love the idea of asking questions.
質問をする喜びも
養うことができるのです
04:10
And so it is especially significant
だからこそ
私が今学長を務める
04:15
that the university I now lead,
メリーランド大学
ボルティモア・カウンティー校が
04:18
the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, UMBC,
私がキング牧師と共に
刑務所に入った
04:20
was founded the very year I went to jail with Dr. King, in 1963.
同じ年の1963年に
設立されたことは意義深いのです
04:23
And what made that institutional founding especially important
この大学の設立には
特に重要な意味があります
04:28
is that Maryland is the South, as you know,
ご存知のようにメリーランド州は
南部州です
04:33
and, quite frankly, it was the first university in our state
正直なところ
当時メリーランドで設立された大学で
04:37
founded at a time when students of all races could go there.
全ての人種の学生を受け入れたのは
我が校が初めてでした
04:42
And so we had black and white students and others who began to attend.
黒人 白人その他様々な
人種の学生がいました
04:46
And it has been for 50 years an experiment.
そして我が校は
ある問いに答えるため
04:49
The experiment is this:
50年間 試行錯誤を重ねてきました
04:53
Is it possible to have institutions in our country, universities,
その問いとは「我が国の教育機関や大学で
04:55
where people from all backgrounds can come and learn
様々な背景を持つ生徒たちが共に学び
04:59
and learn to work together and learn to become leaders
それぞれがリーダーとなりながら
05:02
and to support each other in that experience?
お互いに支え合う精神を培うことは
可能なのか?」
05:06
Now what is especially important about that experience for me is this:
そしてその取り組みを通して
05:09
We found that we could do a lot in the arts and humanities and social sciences.
私達は芸術・人文学・社会科学の教育に
改善の余地を見出しました
05:14
And so we began to work on that, for years in the '60s.
そこで60年代は
今上げた分野に注力し
05:19
And we produced a number of people in law, all the way to the humanities.
法曹界から人文科学の分野において
多くの人材を育成しました
05:21
We produced great artists. Beckett is our muse.
一流のアーティストもいます
ベケットがそうです
05:25
A lot of our students get into theater.
演劇界に進む学生も多い
立派です
05:28
It's great work.
演劇界に進む学生も多い
立派です
05:29
The problem that we faced was the same problem America continues to face --
私達が直面した課題は
米国が長年抱えている問題と同じです
05:30
that students in the sciences and engineering,
即ち
理工学部生の
05:34
black students were not succeeding.
黒人学生の
学業不振です
05:36
But when I looked at the data,
しかしデータを見てみると
05:38
what I found was that, quite frankly, students in general,
はっきり言って
黒人学生に限らず多くの生徒が
05:40
large numbers were not making it.
苦労している事がわかりました
05:43
And as a result of that,
そこで
05:45
we decided to do something that would help, first of all,
まずは一番下にいる
アフリカ系アメリカ人と
05:47
the group at the bottom, African-American students, and then Hispanic students.
ヒスパニックの生徒を
支援することにしました
05:50
And Robert and Jane Meyerhoff, philanthropists, said, "We'd like to help."
そして慈善家のロバートとジェーン・マイヤホフも
援助を申し出てくれたのです
05:54
Robert Meyerhoff said, "Why is it that everything I see on TV about black boys,
ロバートは
「テレビでみる黒人の子供たちの
05:59
if it's not about basketball, is not positive?
話題はバスケットボール以外は
悪いことばかりだ
06:02
I'd like to make a difference, to do something that's positive."
私はそれを変えたい
何か有益なことをしたい」と言いました
06:05
We married those ideas, and we created this Meyerhoff Scholars program.
我々はお互いのアイディアを統合し
マイヤホフ奨学金制度を創設しました
06:08
And what is significant about the program
このプログラムの意義は
06:11
is that we learned a number of things.
ここから私達が多くのことを
学んだ点です
06:13
And the question is this:
考えてみてください
06:16
How is it that now we lead the country in producing African-Americans
いかにして我が校は
理工学部や医学部の博士課程を修了する
06:17
who go on to complete Ph.D.'s in science and engineering and M.D./Ph.D.'s?
アフリカ系アメリカ人を輩出する
先陣を切るに至ったのでしょう?
06:22
That's a big deal. Give me a hand for that. That's a big deal.
大したものでしょう
拍手をお願いします
06:27
That's a big deal. It really is.
本当にすごいことなんです
(拍手)
06:29
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:31
You see, most people don't realize
大半の人は
気付いていませんが
06:34
that it's not just minorities who don't do well in science and engineering.
理工学分野で成績不振なのは
マイノリティーに限定されません
06:36
Quite frankly, you're talking about Americans.
実はアメリカ人全体に
言えることなのです
06:40
If you don't know it, while 20 percent of blacks and Hispanics
どういうことか?
理工学部を専攻して
06:44
who begin with a major in science and engineering
実際に理工学部を卒業する
06:47
will actually graduate in science and engineering,
黒人 ヒスパニック系は20%です
06:49
only 32 percent of whites who begin with majors in those areas
一方 同様に理工学部を専攻し
06:52
actually succeed and graduate in those areas,
卒業する白人はたったの32%です
06:55
and only 42 percent of Asian-Americans.
アジア系アメリカ人でもたったの42%
06:58
And so, the real question is, what is the challenge?
では何が課題なのか?
07:00
Well a part of it, of course, is K-12.
もちろん
幼稚園から高校の教育は
07:03
We need to strengthen K-12.
課題の一つです
改善しなければなりません
07:05
But the other part has to do with the culture
ですが
大学の理工学部の
07:07
of science and engineering on our campuses.
風土も問題の一因です
07:09
Whether you know it or not, large numbers of students with high SAT's
ご存知無いかも知れませんが 現にSATも優秀で
07:12
and large numbers of A.P. credits
大学レベルの授業を履修し
07:16
who go to the most prestigious universities in our country
一流大学に進学した高校生の多くが
07:17
begin in pre-med or pre-engineering and engineering, and they end up changing their majors.
医学/工学部予備科や工学部を専攻しながら
結局途中で専攻を変えてしまいます
07:20
And the number one reason, we find, quite frankly,
変更する最も多い理由は
07:25
is they did not do well in first year science courses.
「一年目の科学の授業で
つまづいた」です
07:27
In fact, we call first year science and engineering, typically around America,
実際米国では一般的に
理工学部の一年目の授業を
07:30
weed-out courses or barrier courses.
「ふるい落とし」とか
「関門」と呼んでいます
07:34
How many of you in this audience know somebody
皆さんも
医学部予備科
07:36
who started off in pre-med or engineering
または工学部を
専攻して2年以内に
07:38
and changed their major within a year or two?
専攻を変更した
知人がいませんか?
07:40
It's an American challenge. Half of you in the room.
半分くらいですね
07:41
I know. I know. I know.
分かります
07:43
And what is interesting about that
ところがそういった学生の
07:45
is that so many students are smart and can do it.
多くは優秀で素質があるのです
07:46
We need to find ways of making it happen.
その素質を開花させる
手段が必要なのです
07:49
So what are the four things we did to help minority students
マイノリティーの学生向けの
支援策で
07:51
that now are helping students in general?
生徒全般に有効なことが
四つあります
07:54
Number one: high expectations.
その1:生徒に多いに期待すること
07:56
It takes an understanding of the academic preparation of students --
生徒達が理工学分野で成功するには
学問的素養があり
07:58
their grades, the rigor of the course work,
よい成績が取れ
学習課題の厳しさに堪えられ
08:02
their test-taking skills, their attitude,
受験技術を身につけ
なおかつ
08:04
the fire in their belly, the passion for the work, to make it.
学問に対する強い情熱が必要です
08:07
And so doing things to help students prepare to be in that position, very important.
生徒にそれらが備わるよう
支援することが非常に大事です
08:10
But equally important, it takes an understanding that it's hard work that makes the difference.
また 成果は努力によってのみ生まれると
理解していることも重要です
08:14
I don't care how smart you are or how smart you think you are.
本人の頭の良さや自信は関係ありません
08:19
Smart simply means you're ready to learn.
「頭が良い」というのは
単に学ぶ準備が出来ているだけで
08:21
You're excited about learning and you want to ask good questions.
学ぶこと 質問することを
喜ぶ心が必要です
08:24
I. I. Rabi, a Nobel laureate, said that when he was growing up in New York,
ノーベル賞受賞者のI.I.ラビが
ニューヨークで育った子供時代
08:27
all of his friends' parents would ask them
友達の親は学校から
帰宅した友達に
08:31
"What did you learn in school?" at the end of a day.
「今日は何を習ったの?」と毎日
聞いたそうです
08:34
And he said, in contrast, his Jewish mother would say,
一方 ラビのユダヤ人の母親は
08:37
"Izzy, did you ask a good question today?"
「イジー 今日はいい質問をした?」と
聞いたそうです
08:40
And so high expectations have to do with curiosity
高い期待は好奇心と
直結しています
08:43
and encouraging young people to be curious.
若者に好奇心を
持ってもらうのです
08:46
And as a result of those high expectations,
高い期待のおかげで
08:48
we began to find students we wanted to work with
私たちは手助けができそうな
08:50
to see what could we do to help them,
学生を見つけていきました
08:53
not simply to survive in science and engineering,
単に理工科の授業を
切り抜けるためではなく
08:54
but to become the very best, to excel.
卓越した人材に育って
もらうためです
08:57
Interestingly enough, an example:
例をあげます
09:00
One young man who earned a C in the first course and wanted to go on to med school,
最初の履修科目でCを取ったある学生の
志望は医科大学院でした
09:02
we said, "We need to have you retake the course,
私たちは彼に
「再受講だね
09:06
because you need a strong foundation if you're going to move to the next level."
次の段階に進むなら
盤石な基礎知識が必要だよ」と言いました
09:09
Every foundation makes the difference in the next level.
基礎学習の善し悪しは
次の段階に響きます
09:12
He retook the course.
彼は再受講し
09:15
That young man went on to graduate from UMBC,
UMBCを卒業し
09:16
to become the first black to get the M.D./Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.
ペンシルバニア大学で医学士/博士号を
取得した初の黒人となり
09:19
He now works at Harvard.
今はハーバード大の職員です
09:23
Nice story. Give him a hand for that too.
いい話でしょう
彼に拍手!
09:24
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:27
Secondly, it's not about test scores only.
その2:試験の点数が全てではない
09:29
Test scores are important, but they're not the most important thing.
確かに試験は重要ですが
一番大事なことではありません
09:32
One young woman had great grades, but test scores were not as high.
ある女子学生は成績は良いのに
テストの点数はあまり良くありませんでした
09:34
But she had a factor that was very important.
しかし彼女は
素晴らしい素質を持っていました
09:37
She never missed a day of school, K-12.
幼稚園から高校まで
皆勤賞で
09:39
There was fire in that belly.
学問への情熱です
09:42
That young woman went on, and she is today with an M.D./Ph.D. from Hopkins.
彼女は勉強を続け
ホプキンス大学の医学士/博士号を修了しました
09:43
She's on the faculty, tenure track in psychiatry, Ph.D. in neuroscience.
今や精神医学の終身制教授
神経科学博士号を持つ身です
09:48
She and her adviser have a patent on a second use of Viagra for diabetes patients.
彼女と指導教官はバイアグラを
糖尿病治療に使う特許を持っています
09:52
Big hand for her. Big hand for her.
彼女に拍手!
09:57
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:59
And so high expectations, very important.
まず 生徒に多いに期待すること
10:00
Secondly, the idea of building community among the students.
そして次に生徒のコミュニティー作りを
するのが大事なのです
10:03
You all know that so often in science and engineering
理工学部といえば
熾烈な競争の場と
10:06
we tend to think cutthroat.
思われがちです
10:09
Students are not taught to work in groups.
協力することは
通常習いません
10:10
And that's what we work to do with that group
そこにメスを入れました
10:13
to get them to understand each other,
お互いを理解し
10:15
to build trust among them, to support each other,
信頼を築き
お互いを支え
10:16
to learn how to ask good questions,
良い質問を
することを学び
10:19
but also to learn how to explain concepts with clarity.
概念を明確に伝える
技術も学んでもらいました
10:20
As you know, it's one thing to earn an A yourself,
自分が「A」を取るのと
10:24
it's another thing to help someone else do well.
他人の「A」のために
力を貸すこととは異なります
10:26
And so to feel that sense of responsibility makes all the difference in the world.
そのような責任感の有無が
世界を変えるのです
10:28
So building community among those students, very important.
学生のコミュニティーを作る
非常に大事なことです
10:32
Third, the idea of, it takes researchers to produce researchers.
その3:研究員が研究員を育成すること
10:35
Whether you're talking about artists producing artists
アーティストが
アーティストを生むでもいい
10:40
or you're talking about people getting into the social sciences,
社会科学を学ぶ人のことでもいい
10:42
whatever the discipline -- and especially in science and engineering, as in art, for example --
分野に関係なく 芸術でも理工科でも
10:45
you need scientists to pull the students into the work.
学生を課題に引き込むのは
科学者です
10:50
And so our students are working in labs regularly.
だからうちの学生は
定期的にラボで作業をしています
10:53
And one great example that you'll appreciate:
とてもいい例があります
10:56
During a snowstorm in Baltimore several years ago,
数年前にボルティモアで
吹雪があったとき
10:58
the guy on our campus with this Howard Hughes Medical Institute grant
ハワード・ヒューズ医学研究所の助成金を
受けていた本校の教員が
11:01
literally came back to work in his lab after several days,
数日後ラボで作業をするために
悪天候にも関わらず戻ってきたのです
11:05
and all these students had refused to leave the lab.
他の学生たちも
帰宅を拒みました
11:09
They had food they had packed out.
彼らは食料まで持参して
11:13
They were in the lab working,
ラボで作業をしました
11:15
and they saw the work, not as schoolwork, but as their lives.
作業は彼らの人生だったのです
11:16
They knew they were working on AIDS research.
彼らはAIDS研究の一環で
11:20
They were looking at this amazing protein design.
驚くべきタンパク質の構造を
研究していました
11:22
And what was interesting was each one of them focused on that work.
皆その作業に
集中していたのです
11:25
And he said, "It doesn't get any better than that."
教員は
「最高だね」と言いました
11:29
And then finally, if you've got the community
さて コミュニティーができ
11:32
and you've got the high expectations and you've got researchers producing researchers,
高い期待があり
研究員が研究員を生む状況が整ったら
11:34
you have to have people who are willing as faculty
最後に必要なのは教員です
11:37
to get involved with those students, even in the classroom.
生徒と授業内外で深く付き合える教員です
11:40
I'll never forget a faculty member calling the staff and saying,
ある教授がスタッフに
言ったことが忘れられません
11:43
"I've got this young man in class, a young black guy,
「クラスに黒人の学生がいるのだが
11:46
and he seems like he's just not excited about the work.
どうも課題に熱中できていないようだ
11:48
He's not taking notes. We need to talk to him."
メモも取っていない
彼と話をしよう」
11:51
What was significant was that the faculty member was observing every student
注目すべきは彼が
個々の学生を見ていたことです
11:53
to understand who was really involved and who was not
勉強に熱心な学生と
そうでない子を見分け
11:57
and was saying, "Let me see how I can work with them.
彼らを助けるために
12:00
Let me get the staff to help me out."
スタッフにも頼る
12:02
It was that connecting.
その絆が重要なのです
12:04
That young man today is actually a faculty member M.D./Ph.D. in neuroengineering at Duke.
その若者は神経工学医学の博士号を取り
現在デューク大学の教員です
12:05
Give him a big hand for that.
彼に盛大な拍手!
12:10
(Applause)
(拍手)
12:11
And so the significance is that we have now developed this model
大事なのは
我々がこのようなモデルを作ったことで
12:13
that is helping us, not only finally with evaluation, assessing what works.
何が機能しているのかが
分かるようになった事です
12:18
And what we learned was that we needed to think about redesigning courses.
そして授業の再構築が
必要と分かったのです
12:22
And so we redesigned chemistry, we redesigned physics.
そこで化学 物理学の授業を
見直しました
12:25
But now we are looking at redesigning the humanities and social sciences.
そして現在は多くの学生が
退屈に感じている
12:28
Because so many students are bored in class.
文系の授業を刷新中です
12:32
Do you know that?
ご存知でしたか?
12:34
Many students, K-12 and in universities,
どんな学年においても
12:35
don't want to just sit there and listen to somebody talk.
学生は 受け身な座学では
物足りないのです
12:37
They need to be engaged.
もっと授業に参加したいのです
12:40
And so we have done -- if you look at our website at the Chemistry Discovery Center,
HPを見ていただければわかりますが
我が校の「化学探求センター」では
12:41
you'll see people coming from all over the country
全米各所から多くの人が
12:45
to look at how we are redesigning courses,
我々の授業の新しい形を
学びに来ます
12:47
having an emphasis on collaboration, use of technology,
生徒間の協力やテクノロジーの
活用に重点を置き
12:49
using problems out of our biotech companies on our campus,
大学内のバイオ企業の現場で
起こる課題を教材にし
12:53
and not giving students the theories,
学生にただ理論を
教えるのではなく
12:56
but having them struggle with those theories.
彼らに理論と格闘して
もらっています
12:58
And it's working so well that throughout our university system in Maryland,
これが非常に奏功しており
今やメリーランド大学全体で
13:00
more and more courses are being redesigned.
多くの授業が
再構築されています
13:04
It's called academic innovation.
これは「学問の革新」です
13:06
And what does all of that mean?
どういう意味か?
13:08
It means that now, not just in science and engineering,
つまり今や
理工系の授業以外にも
13:09
we now have programs in the arts, in the humanities, in the social sciences,
芸術 人文社会科学 教員教育や
13:12
in teacher education, even particularly for women in I.T.
ITを学ぶ女性のためのクラスでも
このようなプログラムが行われています
13:16
If you don't know it, there's been a 79-percent decline
実は2000年以来
コンピューターサイエンスを
13:20
in the number of women majoring in computer science just since 2000.
専攻する女性の数は79%も
減少しています
13:25
And what I'm saying is that what will make the difference
私が言いたいのは
違いを生むのは
13:29
will be building community among students,
学生のコミュニティーを作り
13:32
telling young women, young minority students and students in general,
若い女性 少数派を含め
学生全般に「君ならできる」と
13:35
you can do this work.
伝える事です
13:38
And most important, giving them a chance to build that community
最も重要なのは
コミュニティーを築く機会を与え
13:39
with faculty pulling them into the work
教授は学生を勉強に
引き込み
13:42
and our assessing what works and what does not work.
学校はこの仕組みの
評価をしていくことです
13:44
Most important, if a student has a sense of self,
更に言うなら
自意識を持った
13:47
it is amazing how the dreams and the values
学生の夢や価値観は
13:51
can make all the difference in the world.
驚くような違いを
生みます
13:53
When I was a 12-year-old child in the jail in Birmingham,
バーミンガムの刑務所にいた
12歳の私は
13:55
I kept thinking, "I wonder what my future could be."
自分にはどんな将来があるのか
考え続けました
13:59
I had no idea that it was possible for this little black boy in Birmingham
バーミンガムのちっぽけな
黒人の子供が
14:02
to one day be president of a university that has students from 150 countries,
150ヶ国から学ぶことを愛し
最高を目指し
14:08
where students are not there just to survive,
いつか世界を変えてやるという
気概を持つ
14:13
where they love learning, where they enjoy being the best,
学生を迎える
大学の学長になれるとは
14:15
where they will one day change the world.
夢にも思いませんでした
14:19
Aristotle said, "Excellence is never an accident.
アリストテレスの言葉です
「卓越は決して偶然ではない
14:22
It is the result of high intention, sincere effort and intelligent execution.
それは 高い目的意識 真摯な努力
賢明な実行の結果であり
14:25
It represents the wisest option among many alternatives."
数ある選択肢の中の
最善の選択なのである」
14:31
And then he said something that gives me goosebumps.
もう一つ鳥肌が立つ
彼の名言があります
14:35
He said, "Choice, not chance, determines your destiny."
「己の運命を決めるのは
偶然ではなく選択だ」
14:38
Choice, not chance, determines your destiny, dreams and values.
偶然ではなく 自分が取った選択が
自身の運命 夢 価値を決めるのです
14:43
Thank you all very much.
ご静聴ありがとうございました
14:51
(Applause)
(拍手)
14:53
Translator:Chiaki Takeuchi
Reviewer:Marie Kanke

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Freeman Hrabowski - Educator
During his 20-year tenure as president of UMBC, Freeman Hrabowski has helped students of all backgrounds pursue degrees in arts, humanities and the sciences.

Why you should listen

During his 20-year run as president of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), Freeman Hrabowski has transformed a young university into a research institution recognized as one of the most innovative in the country. His goal: continue building a campus that’s first-rate in research and instruction, and that prepares students of all backgrounds for success.
 
Hrabowski cofounded the Meyerhoff Scholars Program for high-achieving minority students in science and engineering; the program has become a national model. Hrabowski frequently writes about minority participation and performance in these areas. He advises President Obama on educational issues and consults for the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and National Academies. A tireless educator, leader and mentor, Hrabowski was named one of world’s most influential people in 2012 by Time magazine.

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