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TEDGlobal 2013

Holly Morris: Why stay in Chernobyl? Because it's home.

ホリー・モリス: チェルノブイリに住む理由、それは故郷だから

June 12, 2013

チェルノブイリでは史上最悪の原子力事故が起き、原子力発電所周辺は過去27年間立ち入り禁止区域になっています。それでも、そこには200人ほどの住民が暮らしています。しかも住民のほとんどがおばあさんです。誇り高い彼女達は、移住命令を拒否してきました。故郷やコミュニティーとのつながりが、「放射線でさえ かなわない力」になっているからです。

Holly Morris - Explorer and filmmaker
Holly Morris tells the stories of women around the world through documentary, television, print and the web. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Three years ago, I was standing about a hundred yards
3年前 私は
チェルノブイリ原子力発電所 ―
00:12
from Chernobyl nuclear reactor number four.
4号炉から90mほどの
場所にいました
00:15
My Geiger counter dosimeter, which measures radiation,
放射線量を測る
ガイガー・カウンターは
00:18
was going berserk,
鳴りっぱなしで
00:22
and the closer I got, the more frenetic it became,
原子炉に近づくと
どんどん音が大きくなり
00:23
and frantic. My God.
耳をつんざくほどになりました
00:27
I was there covering the 25th anniversary
私が訪れたのは
史上最悪の原発事故の
00:29
of the world's worst nuclear accident,
25年後を取材するためでした
00:32
as you can see by the look on my face,
私の表情からも分かるように
00:35
reluctantly so, but with good reason,
乗り気なわけがありません
00:37
because the nuclear fire that burned for 11 days
というのも1986年の
原子力火災は11日間で
00:40
back in 1986 released 400 times as much radiation
広島に投下された
原爆の400倍もの
00:44
as the bomb dropped on Hiroshima,
放射線を放出したのです
00:48
and the sarcophagus, which is the covering
「石棺」が4号炉を
00:50
over reactor number four,
覆ってはいますが
00:53
which was hastily built 27 years ago,
27年も前に あわてて建てたため
00:54
now sits cracked and rusted
今や亀裂と錆びだらけで
00:57
and leaking radiation.
放射能が漏れています
00:59
So I was filming.
撮影はしましたが
01:01
I just wanted to get the job done
早く仕事を終えて
01:02
and get out of there fast.
立ち去りたい一心でした
01:04
But then, I looked into the distance,
ところが遠くを見ると
01:06
and I saw some smoke coming from a farmhouse,
農家から煙が
立ち上っています
01:09
and I'm thinking, who could be living here?
こんな所に住む人が
いるのでしょうか?
01:12
I mean, after all, Chernobyl's soil, water and air,
ここは土壌も水も空気も
地球上で —
01:14
are among the most highly contaminated on Earth,
最も汚染された場所なのです
01:18
and the reactor sits at the the center of
原子炉 周辺は
01:21
a tightly regulated exclusion zone, or dead zone,
立ち入りが厳しく規制された
「デッド・ゾーン」で
01:22
and it's a nuclear police state, complete with border guards.
警備員がいる様子は
まるで核の警察国家です
01:26
You have to have dosimeter at all times, clicking away,
鳴り止まない線量計の携帯と
01:29
you have to have a government minder,
役人の同行が必要な上に
01:32
and there's draconian radiation rules
厳格な放射線規制と
01:34
and constant contamination monitoring.
絶え間ない被爆量検査が
付きまといました
01:37
The point being, no human being
要はデッド・ゾーン付近に
01:41
should be living anywhere near the dead zone.
人間は住めないはず・・・
01:43
But they are.
でも実際には いるのです
01:46
It turns out an unlikely community
あり得ないことですが
01:48
of some 200 people are living inside the zone.
およそ200人がゾーン内で
暮らしていたのです
01:50
They're called self-settlers.
「自主入植者」達です
01:54
And almost all of them are women,
ほぼ全員が女性なのは
01:56
the men having shorter lifespans
男性の寿命が短いからです
01:58
in part due to overuse of alcohol, cigarettes,
放射能のせいでなければ
02:00
if not radiation.
大量の酒とタバコが原因でしょう
02:03
Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated
事故当時 数十万人が
02:05
at the time of the accident,
避難命令を受けましたが
02:07
but not everybody accepted that fate.
全員が指示に従った
わけではありません
02:08
The women in the zone, now in their 70s and 80s,
ゾーンに住む女性達は
今や70〜80才代ですが
02:11
are the last survivors of a group who defied authorities
政府にも常識にも反発して
02:14
and, it would seem, common sense,
先祖代々の故郷に
02:17
and returned to their ancestral homes inside the zone.
戻った人々の
最後の生き残りです
02:19
They did so illegally.
戻るのは当然 違法です
02:22
As one woman put it to a soldier
ある女性は
避難を促す兵士に
02:25
who was trying to evacuate her for a second time,
こう言ったそうです
02:27
"Shoot me and dig the grave.
「私を撃って 墓に埋めるんだね
02:30
Otherwise, I'm going home."
でなきゃ 私は家に帰るよ」
02:31
Now why would they return to such deadly soil?
なぜ汚染された土地に
帰りたがるのでしょう?
02:34
I mean, were they unaware of the risks
危険を知らないのか —
02:37
or crazy enough to ignore them, or both?
あえて無視したのか
その両方か?
02:38
The thing is, they see their lives
確かなのは 生き方や危険の
02:41
and the risks they run decidedly differently.
捉え方が 私達とは
明らかに違うということです
02:43
Now around Chernobyl, there are scattered ghost villages,
チェルノブイリ周辺には
無人の村が点在しています
02:46
eerily silent, strangely charming, bucolic,
不気味な静けさと
不思議な田舎の魅力がありますが
02:50
totally contaminated.
完全に汚染されています
02:54
Many were bulldozed under at the time of the accident,
村の多くは事故直後に
更地にされましたが
02:56
but a few are left like this,
このように
02:59
kind of silent vestiges to the tragedy.
悲劇の跡を留める
場所も残っています
03:01
Others have a few residents in them,
わずかな住民がいる所もあります
03:05
one or two "babushkas," or "babas,"
ロシア語やウクライナ語で
「おばあさん」を表す —
03:07
which are the Russian and Ukrainian words for grandmother.
「バブーシュカ」や「バーバ」達です
03:09
Another village might have six or seven residents.
住民が6〜7人いる村もあります
03:13
So this is the strange demographic of the zone --
このようにゾーンの人口構成は奇妙で
03:16
isolated alone together.
孤立した集落の様です
03:18
And when I made my way to that piping chimney
煙が立ち上る方へ
03:21
I'd seen in the distance,
向かう途中で
03:24
I saw Hanna Zavorotnya, and I met her.
ハンナ・ザヴォロティナに
出会いました
03:25
She's the self-declared mayor of Kapavati village,
彼女はカパヴァティ村の
自称村長です
03:28
population eight.
村民は8人です
03:32
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:33
And she said to me, when I asked her the obvious,
放射線が怖くないか聞くと
彼女はこう答えました
03:35
"Radiation doesn't scare me. Starvation does."
「それは怖くないけど
食料不足が怖いわ」
03:39
And you have to remember, these women have
考えてみれば
彼女達は20世紀に
03:43
survived the worst atrocities of the 20th century.
数々の地獄を
生き延びてきました
03:44
Stalin's enforced famines of the 1930s, the Holodomor,
スターリンが1930年代に起こした
大飢饉「ホロドモール」では
03:48
killed millions of Ukrainians,
数百万のウクライナ人が死にました
03:52
and they faced the Nazis in the '40s,
40年代に経験したのは
03:54
who came through slashing, burning, raping,
ナチスの殺人 焼き討ち レイプです
03:56
and in fact many of these women
彼女達の多くが 実際に
03:59
were shipped to Germany as forced labor.
ドイツでの強制労働に
駆り出されました
04:00
So when a couple decades into Soviet rule,
ですからソビエト統治から数十年後
原発事故が起きた時には
04:03
Chernobyl happened,
ですからソビエト統治から数十年後
原発事故が起きた時には
04:06
they were unwilling to flee in the face of an enemy
見えない敵から逃げる気など
04:07
that was invisible.
起こらなかったのです
04:10
So they returned to their villages
そして村に戻って来ました
04:12
and are told they're going to get sick and die soon,
病死すると警告されましたが
04:14
but five happy years, their logic goes,
故郷で5年だけ幸せに暮らす方が
04:17
is better than 10 stuck in a high rise
キエフ郊外の高層住宅に
04:20
on the outskirts of Kiev,
10年も押し込まれるより
04:22
separated from the graves of their mothers
ずっとましだと考えたのです
04:24
and fathers and babies,
身内の墓から離れ
04:27
the whisper of stork wings on a spring afternoon.
春にはコウノトリが舞う
故郷から離れられなかったのです
04:29
For them, environmental contamination
彼女達にとって 環境汚染など
04:33
may not be the worst sort of devastation.
災厄のうちには
入らないのでしょう
04:35
It turns out this holds true
同じことは
04:38
for other species as well.
動物にも当てはまります
04:39
Wild boar, lynx, moose, they've all returned
野生のイノシシや
オオヤマネコや ヘラジカが
04:41
to the region in force,
大挙して戻ってきました
04:44
the very real, very negative effects of radiation
動物達には 放射線による
実際の悪影響より
04:46
being trumped by the upside of a mass exodus
大規模な人口流出による
良い面の方が
04:49
of humans.
大きかったのです
04:53
The dead zone, it turns out, is full of life.
今やデッド・ゾーンは
生命に満ちあふれています
04:54
And there is a kind of heroic resilience,
彼女達には
力強い回復力があり
04:59
a kind of plain-spoken pragmatism to those
素直で現実的です
05:02
who start their day at 5 a.m.
朝5時に起きて
05:05
pulling water from a well
井戸から水を汲み
05:08
and end it at midnight
真夜中には
05:10
poised to beat a bucket with a stick
イモを食い荒らすイノシシを
05:11
and scare off wild boar that might mess with their potatoes,
追い払うためにバケツを
棒で叩いて一日を終え
05:14
their only company a bit of homemade moonshine vodka.
唯一の楽しみは
自家製ウォッカを すすることです
05:16
And there's a patina of simple defiance among them.
また彼女達は
反骨精神に溢れています
05:22
"They told us our legs would hurt, and they do. So what?"
「言われた通り 足は痛くなったけど
気にしてないよ」
05:25
I mean, what about their health?
では彼女達は
健康なのでしょうか
05:29
The benefits of hardy, physical living,
体を動かす生活には
良い面があるものの
05:31
but an environment made toxic
身の回りを
05:33
by a complicated, little-understood enemy, radiation.
汚染する放射線は
複雑で未知の部分も多く
05:35
It's incredibly difficult to parse.
影響の判断は困難です
05:39
Health studies from the region
この地域での
健康に関する研究は
05:41
are conflicting and fraught.
矛盾が多く信頼できません
05:43
The World Health Organization
世界保健機関は
05:46
puts the number of Chernobyl-related deaths
チェルノブイリの事故に関連した —
05:47
at 4,000, eventually.
死者数を4千人としています
05:50
Greenpeace and other organizations
グリーンピースなどの団体は
05:52
put that number in the tens of thousands.
数万人が亡くなったと
報告しています
05:55
Now everybody agrees that thyroid cancers
意見が一致しているのは
甲状腺ガンの急増や
05:58
are sky high, and that Chernobyl evacuees
強制移住させられた避難民が
06:01
suffer the trauma of relocated peoples everywhere:
トラウマに苦しんでいることです
06:04
higher levels of anxiety, depression, alcoholism,
例えば 極度の不安や鬱
アルコール依存 失業 —
06:07
unemployment and, importantly,
そして深刻なのは
06:10
disrupted social networks.
人間関係の崩壊です
06:12
Now, like many of you,
私だったら
06:15
I have moved maybe 20, 25 times in my life.
これまで20回や25回は
引っ越しを経験していて
06:18
Home is a transient concept.
家は一時的な
拠り所に過ぎません
06:22
I have a deeper connection to my laptop
どちらかというと 土地よりも
06:26
than any bit of soil.
ノートPCに絆を感じるほどです
06:28
So it's hard for us to understand, but home
そんな私達には
理解しにくいですが
06:32
is the entire cosmos of the rural babushka,
バブーシュカ達にとって
故郷は世界であり
06:34
and connection to the land is palpable.
土地への愛着は明白です
06:38
And perhaps because these Ukrainian women
ウクライナ出身の彼女達は
06:41
were schooled under the Soviets
ソビエト政権下で教育され
06:43
and versed in the Russian poets,
ロシアの詩人達に親しんできたためか
06:45
aphorisms about these ideas
土地との絆を
06:47
slip from their mouths all the time.
いつも口にしていました
06:49
"If you leave, you die."
「故郷から離れれば 死んでしまう」
06:51
"Those who left are worse off now.
「去った人の暮らしはひどく
06:54
They are dying of sadness."
悲しみながら死んでいく」
06:56
"Motherland is motherland. I will never leave."
「故郷は故郷 絶対に出て行かない」
06:58
What sounds like faith, soft faith,
単なる信念だと
思うかも知れませんが
07:02
may actually be fact,
ここには事実が含まれています
07:05
because the surprising truth --
驚くべき真実があるのです
07:08
I mean, there are no studies, but the truth seems to be
正式な研究ではありませんが
07:10
that these women who returned to their homes
彼女達が故郷に戻り
07:12
and have lived on some of the most radioactive land
過去27年間も
07:15
on Earth for the last 27 years,
世界一 放射線量が高い
場所に住んできたのに
07:17
have actually outlived their counterparts
移住した人々に比べて
07:19
who accepted relocation,
長生きなのです
07:22
by some estimates up to 10 years.
ある推計では
最高で10年も長生きです
07:24
How could this be?
なぜでしょうか?
07:28
Here's a theory: Could it be
こう考えることができます
07:30
that those ties to ancestral soil,
彼女達の言葉の端々に見られる ―
07:32
the soft variables reflected in their aphorisms,
先祖代々の土地とのつながりが
07:35
actually affect longevity?
寿命に影響を
与えているかも知れません
07:37
The power of motherland
世界に一つしかない
07:40
so fundamental to that part of the world
故郷の力が
07:42
seems palliative.
苦しみを和らげるようです
07:44
Home and community are forces
故郷とコミュニティーの力には
07:46
that rival even radiation.
放射線ですら かないません
07:49
Now radiation or not,
さて 放射線とは関係なく
07:53
these women are at the end of their lives.
彼女達は人生を終えつつあります
07:56
In the next decade, the zone's human residents will be gone,
10年後にはゾーン内の
住民はいなくなり
07:58
and it will revert to a wild, radioactive place,
放射線に満ちた野生に戻って
08:02
full only of animals and occasionally
たくさんの動物が
時折 訪れる科学者達を
08:06
daring, flummoxed scientists.
驚かせることでしょう
08:09
But the spirit and existence of the babushkas,
知り合って3年が経ち
バブーシュカ達の人数は
08:13
whose numbers have been halved
半分になりましたが
08:16
in the three years I've known them,
彼女達の存在と精神が
08:17
will leave us with powerful new templates
教えてくれるのは
08:20
to think about and grapple with,
パワフルで新しい考え方です
08:22
about the relative nature of risk,
リスクは捉え方次第で
変化すること
08:24
about transformative connections to home,
故郷とのつながりが
変化を促すこと
08:27
and about the magnificent tonic
そして 活力の源は
08:31
of personal agency and self-determination.
意志と自己決定に
あるということです
08:35
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
08:39
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:41
Translator:Kazunori Akashi
Reviewer:Mari Arimitsu

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Holly Morris - Explorer and filmmaker
Holly Morris tells the stories of women around the world through documentary, television, print and the web.

Why you should listen

Holly Morris is a director, producer, writer and storyteller whose work spans media and continents. She is the author of Adventure Divas: Searching the Globe for a New Kind of Heroine (Random House) and writer/director and executuve producer of its companion PBS documentary series, "Adventure Divas". A former National Geographic Adventure columnist and widely anthologized essayist, Morris is also a regular contributor to The New York Times, among other publications. She presents the PBS televisin series "Globe Trekker," and "Treks in a Wild World," and also hosted "Outdoor Investigations" -- a series in which she investigates the scientific side of today's environmental and natural world mysteries. 

Morris has reported on the illegal caviar trade from Iran's Caspian Sea, sex trafficking from the brothels of India, and the global diaspora of Black Panthers from Cuba. Whether she's exploring underground Soviet missile silos, or the ship breaking yards of Bangladesh, Morris goes to the grassroots to tell a global story.

Her new film, The Babushkas of Chernobyl is about a surprising group of survivors living in the shadow of Chernobyl. Based on her award-winning essay of the same name (also published as "Ukraine: A Country of Women"), it won the Meredith Editorial Excellence Award, was reprinted in London's Daily Telegraph, and The Week and was selected for the book The Best Travel Writing (2012). The film, which has won numerous awards, including the Los Angeles Film Festival Jury Award for Directing, is being widely released in Spring 2016 for the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster.

 

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