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Dan Berkenstock: The world is one big dataset. Now, how to photograph it ...

ダン・バーケンストック: 世界は一つのデータセットです。それをどのように撮影するのかというと、、、

October 30, 2013

衛星画像は我々にとって身近なものですが、それらの多くが実は古いデータです。というのも人工衛星は大きくて高価なので、それ程たくさん存在しないからです。ダン・バーケンストックは新たな解決策を提案します。それはリアルタイムで地上を撮影可能な新型の小型人工衛星です。

Dan Berkenstock - Satellite designer
Dan Berkenstock and his team at Skybox Imaging are rethinking how to take photographs from space. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
00:12
Five years ago, I was a Ph.D. student
5年前 私は2足のわらじを履く
00:14
living two lives.
博士課程の学生でした
00:16
In one, I used NASA supercomputers
一つ目ですが
NASAのスーパーコンピュータを使っていました
00:18
to design next-generation spacecraft,
次世代の宇宙船を作るためです
二つ目ですが
00:21
and in the other I was a data scientist
私はデータサイエンティストでした
00:24
looking for potential smugglers
原子力の機密データを盗み出す
可能性のある人間を探し出していました
00:26
of sensitive nuclear technologies.
データサイエンティストとして
00:29
As a data scientist, I did a lot of analyses,
いろいろな解析をしました
世界中の多くの産業施設の解析です
00:32
mostly of facilities,
00:34
industrial facilities around the world.
そして これらすべてを結びつける
00:36
And I was always looking for a better canvas
良いアイディアを探していました
00:39
to tie these all together.
ある日 すべてのデータがどのように
00:41
And one day, I was thinking about how
00:43
all data has a location,
位置情報を持っているかを考えていました
00:45
and I realized that the answer
そして気づいたのです
目の前に答えがあることに
00:46
had been staring me in the face.
私は人工衛星のエンジニアですが
00:48
Although I was a satellite engineer,
00:51
I hadn't thought about using satellite imagery
自分の仕事に衛星画像を使うことは
考えたことがありませんでした
00:54
in my work.
今では 皆さんと同じく
00:56
Now, like most of us, I'd been online,
私はオンライン環境にあり
自分の家をみることができます
00:58
I'd see my house, so I thought,
それなら そこに飛び込んで
00:59
I'll hop in there and I'll start looking up
その施設を探してみようと
01:02
some of these facilities.
そして 驚くべきことがわかりました
01:03
And what I found really surprised me.
私が探していた写真は
01:05
The pictures that I was finding
何年も前のものでした
01:07
were years out of date,
01:09
and because of that,
今の仕事に 何の役にも立たなかったのです
01:10
it had relatively little relevance
01:11
to the work that I was doing today.
でも そこに興味がわきました
01:14
But I was intrigued.
衛星画像はとてもすばらしいものだと
01:15
I mean, satellite imagery is pretty amazing stuff.
いまでは無数の衛星が私たちの周りを
01:19
There are millions and millions of sensors
取り巻いています
01:21
surrounding us today,
でも 私達には知らないことばかりです
01:22
but there's still so much we
don't know on a daily basis.
01:25
How much oil is stored in all of China?
中国の石油の備蓄量は?
コーンの生産量は?
01:29
How much corn is being produced?
世界中の港に停泊している船舶数は?
01:32
How many ships are in all of our world's ports?
理論的には 衛星画像により
01:36
Now, in theory, all of these questions
そうした質問に答えることができます
01:39
could be answered by imagery,
ただし その写真が古くなければです
01:41
but not if it's old.
こういった画像に価値があるのならば
01:43
And if this data was so valuable,
どうして最新のデータを
01:45
then how come I couldn't get my hands
入手できないのでしょうか
01:47
on more recent pictures?
こういった話は50年前からありました
01:49
So the story begins over 50 years ago
米国政府が偵察用の衛星を
01:53
with the launch of the first generation
初めて打ち上げた時からです
01:55
of U.S. government photo reconnaissance satellites.
今では 冷戦時代に作られた
01:58
And today, there's a handful
衛星の後継機の多くが
02:00
of the great, great grandchildren
民間企業によって運用されていて
02:02
of these early Cold War machines
02:04
which are now operated by private companies
多くの私たちが目にする写真は
02:06
and from which the vast majority of satellite imagery
それらの衛星が撮影したものなのです
02:08
that you and I see on a daily basis comes.
現在 ロケットで宇宙へ
02:11
During this period, launching things into space,
衛星を送り込むだけでも
02:14
just the rocket to get the satellite up there,
数百万ドルかかります
02:17
has cost hundreds of millions of dollars each,
時々しか飛ばさないので
大きなプレッシャーです
02:21
and that's created tremendous pressure
02:23
to launch things infrequently
02:25
and to make sure that when you do,
そして たくさんの機能を詰め込みます
02:27
you cram as much functionality in there as possible.
こうして 人工衛星は
02:30
All of this has only made satellites
巨大化し
02:32
bigger and bigger and bigger
費用がかさみ
02:34
and more expensive,
02:36
now nearly a billion, with a b, dollars per copy.
1台あたり約10億ドルもするようになりました
02:41
Because they are so expensive,
とても高価なので
人工衛星はそれほど存在しないのです
02:43
there aren't very many of them.
02:44
Because there aren't very many of them,
そのため普段 我々が見る画像は
古くなりがちです
02:46
the pictures that we see on a daily basis
02:48
tend to be old.
実際に 多くの人が理解していますが
02:50
I think a lot of people actually
understand this anecdotally,
地球上の収集データが
02:53
but in order to visualize just how sparsely
点在していることを 可視化するために
02:55
our planet is collected,
2000年から2010年の間に衛星が収集した
02:57
some friends and I put together a dataset
02:59
of the 30 million pictures that have been gathered
3000万枚のデータをまとめました
03:02
by these satellites between 2000 and 2010.
03:05
As you can see in blue, huge areas of our world
広大な青色の部分
ここが撮影されるのは年1回以下です
03:08
are barely seen, less than once a year,
赤い部分は頻繁に撮影されますが
03:11
and even the areas that are seen most frequently,
それでも3ヶ月に1回もありません
03:13
those in red, are seen at best once a quarter.
航空宇宙工学の卒業生にとって
03:17
Now as aerospace engineering grad students,
このデータは 大きな挑戦を投げかけます
03:20
this chart cried out to us as a challenge.
どうしてこのデータは高価なのでしょうか?
03:23
Why do these things have to be so expensive?
衛星一機あたり ボーイング747機3台分の
03:27
Does a single satellite really have to cost
03:29
the equivalent of three 747 jumbo jets?
費用もかかるのはなぜでしょうか?
より小さくシンプルな新型衛星を
03:34
Wasn't there a way to build a smaller,
作る方法はないのでしょうか?
03:36
simpler, new satellite design that could enable
タイムリーに撮影できる人工衛星です
03:40
more timely imaging?
03:42
I realize that it does sound a little bit crazy
ちょっとおかしいのはわかっていますが
我々は新型衛星の設計に着手しました
03:45
that we were going to go out and just
03:47
begin designing satellites,
運良く手助けしてもらえたのです
03:48
but fortunately we had help.
03:50
In the late 1990s, a couple of professors
1990年代後半に 数名の教授が
宇宙に機器を搬送する費用を
03:53
proposed a concept for radically reducing the price
著しく減らす方法を考えました
03:57
of putting things in space.
小さな衛星をヒッチハイクするのです
03:59
This was hitchhiking small satellites
より大きな衛星のそばにある
04:01
alongside much larger satellites.
これによりコストは
04:04
This dropped the cost of putting objects up there
100分の1以下に下がりました
04:07
by over a factor of 100,
そして突然ですが 実験できるようになり
04:09
and suddenly we could afford to experiment,
多くのイノベーションを実現しました
04:12
to take a little bit of risk,
04:13
and to realize a lot of innovation.
新しい世代のエンジニアや科学者が
04:15
And a new generation of engineers and scientists,
多くは大学の者ですが
04:19
mostly out of universities,
「CubeSats」と呼ばれる
04:20
began launching these very small,
パン入れサイズの小型衛星を打ち上げ始めました
04:22
breadbox-sized satellites called CubeSats.
04:25
And these were built with electronics obtained
これはホームセンターで手に入れた
04:27
from RadioShack instead of Lockheed Martin.
電子部品でできており
友人と衛星のデザインを始めた
04:31
Now it was using the lessons
learned from these early missions
開発初期のアイデアが活かされています
04:34
that my friends and I began a series of sketches
04:37
of our own satellite design.
04:39
And I can't remember a specific day
衛星開発の決断をした
04:41
where we made a conscious decision
具体的な日は思い出せませんが
04:43
that we were actually going to
go out and build these things,
04:46
but once we got that idea in our minds
この世界を一つのデータセットと捉え
04:48
of the world as a dataset,
04:50
of being able to capture millions of data points
世界経済を表す 大量のデータを取得し
04:53
on a daily basis describing the global economy,
今まで知られていなかった関係性を掘り起こす
04:56
of being able to unearth billions of connections
04:59
between them that had never before been found,
そんなアイデアを思いついた日から
05:02
it just seemed boring
それ以外の仕事には目もくれなくなりました
05:03
to go work on anything else.
私たちはPalo Altoにある
05:06
And so we moved into a cramped,
窓もないオフィスに缶詰めになり
05:09
windowless office in Palo Alto,
単なるデザインを元に
05:12
and began working to take our design
試作機の開発を進めました
05:14
from the drawing board into the lab.
解決しなければならない最初の問題は
05:17
The first major question we had to tackle
モノの大きさでした
05:20
was just how big to build this thing.
宇宙では サイズはコストに直結します
05:22
In space, size drives cost,
05:25
and we had worked with these very small,
小さなパン入れサイズの衛星の
05:27
breadbox-sized satellites in school,
製作に取り掛かっていましたが
物理法則から
05:29
but as we began to better
understand the laws of physics,
この衛星の画質の限界を知ります
05:32
we found that the quality of pictures
05:34
those satellites could take was very limited,
その物理法則によると
05:37
because the laws of physics dictate
望遠鏡で見える画質は
05:39
that the best picture you
can take through a telescope
望遠鏡の直径に依存します
05:42
is a function of the diameter of that telescope,
私たちの衛星はとても小さかったのです
05:44
and these satellites had a very small,
05:46
very constrained volume.
05:48
And we found that the best picture we would
予想されていた画質はこのくらいでした
05:49
have been able to get looked something like this.
05:52
Although this was the low-cost option,
安くて済むけれども
ぼやけ過ぎていて はっきり言って
05:54
quite frankly it was just too blurry
役に立ちそうにありません
05:56
to see the things that make
satellite imagery valuable.
そこで3、4週間の間に
05:59
So about three or four weeks later,
いろんなエンジニアに会いました
06:01
we met a group of engineers randomly
彼らは初期の個人衛星開発に携わっていました
06:04
who had worked on the first
06:06
private imaging satellite ever developed,
06:08
and they told us that back in the 1970s,
彼らによると1970年代
米国政府は強力で
06:10
the U.S. government had found a powerful
最適なトレードオフを見つけました
06:13
optimal tradeoff --
1mの解像度で画像を撮ると
06:14
that in taking pictures at right
about one meter resolution,
1mのサイズでものが見えます
06:17
being able to see objects one meter in size,
高画質ではなかったけれど
06:20
they had found that they could not
just get very high-quality images,
程よい値段で画像が撮れました
06:23
but get a lot of them at an affordable price.
シミュレーションから初めてわかったのは
06:26
From our own computer simulations,
グローバル経済の担い手を見るのに
06:28
we quickly found that one meter really was
最低限1mは必要ということです
06:30
the minimum viable product
担い手というのは
我々の身の回りにある
06:32
to be able to see the drivers of our global economy,
06:35
for the first time, being able to count
船 車 輸送コンテナ トラックのことです
06:36
the ships and cars and shipping
containers and trucks
06:39
that move around our world on a daily basis,
人間を数えることはできませんが
06:42
while conveniently still not
being able to see individuals.
妥協点を見つけました
06:46
We had found our compromise.
パン入れよりも大きな衛星を
作らなくてはいけない
06:47
We would have to build something larger
06:49
than the original breadbox,
小さな冷蔵庫くらいでしょうか
06:50
now more like a mini-fridge,
軽トラックほど
大きい必要はありません
06:52
but we still wouldn't have to build a pickup truck.
物理学的な制約により
06:55
So now we had our constraint.
望遠鏡の最小サイズはわかりました
06:57
The laws of physics dictated
06:59
the absolute minimum-sized
telescope that we could build.
次の問題は 衛星の残りの部分を
07:02
What came next was making the rest of the satellite
どれだけ小さくシンプルにするかです
07:06
as small and as simple as possible,
四方を囲まれた箱に入る望遠鏡と
07:07
basically a flying telescope with four walls
07:10
and a set of electronics smaller than a phone book
電話帳よりも小さく 100Wも消費しない
07:13
that used less power than a 100 watt lightbulb.
電子機器をどうするかということです
大きな課題は望遠鏡を通して
07:16
The big challenge became actually taking
実際に画像を撮ることです
07:18
the pictures through that telescope.
古くからある衛星写真は
ラインスキャナを使います
07:20
Traditional imaging satellites use a line scanner,
それはコピー機に似ています
07:23
similar to a Xerox machine,
地球を横切りながら写真を撮ります
07:25
and as they traverse the Earth, they take pictures,
何度も繰り返しスキャンし
07:28
scanning row by row by row
画像を完成させます
07:30
to build the complete image.
光量が多く 現在主流の方法です
07:31
Now people use these because they get a lot of light,
ノイズを低減でき
07:34
which means less of the noise you see
低価格の携帯電話で使われています
07:36
in a low-cost cell phone image.
その課題は 非常に精密な
07:39
The problem with them is they require
ポインティングが必要であることです
07:41
very sophisticated pointing.
上空1000kmから
50cmの目標物を
07:44
You have to stay focused on a 50-centimeter target
とらえ続けなくてはなりません
07:46
from over 600 miles away
秒速7kmで飛行中にです
07:48
while moving at more than
seven kilometers a second,
これはとても高度なことです
07:50
which requires an awesome degree of complexity.
そこで次世代ビデオセンサーに
目をつけました
07:53
So instead, we turned to a new
generation of video sensors,
元々は暗視ゴーグルに
使われていたものです
07:56
originally created for use in night vision goggles.
高画質画像を使う代わりに
07:59
Instead of taking a single, high quality image,
ビデオストリームを使います
08:02
we could take a videostream
一枚一枚にはノイズが乗りますが
08:04
of individually noisier frames,
それらを組み合わせて
08:07
but then we could recombine
高画質の画像にすることができます
08:08
all of those frames together
高精度な画像処理技術が
08:10
into very high-quality images
08:12
using sophisticated pixel processing techniques
それを可能にします
08:14
here on the ground,
コストは従来の1/100です
08:16
at a cost of one one hundredth a traditional system.
私たちはこの技術を
08:19
And we applied this technique
衛星の他のシステムにも適用しました
08:20
to many of the other systems on the satellite as well,
日々 私たちの設計は進化しました
08:23
and day by day, our design evolved
CADからプロトタイプ 完成品へと
08:26
from CAD to prototypes
08:30
to production units.
数週間前
08:32
A few short weeks ago,
SkySat 1号を完成させ
サインをしました
08:34
we packed up SkySat 1,
08:36
put our signatures on it,
08:38
and waved goodbye for the last time on Earth.
地球上での最後の時に
向け別れを告げました
今は 発射台に据え付けられ
08:40
Today, it's sitting in its final launch configuration
あと数週間で発射されます
08:43
ready to blast off in a few short weeks.
そして すぐに 24基以上の衛星を
打ち上げる予定です
08:47
And soon, we'll turn our attention to launching
08:49
a constellation of 24 or more of these satellites
08:52
and beginning to build the scalable analytics
そして大規模な分析を始めます
ペタバイト級のデータから
08:54
that will allow us to unearth the insights
いろいろな洞察ができるでしょう
08:57
in the petabytes of data we will collect.
我々の目的は?
どうして衛星を作るのか?
09:00
So why do all of this? Why build these satellites?
要するに 衛星画像は
09:04
Well, it turns out imaging satellites
世界規模の透明性を与え
09:07
have a unique ability to provide global transparency,
リアルタイムの透明性は
09:10
and providing that transparency on a timely basis
今まさに必要とされているものです
09:13
is simply an idea whose time has come.
私たちは新しい時代を築いています
09:16
We see ourselves as pioneers of a new frontier,
そして 単なる経済データを越えて
09:20
and beyond economic data,
少しずつ 人類の物語を
解き明かすでしょう
09:22
unlocking the human story, moment by moment.
09:25
For a data scientist
データサイエンティストとして
09:27
that just happened to go to space camp as a kid,
スペースキャンプに行く子供のような気分です
09:30
it just doesn't get much better than that.
これほどワクワクすることは他にありません
09:32
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
09:34
(Applause)
(拍手)
Translator:Wataru Maeda
Reviewer:Toshifumi Kakiuchi

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Dan Berkenstock - Satellite designer
Dan Berkenstock and his team at Skybox Imaging are rethinking how to take photographs from space.

Why you should listen

Dan Berkenstock is an entrepreneur and engineer from Chicago, who fell into a classic tale of Silicon Valley innovation while taking a graduate entrepreneurship course at Stanford. That class led him and some others to found Skybox Imaging, of which Berkenstock is now executive vice president and chief product officer.

Skybox's mission is simple, if bold: they're working to design and launch small satellites that "hitchhike" to space in an effort to revolutionize the satellite imaging business. In 2013, SkySat-1, the first such satellite, was launched and is now beaming back images that are high-enough resolution to show the real-time state of global commerce. The idea: to "revolutionize the ways that consumers, businesses, and governments make decisions in their day-to-day lives."

In a previous life, Berkenstock worked in the Advanced Supercomputing Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, and also worked as a counterproliferation analyst at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he focused on trying to find and thwart potential potential smugglers of nuclear technologies. He is currently on leave from the Ph.D. program in aeronautics and astronautics at Stanford University.

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