15:41
TEDSalon NY2013

Malcolm Gladwell: The unheard story of David and Goliath

マルコム・グラッドウェル: 知られざるダビデとゴリアテの物語

Filmed:

それは弱者が強者を倒したという有名な物語。武器と言えば石投げだけの若い羊飼いダビデが、屈強の戦士ゴリアテを倒したのです。この話は聖書を通して広まり、思いもかけない勝利を表す決まり文句になりました。しかし、本当のダビデとゴリアテの話はどういうものだったのかと、マルコム・グラッドウェルは問いかけます。

- Writer
Detective of fads and emerging subcultures, chronicler of jobs-you-never-knew-existed, Malcolm Gladwell's work is toppling the popular understanding of bias, crime, food, marketing, race, consumers and intelligence. Full bio

So I wanted to tell a story
本日 お話したいのは
00:12
that really obsessed me when I was writing my new book,
新作を執筆中に
頭を悩ませていた問題です
00:13
and it's a story of something that happened
それは3,000年前の
00:17
3,000 years ago,
出来事です
00:20
when the Kingdom of Israel was in its infancy.
イスラエル王国が
誕生したばかりの頃で
00:22
And it takes place in an area called the Shephelah
シェフェラという
場所で起きました
00:25
in what is now Israel.
今のイスラエルにあります
00:28
And the reason the story obsessed me is that
なぜ 悩んでいたのかというと
00:30
I thought I understood it, and then I went back over it
知っているつもりのことを
実は—
00:32
and I realized that I didn't understand it at all.
全く理解していなかったと
気付いたからです
00:36
Ancient Palestine had a -- along its eastern border,
古代パレスティナの
東側の国境に沿って
00:40
there's a mountain range.
山脈がありました
00:44
Still same is true of Israel today.
今日のイスラエルと同じです
00:46
And in the mountain range are all of the ancient cities
そしてこの地域の
主要な古代都市—
00:48
of that region, so Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Hebron.
エルサレム ベツレヘム ヘブロンはみな
この山脈にありました
00:51
And then there's a coastal plain
そして地中海に面した海岸平野に
00:55
along the Mediterranean, where Tel Aviv is now.
現在のテルアビブがありますが
00:57
And connecting the mountain range with the coastal plain
この山脈と海岸平野の
間の地域が
01:01
is an area called the Shephelah,
シェフェラと
呼ばれていました
01:04
which is a series of valleys and ridges that run east to west,
尾根と谷が東西に走り
01:06
and you can follow the Shephelah, go through the Shephelah
シェフェラを通って
01:10
to get from the coastal plain to the mountains.
海岸平野から
山脈に出られます
01:14
And the Shephelah, if you've been to Israel, you'll know
イスラエルに
行ったことのある方なら
01:16
it's just about the most beautiful part of Israel.
そこが最も美しい場所だと
ご存知でしょう
01:18
It's gorgeous, with forests of oak
きれいですよ
オークの森があり
01:20
and wheat fields and vineyards.
麦畑にブドウ園
01:23
But more importantly, though, in the history of that region,
しかしそれ以上に
この地域は歴史的に
01:26
it's served, it's had a real strategic function,
戦略上重要な拠点でした
01:29
and that is, it is the means by which hostile armies
つまり 敵愾心に満ちた軍隊が
01:33
on the coastal plain find their way,
海岸平野から
この地を通って
01:36
get up into the mountains and threaten those living in the mountains.
山脈に入り込めば
イスラエルの民には脅威でした
01:38
And 3,000 years ago, that's exactly what happens.
3,000年前に
まさにこれが起こりました
01:42
The Philistines, who are the biggest of enemies
イスラエル王国の
最大の敵は
01:45
of the Kingdom of Israel,
ペリシテ人で
01:49
are living in the coastal plain.
海岸平野に住んでいました
01:51
They're originally from Crete. They're a seafaring people.
クレタ島を故郷とする
航海に長けた民族です
01:53
And they may start to make their way
彼らが進軍を始め
01:56
through one of the valleys of the Shephelah
シェフェラの谷を通って
01:58
up into the mountains,
山脈に向かいました
02:00
because what they want to do is occupy the highland area
高地をその手に収め
02:02
right by Bethlehem and split the Kingdom of Israel in two.
ベツレヘムのところで
王国を二分するつもりだったのです
02:04
And the Kingdom of Israel, which is headed by King Saul,
サウル王率いる
イスラエル王国は
02:08
obviously catches wind of this,
この動向を読み取り
02:11
and Saul brings his army down from the mountains
王は自軍を率いて
山を下り
02:13
and he confronts the Philistines in the Valley of Elah,
エラの谷で
ペリシテ軍と対峙しました
02:16
one of the most beautiful of the valleys of the Shephelah.
シェフェラにある谷の中でも
最も美しい場所の一つです
02:19
And the Israelites dig in along the northern ridge,
イスラエル軍は北峰に陣取り
02:22
and the Philistines dig in along the southern ridge,
ペリシテ軍は南峰に沿って
陣を敷きました
02:25
and the two armies just sit there for weeks
そして何週間も
にらみ合っていました
02:29
and stare at each other, because they're deadlocked.
膠着状態になって
しまったのです
02:32
Neither can attack the other, because to attack the other side
双方とも攻撃も
ままなりません
02:34
you've got to come down the mountain into the valley
攻撃するには山を下り
谷を越えて
02:36
and then up the other side, and you're completely exposed.
相手側に登らなくてはならず
敵に身をさらす事になります
02:40
So finally, to break the deadlock,
この状況を打開するため
02:42
the Philistines send their mightiest warrior
ペリシテ側は最強の兵士を
02:44
down into the valley floor, and he calls out
谷底へ送り込みました
02:47
and he says to the Israelites,
その兵士が呼びかけます
02:50
"Send your mightiest warrior down,
「最強の兵を下ってこさせよ
02:51
and we'll have this out, just the two of us."
二人で決着を付けようではないか」
02:54
This was a tradition in ancient warfare called single combat.
これは古代の戦場の習わしである
一騎打ちで—
02:56
It was a way of settling disputes
血みどろの決戦無しに
03:00
without incurring the bloodshed of a major battle.
争いを治める方法でした
03:02
And the Philistine who is sent down,
ペリシテ人が送り込んだのは
03:06
their mighty warrior, is a giant.
屈強の巨人で
03:09
He's 6 foot 9.
2m以上あり
03:11
He's outfitted head to toe in this glittering bronze armor,
青銅の鎧で全身を固め
03:13
and he's got a sword and he's got a javelin
剣と大小の投槍を持ち
03:17
and he's got his spear. He is absolutely terrifying.
見るも恐ろしい様でした
03:20
And he's so terrifying that none of the Israelite soldiers want to fight him.
恐怖のあまり
イスラエル側で これに応じる者はいませんでした
03:23
It's a death wish, right? There's no way they think they can take him.
自殺しにいくようなものです
勝ち目はありません
03:28
And finally the only person who will come forward
しかし とうとう
進み出た者がいました
03:32
is this young shepherd boy,
若い羊飼いの少年です
03:35
and he goes up to Saul and he says, "I'll fight him."
サウル王に申し出ました
「あのペリシテ人と戦いましょう」
03:37
And Saul says, "You can't fight him. That's ridiculous.
王は「勝負にはなるまい
03:40
You're this kid. This is this mighty warrior."
お前は年若く 相手は熟練の兵だ」
と答えました
03:43
But the shepherd is adamant. He says, "No, no, no,
しかし 羊飼いは譲りません
03:45
you don't understand, I have been defending my flock
「私は羊たちを 何年も
03:48
against lions and wolves for years. I think I can do it."
獅子やオオカミから
守ってきたのです」
03:51
And Saul has no choice. He's got no one else who's come forward.
王に選択の余地はありません
他に誰も名乗り出ないのです
03:55
So he says, "All right."
「では行くがよい」
03:58
And then he turns to the kid, and he says,
そして少年に向かって
03:59
"But you've got to wear this armor. You can't go as you are."
「そのままではならぬ
このいくさ衣を着なさい」と
04:01
So he tries to give the shepherd his armor,
自分の甲冑を
与えようとしましたが
04:04
and the shepherd says, "No."
羊飼いは断りました
04:07
He says, "I can't wear this stuff."
「このような物は
身に着けられません」
04:08
The Biblical verse is, "I cannot wear this for I have not proved it,"
聖書には「験せしことなければ
是を着ては 往くあたはず」とあります
04:10
meaning, "I've never worn armor before. You've got to be crazy."
つまり 「鎧を着たことがないのでムリ」
という事ですね
04:14
So he reaches down instead on the ground
その代り地面にあった
04:18
and picks up five stones
5つの石を拾い
04:20
and puts them in his shepherd's bag
羊飼いの肩掛け袋に入れ
04:22
and starts to walk down the mountainside to meet the giant.
巨人の元へ
山を下り始めました
04:24
And the giant sees this figure approaching,
巨人はその姿を見て
叫びました
04:29
and calls out, "Come to me so I can feed your flesh
「さあ 向かってこい
04:31
to the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the field."
空の鳥 野の獣の
餌食にしてくれよう」
04:34
He issues this kind of taunt towards this person
向かってくる対戦相手を
04:38
coming to fight him.
そんな風に愚弄したのです
04:42
And the shepherd draws closer and closer,
羊飼いが近づいていくと
04:43
and the giant sees that he's carrying a staff.
巨人に相手の武器が
見えました
04:47
That's all he's carrying.
相手が持っていたのは
04:50
Instead of a weapon, just this shepherd's staff,
武器ではなく
羊飼いの杖だけです
04:51
and he says -- he's insulted --
侮辱を感じた巨人は
言いました
04:53
"Am I a dog that you would come to me with sticks?"
「杖々を持って 向かってくるが
私は犬なのか」
04:55
And the shepherd boy takes one of his stones
すると少年は袋から
一つの石を取り
04:59
out of his pocket, puts it in his sling
石投げに入れると
05:02
and rolls it around and lets it fly
振り回して放ちました
05:05
and it hits the giant right between the eyes --
石は巨人の眉間を打ち
05:07
right here, in his most vulnerable spot --
まさにここ 弱点を突きました
05:10
and he falls down either dead or unconscious,
死んだのか失神したのか
ともかく地に倒れたので
05:12
and the shepherd boy runs up and takes his sword
少年は駆け寄ると
その剣を取り
05:15
and cuts off his head,
首をはねました
05:18
and the Philistines see this and they turn and they just run.
それを見たペリシテ軍は
一目散に逃げ出しました
05:19
And of course, the name of the giant is Goliath
もちろん 巨人の名は
ゴリアテで
05:25
and the name of the shepherd boy is David,
羊飼いの少年の名は
ダビデです
05:29
and the reason that story has obsessed me
本を書いている間
この話が頭から
05:32
over the course of writing my book
離れなかったのは
05:35
is that everything I thought I knew about that story
この話についての
それまでの自分の理解が
05:36
turned out to be wrong.
間違っていたと
わかったからです
05:39
So David, in that story, is supposed to be the underdog, right?
ダビデに勝ち目は
なさそうですよね
05:42
In fact, that term, David and Goliath,
実際 「ダビデとゴリアテ」と言えば
05:46
has entered our language as a metaphor for
番狂わせの形容として
05:48
improbable victories
使われています
05:51
by some weak party over someone far stronger.
予想外の勝利ということですね
05:53
Now why do we call David an underdog?
なぜ ダビデに勝ち目はないと
思ったのでしょうか?
05:56
Well, we call him an underdog because he's a kid,
子供だから 勝算はない
05:58
a little kid, and Goliath is this big, strong giant.
きゃしゃな少年と
屈強のゴリアテです
06:01
We also call him an underdog
また勝ち目がないのは
06:05
because Goliath is an experienced warrior,
ゴリアテは経験豊かな戦士で
06:07
and David is just a shepherd.
ダビデは羊飼いにすぎないから
06:11
But most importantly, we call him an underdog
何より注目すべきは
06:12
because all he has is -- it's that Goliath is outfitted with
ゴリアテが身に着けていたのが
06:15
all of this modern weaponry,
最新鋭の武器だったこと
06:20
this glittering coat of armor
きらめく甲冑
06:22
and a sword and a javelin and a spear,
剣に 大小の投槍
06:24
and all David has is this sling.
一方 ダビデが持っていたのは
石投げに過ぎません
06:27
Well, let's start there with the phrase
ここから始めましょうか
06:31
"All David has is this sling,"
「ダビデが持っていたのは
石投げにすぎない」
06:33
because that's the first mistake that we make.
実はこれが
最初の誤解なのです
06:35
In ancient warfare, there are three kinds of warriors.
古代の戦場には
3種類の兵隊がいました
06:38
There's cavalry, men on horseback and with chariots.
騎兵 馬と二輪戦車に乗って戦います
06:42
There's heavy infantry, which are foot soldiers,
歩兵 これは剣と盾で身を固め
06:45
armed foot soldiers with swords and shields
ある種の鎧を着た
徒歩の兵隊です
06:48
and some kind of armor.
ある種の鎧を着た
徒歩の兵隊です
06:51
And there's artillery, and artillery are archers,
そして砲兵 弓の射手や—
06:53
but, more importantly, slingers.
さらに重要な投石手から
編成されています
06:56
And a slinger is someone who has a leather pouch
投石手というのは
革製のポーチを持っていて
06:58
with two long cords attached to it,
このポーチは
2本の長い紐付で
07:01
and they put a projectile, either a rock or a lead ball,
弾にする石や鉛玉を
07:04
inside the pouch, and they whirl it around like this
このポーチに入れ
こんな風に回転させて
07:07
and they let one of the cords go,
一方の紐を放す事で
07:10
and the effect is to send the projectile forward
標的に向けて
07:13
towards its target.
投擲するんです
07:17
That's what David has, and it's important to understand
これがダビデの武器です
そして大事なのは
07:20
that that sling is not a slingshot.
石投げは
パチンコとは違うことです
07:23
It's not this, right? It's not a child's toy.
子供のおもちゃではありません
07:26
It's in fact an incredibly devastating weapon.
実は非常に強力な
武器なのです
07:28
When David rolls it around like this,
ダビデが石投げを
07:32
he's turning the sling around probably
このように回している時
07:35
at six or seven revolutions per second,
おそらく1秒間に
6、7回転させていたと思います
07:38
and that means that when the rock is released,
それで石が放たれると
07:41
it's going forward really fast,
非常に高速になり
07:45
probably 35 meters per second.
恐らく秒速35mは
あったと思われます
07:47
That's substantially faster than a baseball
強肩のピッチャーが投げる
07:49
thrown by even the finest of baseball pitchers.
野球のボールよりも
速いでしょう
07:52
More than that, the stones in the Valley of Elah
さらには エラの谷にある石は
07:56
were not normal rocks. They were barium sulphate,
ただの石ではありません
硫酸バリウムで—
08:00
which are rocks twice the density of normal stones.
普通の石の
2倍の密度があります
08:03
If you do the calculations on the ballistics,
計算してみると
08:06
on the stopping power of the rock fired from David's sling,
ダビデの石投げから放たれた石の
ストッピングパワーは
08:09
it's roughly equal to the stopping power
45口径の拳銃に
08:13
of a [.45 caliber] handgun.
匹敵するのです
08:15
This is an incredibly devastating weapon.
ものすごく威力のある
武器なんです
08:18
Accuracy, we know from historical records
その精度は 歴史上の記録から
08:21
that slingers -- experienced slingers could hit
経験豊かな投石手なら
08:26
and maim or even kill a target at distances of up to 200 yards.
200m離れた敵に 重傷を負わせ
殺すことさえできたそうです
08:30
From medieval tapestries, we know that slingers
中世のタペストリーから
08:36
were capable of hitting birds in flight.
投石手は飛んでいる鳥を
落とせる事もわかります
08:39
They were incredibly accurate.
驚くほど
正確なのです
08:42
When David lines up -- and he's not 200 yards away from Goliath,
ダビデがゴリアテと対峙した時
200mも離れてはいません
08:44
he's quite close to Goliath --
ずっと近かった
08:48
when he lines up and fires that thing at Goliath,
ゴリアテに向けて
投擲したとき
08:49
he has every intention and every expectation
ダビデはまさに
08:53
of being able to hit Goliath at his most vulnerable spot
ゴリアテの弱点である眉間に
08:56
between his eyes.
狙いを定めていたのです
08:59
If you go back over the history of ancient warfare,
歴史上の戦いを振り返ると
09:00
you will find time and time again
度々起きている事ですが
09:02
that slingers were the decisive factor against infantry
様々な局面で
09:05
in one kind of battle or another.
投石手が歩兵を
圧倒しているのです
09:09
So what's Goliath? He's heavy infantry,
さて ゴリアテはどうでしょう?
重装歩兵です
09:14
and his expectation when he challenges the Israelites to a duel
当然 一騎打ちの際は
09:18
is that he's going to be fighting another heavy infantryman.
重装歩兵どうしで
戦うつもりでした
09:23
When he says, "Come to me that I might
「向かってこい
09:27
feed your flesh to the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the field,"
空の鳥 野の獣の
餌食にしてくれよう」の中の—
09:29
the key phrase is "Come to me."
「向かってこい」というのが
ポイントです
09:32
Come up to me because we're going to fight,
これから始まるのは
09:34
hand to hand, like this.
こんな剣を交えた接近戦です
09:36
Saul has the same expectation.
サウル王も同じ考えでした
09:38
David says, "I want to fight Goliath,"
ダビデが「ゴリアテと戦いたい」と言った時
09:40
and Saul tries to give him his armor,
王は自分の鎧を
与えようとしました
09:42
because Saul is thinking, "Oh, when you say 'fight Goliath,'
「ゴリアテと戦う」というなら
09:44
you mean 'fight him in hand-to-hand combat,'
当然 それは「接近戦」で
09:47
infantry on infantry."
「歩兵 対 歩兵の戦い」だろうと
09:50
But David has absolutely no expectation.
ところがダビデは
そんなことは考えもしませんでした
09:52
He's not going to fight him that way. Why would he?
そんな戦い方はしません
なぜか?
09:55
He's a shepherd. He's spent his entire career
羊飼いだからです
一番の仕事は
09:58
using a sling to defend his flock against lions and wolves.
羊の群れを獅子やオオカミから
石投げで守ることでした
10:01
That's where his strength lies.
それが彼の強みです
10:05
So here he is, this shepherd, experienced
この羊飼いは
10:07
in the use of a devastating weapon,
使い慣れた
強力な武器を手に
10:09
up against this lumbering giant
のろまな巨人に
向かったのです
10:11
weighed down by a hundred pounds of armor
50kgの鎧で動きが遅く
10:14
and these incredibly heavy weapons
彼の重たい武器は
10:17
that are useful only in short-range combat.
白兵戦でのみ
有効です
10:18
Goliath is a sitting duck. He doesn't have a chance.
ゴリアテこそ格好の餌食で
勝ち目はなかったのです
10:22
So why do we keep calling David an underdog,
それなのになぜ ダビデは勝てないと
思い込んだのでしょう?
10:26
and why do we keep referring to his victory as improbable?
番狂わせだと
言い続けるのか?
10:29
There's a second piece of this that's important.
重要な要素が
もう1つあります
10:35
It's not just that we misunderstand David
私たちはダビデと
彼の武器の選択について
10:38
and his choice of weaponry.
誤解していただけではなく
10:41
It's also that we profoundly misunderstand Goliath.
ゴリアテについても
大きな誤解をしていたのです
10:43
Goliath is not what he seems to be.
ゴリアテは見かけ
どおりではなかった
10:46
There's all kinds of hints of this in the Biblical text,
聖書の文章に
多くのヒントが隠されています
10:50
things that are in retrospect quite puzzling
よく考えてみると
腑に落ちないことがあります
10:54
and don't square with his image as this mighty warrior.
どうも屈強の戦士という
イメージに合わないのです
10:56
So to begin with, the Bible says that Goliath
聖書によればゴリアテは
11:00
is led onto the valley floor by an attendant.
従者に手引きされていた
とあります
11:04
Now that is weird, right?
おかしいでしょう?
11:08
Here is this mighty warrior
イスラエル軍に
一騎打ちを求める
11:10
challenging the Israelites to one-on-one combat.
最強の戦士が
11:12
Why is he being led by the hand
なぜ それも恐らくは子供に
11:15
by some young boy, presumably,
手を引かれなくては
ならないのでしょう?
11:17
to the point of combat?
これから戦場に
向かうというのに
11:20
Secondly, the Bible story makes special note
さらに聖書には
ゴリアテがいかに—
11:23
of how slowly Goliath moves,
動きが遅かったか
記述されています
11:27
another odd thing to say when you're describing
この時代の
最強の戦士を表すには
11:30
the mightiest warrior known to man at that point.
これもおかしな点です
11:32
And then there's this whole weird thing
最も奇妙な点は
11:36
about how long it takes Goliath to react
ゴリアテが
ダビデの姿に
11:38
to the sight of David.
反応するまでの間です
11:42
So David's coming down the mountain,
ダビデは山を
下りてきましたが
11:44
and he's clearly not preparing for hand-to-hand combat.
接近戦の装備ではありません
11:47
There is nothing about him that says,
どう見ても
「直接 渡り合おう」
11:51
"I am about to fight you like this."
という様子ではないのです
11:53
He's not even carrying a sword.
剣すら持って
いないのですから
11:55
Why does Goliath not react to that?
なぜゴリアテは
反応しなかったのでしょう?
11:57
It's as if he's oblivious to what's going on that day.
何が起きているのか
わかっていないかのようです
11:59
And then there's that strange comment he makes to David:
それからダビデに向かって
こんな不思議な発言をします
12:03
"Am I a dog that you should come to me with sticks?"
「杖々を持って 向かってくるが
私は犬なのか」
12:07
Sticks? David only has one stick.
杖々?
ダビデは杖を1本しか持っていません
12:12
Well, it turns out that there's been a great deal
これが医学界における大いなる
12:15
of speculation within the medical community over the years
考察へとつながったのです
12:18
about whether there is something
何か根本的におかしな点が
12:21
fundamentally wrong with Goliath,
ゴリアテにあったということ
12:23
an attempt to make sense of all of those apparent anomalies.
明らかに不可思議な点を
解明しようと
12:26
There have been many articles written.
多くの論文が書かれました
12:30
The first one was in 1960 in the Indiana Medical Journal,
最初は1960年の
インディアナ・メディカル・ジャーナルで
12:31
and it started a chain of speculation
そこから数々の考察が派生しました
12:35
that starts with an explanation for Goliath's height.
まずはゴリアテの身長の謎です
12:37
So Goliath is head and shoulders above
ゴリアテは肩から上が
12:40
all of his peers in that era,
まわりの仲間より
抜きん出ていました
12:43
and usually when someone is that far out of the norm,
そこまで標準から
逸脱している場合
12:45
there's an explanation for it.
通常説明がつくものです
12:49
So the most common form of giantism
巨人症で最も一般的なのは
12:51
is a condition called acromegaly,
先端巨大症と呼ばれ
12:54
and acromegaly is caused by a benign tumor
下垂体にできた
良性腫瘍によって
12:57
on your pituitary gland
引き起こされます
13:00
that causes an overproduction of human growth hormone.
それにより 成長ホルモンが
過剰に分泌されるのです
13:02
And throughout history, many of the most famous giants
歴史的に見ても
多くの有名な巨人たちは
13:05
have all had acromegaly.
先端巨大症です
13:09
So the tallest person of all time
史上で最も背が高いのは
13:10
was a guy named Robert Wadlow
ロバート・ワドローという人です
13:12
who was still growing when he died at the age of 24
24歳で亡くなったときも
背が伸び続けていました
13:14
and he was 8 foot 11.
272㎝です
13:17
He had acromegaly.
先端巨大症だったのです
13:20
Do you remember the wrestler André the Giant?
レスラーのアンドレ・ザ・ジャイアントを
覚えていますか?
13:21
Famous. He had acromegaly.
有名ですね
先端巨大症でした
13:24
There's even speculation that Abraham Lincoln had acromegaly.
エイブラハム・リンカーンも
そうだったのではないかと言われています
13:26
Anyone who's unusually tall,
異常に背の高い人に対して
13:30
that's the first explanation we come up with.
最初に疑われるのが
この病気なのです
13:31
And acromegaly has a very distinct set of side effects
先端巨大症には
他にも症状があります
13:34
associated with it,
それは
13:38
principally having to do with vision.
主に視覚に関わるものです
13:39
The pituitary tumor, as it grows,
下垂体の腫瘍は
大きくなるにつれて
13:43
often starts to compress the visual nerves in your brain,
脳の視神経を
圧迫する事が多いのです
13:46
with the result that people with acromegaly
その結果
先端巨大症の人は
13:50
have either double vision or they are profoundly nearsighted.
物が二重に見えたり
強度の近視になったりします
13:53
So when people have started to speculate
だから人々が
ゴリアテの妙な部分について
13:58
about what might have been wrong with Goliath,
考え始めたとき
気付いたのです
14:01
they've said, "Wait a minute,
「待てよ
14:04
he looks and sounds an awful lot like someone
まるでゴリアテは—
14:05
who has acromegaly."
先端巨大症の人のようだ」
14:08
And that would also explain so much of what was strange
これで あの日の
彼の奇妙な行動に
14:10
about his behavior that day.
説明がつきます
14:12
Why does he move so slowly
なぜ動きが鈍いのか
14:15
and have to be escorted down into the valley floor
なぜ従者に手引きされなくては
ならなかったのか?
14:16
by an attendant?
なぜ従者に手引きされなくては
ならなかったのか?
14:20
Because he can't make his way on his own.
一人だと道が
見えなかったからです
14:21
Why is he so strangely oblivious to David
なぜそんなに
ぼんやりとしていて
14:24
that he doesn't understand that David's not going to fight him
ダビデが明らかに
戦う用意のない事に
14:28
until the very last moment?
最後の瞬間まで
気づかなかったのか?
14:30
Because he can't see him.
見えなかったからです
14:32
When he says, "Come to me that I might feed your flesh
「向かってこい
14:35
to the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the field,"
空の鳥 野の獣の餌食にしてくれよう」
と言ったときの
14:38
the phrase "come to me" is a hint also of his vulnerability.
「向かってこい」というのがヒントで
彼の弱点を示しているのです
14:41
Come to me because I can't see you.
向かってこい
でなきゃ見えないじゃないか—
14:45
And then there's, "Am I a dog that you should come to me with sticks?"
そして「杖々を持って 向かってくるが
私は犬なのか」
14:48
He sees two sticks when David has only one.
2本に見えていたのです
ダビデは杖1本しか持っていないのに
14:54
So the Israelites up on the mountain ridge
山の頂にいるイスラエル軍は
14:59
looking down on him thought he was
ゴリアテを見下ろして
15:02
this extraordinarily powerful foe.
ものすごく強い敵だと
思っていました
15:04
What they didn't understand was that
理解していなかったのは
15:07
the very thing that was the source of his apparent strength
見かけの強さの
元になっていたものが
15:09
was also the source of his greatest weakness.
最大の弱点でもあった
という事です
15:12
And there is, I think, in that,
ここには 私たちにとって
15:16
a very important lesson for all of us.
重要な教訓があると思います
15:18
Giants are not as strong and powerful as they seem.
巨人は見かけほど強くはなく
15:21
And sometimes the shepherd boy has a sling in his pocket.
時に羊飼いの少年は ポケットに
すごい武器を秘めているという事です
15:25
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
15:29
(Applause)
(拍手)
15:30
Translated by Misaki Sato
Reviewed by Yasushi Aoki

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About the Speaker:

Malcolm Gladwell - Writer
Detective of fads and emerging subcultures, chronicler of jobs-you-never-knew-existed, Malcolm Gladwell's work is toppling the popular understanding of bias, crime, food, marketing, race, consumers and intelligence.

Why you should listen

Malcolm Gladwell searches for the counterintuitive in what we all take to be the mundane: cookies, sneakers, pasta sauce. A New Yorker staff writer since 1996, he visits obscure laboratories and infomercial set kitchens as often as the hangouts of freelance cool-hunters -- a sort of pop-R&D gumshoe -- and for that has become a star lecturer and bestselling author.

Sparkling with curiosity, undaunted by difficult research (yet an eloquent, accessible writer), his work uncovers truths hidden in strange data. His always-delightful blog tackles topics from serial killers to steroids in sports, while provocative recent work in the New Yorker sheds new light on the Flynn effect -- the decades-spanning rise in I.Q. scores.

Gladwell has written four books. The Tipping Point, which began as a New Yorker piece, applies the principles of epidemiology to crime (and sneaker sales), while Blink examines the unconscious processes that allow the mind to "thin slice" reality -- and make decisions in the blink of an eye. His third book, Outliers, questions the inevitabilities of success and identifies the relation of success to nature versus nurture. The newest work, What the Dog Saw and Other Adventures, is an anthology of his New Yorker contributions. 

He says: "There is more going on beneath the surface than we think, and more going on in little, finite moments of time than we would guess."
 

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Malcolm Gladwell | Speaker | TED.com