25:01
TED2014

Bill and Melinda Gates: Why giving away our wealth has been the most satisfying thing we've done

ビル・ゲイツとメリンダ・ゲイツ: 富を贈ることが最高の喜び

Filmed:

1993年、婚約中のビルとメリンダ・ゲイツはザンジバルの海岸を歩きながら、マイクロソフト社から得た富を社会に確実に還元する方法について大胆な決断をしました。クリス・アンダーソンを交えたトークで、ゲイツ夫妻が自身のビル&メリンダ・ゲイツ財団にまつわる活動、結婚生活、子供たち、失敗について、そして富のほとんどを贈ることにどれほど満足しているかを語ります。

- Philanthropist
Melinda French Gates is co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where she puts into practice the idea that every life has equal value. Full bio

- Philanthropist
A passionate techie and a shrewd businessman, Bill Gates changed the world while leading Microsoft to dizzying success. Now he's doing it again with his own style of philanthropy and passion for innovation. Full bio

Chris Anderson: So, this is an
interview with a difference.
クリス・アンダーソン:今回は
一味違ったインタビューになります
00:13
On the basis that a picture
is worth a thousand words,
百聞は一見にしかずと言います
そこで—
00:17
what I did was, I asked Bill and Melinda
私がビルとメリンダに
お願いしたのは
00:21
to dig out from their archive
彼らがやってきたことを
00:24
some images that would help explain
説明してくれるような写真を
00:26
some of what they've done,
引っ張り出してきてもらい
00:28
and do a few things that way.
それをもとに話していきます
00:29
So, we're going to start here.
この写真からですね
00:32
Melinda, when and where was this,
メリンダ、これはいつで
場所はどこですか?
00:36
and who is that handsome man next to you?
隣のハンサムな男性は
どなたでしょうか?
00:38
Melinda Gates: With those big glasses, huh?
メリンダ・ゲイツ:大きな眼鏡の人ですね?
00:40
This is in Africa, our very first trip,
これはアフリカです
私たち2人が
00:42
the first time either of us had ever been to Africa,
初めてアフリカを訪れた
00:44
in the fall of 1993.
1993年の秋でした
00:46
We were already engaged to be married.
すでに婚約していて
00:47
We married a few months later,
数ヵ月後に結婚しました
00:49
and this was the trip where we really went to see
この旅で私たちは動物やサバンナを
00:51
the animals and to see the savanna.
実際に見ることができました
00:53
It was incredible. Bill had never taken that much time
素晴らしかったです
ビルは それまで
00:55
off from work.
長期休暇はとりませんでした
00:57
But what really touched us, actually, were the people,
でも 本当に心が動かされたのは
極貧状態にある
00:59
and the extreme poverty.
現地の人々でした
01:03
We started asking ourselves questions.
私たちは自問を始めたのです
01:06
Does it have to be like this?
「これでいいのか?」と
01:07
And at the end of the trip,
旅行の終盤で
01:09
we went out to Zanzibar,
ザンジバルに行き
01:10
and took some time to walk on the beach,
海岸を散歩しました
01:11
which is something we had done a lot
私たちが付き合っていた頃
01:13
while we were dating.
よくそうしていました
01:14
And we'd already been talking about during that time
マイクロソフトがもたらした富を
01:16
that the wealth that had come from Microsoft
いずれ社会に還元する話は
01:18
would be given back to society,
以前からしていましたが
01:20
but it was really on that beach walk
内容や方法について
01:22
that we started to talk about, well,
話し始めたのは
01:23
what might we do and how might we go about it?
まさに この海岸での散歩だったのです
01:25
CA: So, given that this vacation
この休暇が
01:28
led to the creation of
世界最大の民間基金設立に
01:31
the world's biggest private foundation,
繋がったわけですね
01:33
it's pretty expensive as vacations go. (Laughter)
休暇にしては高くつきました (笑)
01:36
MG: I guess so. We enjoyed it.
そうですね でも楽しかったです
01:39
CA: Which of you was the key instigator here,
どちらのアイデアだったんでしょうか?
01:42
or was it symmetrical?
それとも どちらからともなく?
01:45
Bill Gates: Well, I think we were excited
ビル・ゲイツ:そうですね
私たちの人生で
01:47
that there'd be a phase of our life
一緒に取り組めることがあって
01:50
where we'd get to work together
2人ともワクワクしていました
01:51
and figure out how to give this money back.
どうやったら 自分達の富を
返せるだろうと
01:53
At this stage, we were talking about the poorest,
この時 話し合っていたのは
極貧の人々のことでした
02:00
and could you have a big impact on them?
彼らに大きな影響を与えられるか?
02:03
Were there things that weren't being done?
手付かずの事柄はあるだろうか?
02:06
There was a lot we didn't know.
知らないことが沢山ありました
02:08
Our naïveté is pretty incredible,
振り返ると当時の自分たちの考えは
02:09
when we look back on it.
驚くほど甘く
02:11
But we had a certain enthusiasm
でも ある種の情熱がありました
02:13
that that would be the phase,
それは 次の段階―
02:14
the post-Microsoft phase
マイクロソフト後の人生では
02:17
would be our philanthropy.
慈善事業に従事するということです
02:20
MG: Which Bill always thought was going to come
ビルは60才を過ぎてからだと
02:22
after he was 60,
想定していましたが
02:24
so he hasn't quite hit 60 yet,
まだ60手前ですから
02:25
so some things change along the way.
変更になった部分もあるわけです
02:27
CA: So it started there, but it got accelerated.
そこから始まって
急速に進展しました
02:30
So that was '93, and it was '97, really,
始まりは93年
そして97年―
02:33
before the foundation itself started.
財団が活動を始める前ですよね
02:35
MA: Yeah, in '97, we read an article
そうね 97年
世界では沢山の子供たちが
02:37
about diarrheal diseases killing
so many kids around the world,
下痢で命を落としている
という記事を読みながら
02:39
and we kept saying to ourselves,
こう言い続けていたんです
02:43
"Well that can't be.
「そんなはずはない
02:44
In the U.S., you just go down to the drug store."
米国なら薬局に行けば済む」
02:46
And so we started gathering scientists
それで科学者を集め
02:47
and started learning about population,
人口のデータやワクチンや
02:49
learning about vaccines,
効果があったものと
02:52
learning about what had worked and what had failed,
なかったものについて学びました
02:53
and that's really when we got going,
この時ですね 活動を始めたのは
02:56
was in late 1998, 1999.
1998年の後半から
1999年でした
02:58
CA: So, you've got a big pot of money
お二人は 大金を手にしていて
一方で—
03:02
and a world full of so many different issues.
世界では様々な問題が
溢れていたわけですね
03:05
How on Earth do you decide what to focus on?
一体どうやって
焦点を合わせたんですか?
03:07
BG: Well, we decided that we'd pick two causes,
私たちはテーマを2つ
選ぶことにしました
03:11
whatever the biggest inequity was globally,
とにかく世界規模で最も深刻な
不平等の中から
03:14
and there we looked at children dying,
私たちが選んだのは
死にゆく子供たちや
03:17
children not having enough nutrition to ever develop,
栄養不足で成長できない子供たち
03:19
and countries that were really stuck,
立ち往生している国々でした
03:22
because with that level of death,
死亡率が高く
03:23
and parents would have so many kids
親達は沢山子供を生むので
03:25
that they'd get huge population growth,
爆発的な人口増加が起こり
03:27
and that the kids were so sick
子供たちは病にかかり
03:29
that they really couldn't be educated
きちんとした教育も受けられず
03:32
and lift themselves up.
将来も期待できません
03:35
So that was our global thing,
これが1つ目でした
03:37
and then in the U.S.,
他方で米国では
03:38
both of us have had amazing educations,
私たちは2人とも
立派な教育を受け
03:40
and we saw that as the way that the U.S.
米国が機会均等を保障できるのは
03:43
could live up to its promise of equal opportunity
素晴らしい教育システムが
03:46
is by having a phenomenal education system,
あればこそだと考えていました
03:49
and the more we learned, the more we realized
でも学ぶにつれ 気づいたのは
03:52
we're not really fulfilling that promise.
実際はさほど保障されてないと
いうことでした
03:54
And so we picked those two things,
こうして2つを選び
03:57
and everything the foundation does
私たちの財団がやっていることは
03:59
is focused there.
すべてそこにフォーカスしています
04:00
CA: So, I asked each of you to pick an image
お二人それぞれに
ご自身の活動を物語る
04:03
that you like that illustrates your work,
写真を選んでもらいました
04:06
and Melinda, this is what you picked.
こちらはメリンダが選んだものですね
04:08
What's this about?
どんな写真でしょうか?
04:11
MG: So I, one of the things I love to do when I travel
私が旅行する時に
好きなことの一つは
04:13
is to go out to the rural areas and talk to the women,
農村地域に出かけて
女性達と話すことです
04:16
whether it's Bangladesh, India,
lots of countries in Africa,
バングラデシュでもインドでも
アフリカの国々でも
04:19
and I go in as a Western woman without a name.
私は名も無き
西洋の女性として行きます
04:21
I don't tell them who I am. Pair of khakis.
自分が誰とか名乗りません
普段着で行きます
04:24
And I kept hearing from women,
そこで女性と話して
04:27
over and over and over, the more I traveled,
何度も何度も
旅をするほど耳にしたのは
04:29
"I want to be able to use this shot."
「この注射を使えるようになりたいけど―」
04:32
I would be there to talk to them
about childhood vaccines,
現地で 子供が受ける
ワクチンについて話すと
04:34
and they would bring the conversation around to
それをきっかけに
こんな話になったんです
04:37
"But what about the shot I get?"
「じゃあ私が打っている注射は?」
04:39
which is an injection they were
getting called Depo-Provera,
彼女達はデポプロベラと呼ばれる
避妊薬を
04:41
which is a contraceptive.
注射していたんです
04:43
And I would come back and
talk to global health experts,
帰国してグローバルヘルスの
専門家に話すと
04:45
and they'd say, "Oh no, contraceptives
彼らは「いや 避妊薬は―
04:48
are stocked in in the developing world."
開発途上国に在庫があるよ」と
04:49
Well, you had to dig deeper into the reports,
報告書を更に調査する
必要がありました
04:52
and this is what the team came to me with,
チームが調べた結果
04:54
which is, to have the number one thing
アフリカの女性たちが
使いたいと
04:55
that women tell you in Africa they want to use
いちばん希望する薬が
年間200日以上も
04:58
stocked out more than 200 days a year
欠品になっていたのです
それで女性たちが私に
05:01
explains why women were saying to me,
こう言っていた理由がわかりました
05:03
"I walked 10 kilometers without
my husband knowing it,
「旦那に内緒で
10キロも歩いて
05:05
and I got to the clinic, and there was nothing there."
ようやく診療所に着いたけど
何もなかった」
05:09
And so condoms were stocked in in Africa
アフリカにはコンドームは
十分ありました
05:12
because of all the AIDS work that the U.S.
エイズ撲滅に従事する
米国や その他の国の
05:15
and others supported.
支援のおかげです
05:17
But women will tell you over and over again,
でも女性たちが繰り返し言うのは
05:19
"I can't negotiate a condom with my husband.
「夫とコンドームの話なんてできない
05:20
I'm either suggesting he has AIDS or I have AIDS,
彼か私がエイズを患っていると
言っているようなものだから
05:23
and I need that tool because then I can space
必要なのは 避妊薬で
次の出産までの時間を延ばすこと
05:27
the births of my children, and I can feed them
そうすれば子供たちに
ご飯を食べさせて
05:30
and have a chance of educating them."
教育の機会も与えられる」
05:32
CA: Melinda, you're Roman Catholic,
メリンダ、貴女は
カトリック教徒ですね
05:35
and you've often been embroiled
この問題について
05:37
in controversy over this issue,
そして中絶の是非について
05:40
and on the abortion question,
賛成派と反対派の両方から
05:42
on both sides, really.
議論に巻き込まれてきました
05:45
How do you navigate that?
どうやって対処していますか?
05:46
MG: Yeah, so I think that's a really important point,
そうですね
それは大切なポイントだと思います
05:48
which is, we had backed away from contraceptives
国際社会として私たちが
避妊の議論を
05:51
as a global community.
敬遠してきたことです
05:54
We knew that 210 million women
私たちは世界の
2億1千万人もの女性が
05:55
were saying they wanted access to contraceptives,
避妊薬を望んでいることを
知りながら
05:58
even the contraceptives we have
here in the United States,
米国内にある避妊薬を
06:01
and we weren't providing them
提供することさえしませんでした
06:03
because of the political controversy in our country,
わが国の政治的議論が原因です
私に言わせれば
06:06
and to me that was just a crime,
それは まさに犯罪行為でした
06:09
and I kept looking around trying to find the person
この問題をグローバルな舞台で
取り上げてくれる人を
06:12
that would get this back on the global stage,
ずっと探しましたが
ついに悟ったのは—
06:14
and I finally realized I just had to do it.
私がやるしかないということでした
06:17
And even though I'm Catholic,
私はカトリック信者ですが
06:19
I believe in contraceptives
避妊を支持しています
06:20
just like most of the Catholic
women in the United States
米国のほとんどの
カトリック信者の女性が
06:22
who report using contraceptives,
避妊薬の使用経験はあると言います
06:24
and I shouldn't let that controversy
この議論を障壁にすべきではないと
06:26
be the thing that holds us back.
考えたのです
06:28
We used to have consensus in the United States
米国には かつて避妊に関する
06:30
around contraceptives,
世論調査がありましたが
06:32
and so we got back to that global consensus,
私たちはそれをグローバルに行い
06:33
and actually raised 2.6 billion dollars
26億ドルを集めることができました
06:36
around exactly this issue for women.
女性の避妊を助けるためです
06:38
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:41
CA: Bill, this is your graph. What's this about?
ビル、こちらは君のグラフですね
何についてですか?
06:49
BG: Well, my graph has numbers on it.
私のグラフには
数字がありますね
06:53
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:55
I really like this graph.
いいグラフです
06:57
This is the number of children
これは 毎年5才の誕生日を
迎える前に
06:59
who die before the age of five every year.
亡くなった
子供たちの数です
07:02
And what you find is really
ここでお伝えしたいのは
07:04
a phenomenal success story
あまり良く知られていない
07:06
which is not widely known,
驚くべきサクセスストーリーで
07:08
that we are making incredible progress.
私たちは素晴らしい成果を
上げているということです
07:10
We go from 20 million
2千万人というのが
07:13
not long after I was born
私が生まれた頃の数字ですが
07:15
to now we're down to about six million.
この数を今や
6百万に減らすことができました
07:17
So this is a story
これは主にワクチンの
07:21
largely of vaccines.
おかげです
07:23
Smallpox was killing a couple million kids a year.
かつては天然痘で命を落とす子どもが
年に数百万人いました
07:24
That was eradicated, so that got down to zero.
天然痘は根絶されて
ゼロになりました
07:28
Measles was killing a couple million a year.
麻疹が年に数百万人の命を奪いました
07:30
That's down to a few hundred thousand.
この数字も数十万人に減りました
07:32
Anyway, this is a chart
つまり このグラフが示すのは
07:33
where you want to get that number to continue,
引き続き死者数が
減少していくという希望であり
07:35
and it's going to be possible,
新しいワクチンの研究を利用し
07:39
using the science of new vaccines,
子どもたちに届けることで
07:41
getting the vaccines out to kids.
可能になるということです
07:43
We can actually accelerate the progress.
この動きを加速させることも可能です
07:45
The last decade,
過去10年で
07:46
that number has dropped faster
亡くなっていく子供たちの数は
07:48
than ever in history,
かつてない速さで減少しています
07:50
and so I just love the fact that
ですから 私が気に入っているのは
07:52
you can say, okay, if we can invent new vaccines,
新しいワクチンが開発できたら
07:55
we can get them out there,
それを手に入れて
07:57
use the very latest understanding of these things,
このような最新情報を使って
07:59
and get the delivery right, that
we can perform a miracle.
きちんと届ける―
すると奇跡が起こりうるということです
08:01
CA: I mean, you do the math on this,
つまり 計算してみると
08:06
and it works out, I think, literally
前年と比べて
08:07
to thousands of kids' lives saved every day
1日あたり数千人の子供の命が
08:09
compared to the prior year.
救われているということですね
08:11
It's not reported.
これは報道されていませんね
08:13
An airliner with 200-plus deaths
200人余りが亡くなった航空機事故などは
08:15
is a far, far bigger story than that.
これよりずっと大きく取り上げられます
08:18
Does that drive you crazy?
頭に来ませんか?
08:20
BG: Yeah, because it's a silent thing going on.
そうですね 音を立てずに
事態が進んでいます
08:22
It's a kid, one kid at a time.
子供は一人 また一人と
亡くなっているのです
08:25
Ninety-eight percent of this
死因の98%は
08:27
has nothing to do with natural disasters,
自然災害とは無関係です
08:29
and yet, people's charity,
自然災害に対する人々の
08:31
when they see a natural disaster, are wonderful.
支援活動は素晴らしいです
08:32
It's incredible how people think, okay,
「明日は我が身だ」と思わせ
08:34
that could be me, and the money flows.
お金が集まるのは すごいことです
08:36
These causes have been a bit invisible.
他方で 子供たちの問題は
見えにくいのです
08:39
Now that the Millennium Development Goals
現在「ミレニアム開発目標」や
08:42
and various things are getting out there,
その他の取り組みが進んでいます
08:44
we are seeing some increased generosity,
支援の輪も広がり
目標は—
08:46
so the goal is to get this well below a million,
百万人をはるかに下回るように
することで
08:49
which should be possible in our lifetime.
私たちの世代で実現すべきです
08:52
CA: Maybe it needed someone
必要だったのは
08:54
who is turned on by numbers and graphs
悲しみに暮れる人ではなく
08:56
rather than just the big, sad face
数字やグラフが得意な人の
08:58
to get engaged.
関与だったのかもしれません
09:00
I mean, you've used it in your letter this year,
今年の年次レターにも
09:02
you used basically this argument to say that aid,
先ほどのお話同様
世間の情報に反して
09:04
contrary to the current meme
開発途上国の支援は
09:07
that aid is kind of worthless and broken,
無駄でも崩壊しているわけでもなく
09:09
that actually it has been effective.
有効なのだと展開されました
09:12
BG: Yeah, well people can take,
そうです
たとえば―
09:14
there is some aid that was well-meaning
善意があっても
上手くいかなかった
09:16
and didn't go well.
援助がありますね
09:19
There's some venture capital investments
ベンチャー投資だって
09:21
that were well-meaning and didn't go well.
真面目にやっても
上手くいかないことはあります
09:23
You shouldn't just say, okay, because of that,
完璧な成果がないというだけで
09:26
because we don't have a perfect record,
試み自体が悪かったと
09:28
this is a bad endeavor.
言うべきではありません
09:32
You should look at, what was your goal?
着目すべきは
ゴールは何だったか?
09:33
How are you trying to uplift nutrition
どうやって栄養状態や
09:35
and survival and literacy
生存率、識字率を上げて
その国の自助努力に
09:38
so these countries can take care of themselves,
つなげようとしているか
09:41
and say wow, this is going well,
そうやって良し悪しを判断し
09:43
and be smarter.
もっと賢くなるべきです
09:45
We can spend aid smarter.
私たちは援助を賢く使えます
09:46
It is not all a panacea.
全てが万能薬とは行きませんが
09:48
We can do better than venture capital, I think,
投資事業よりは上手く行くと思います
09:51
including big hits like this.
これは大成功した一例です
09:54
CA: Traditional wisdom is that
昔から良く言われているのは
09:57
it's pretty hard for married couples to work together.
夫婦で働くことは難しい
ということですが
10:00
How have you guys managed it?
お二人の秘訣は何ですか?
10:04
MG: Yeah, I've had a lot of women say to me,
沢山の女性から言われたのは
10:05
"I really don't think I could work with my husband.
「私なら夫と働くのは無理
10:07
That just wouldn't work out."
絶対上手くいかない」でした
10:09
You know, we enjoy it, and we don't --
でも私たちは楽しくやっています
10:11
this foundation has been a coming to for both of us
人生という勉強の旅で
財団の事業は
10:15
in its continuous learning journey,
私たち2人の所へやってきたものです
10:17
and we don't travel together as much
実は財団の仕事で
一緒に出張することは
10:20
for the foundation, actually, as we used to
ビルがマイクロソフトにいた頃ほど
10:23
when Bill was working at Microsoft.
多くはありません
10:25
We have more trips where
we're traveling separately,
別々に出張する機会が多いですが
10:26
but I always know when I come home,
私が分かっているのは
私が帰ったら
10:28
Bill's going to be interested in what I learned,
ビルは私が学んだことに
興味を示します
10:30
whether it's about women or girls
女性や少女たちの現状
10:32
or something new about the vaccine delivery chain,
ワクチンの調達に関する
新しいニュースや
10:34
or this person that is a great leader.
素晴らしいリーダーについて
10:37
He's going to listen and be really interested.
じっくり耳を傾けて
興味を示してくれます
10:39
And he knows when he comes home,
ビルにとっても同様です
10:42
even if it's to talk about the speech he did
家に帰れば
彼の講演の話や
10:43
or the data or what he's learned,
データや
彼が学んだことについて
10:45
I'm really interested,
私は心から関心があり
10:47
and I think we have a really
collaborative relationship.
二人で協力関係を
築いていると思います
10:48
But we don't every minute together, that's for sure.
もちろん四六時中
そうとはいきませんが
10:51
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:54
CA: But now you are, and we're very happy that you are.
でも今は協力していますね
よかったです
10:58
Melinda, early on, you were basically
メリンダ、財団創立の当初は
11:00
largely running the show.
貴女が主に仕切っていましたね
11:04
Six years ago, I guess,
6年前でしょうか
11:06
Bill came on full time, so moved from Microsoft
ビルがマイクロソフト社の
第一線から退いて
11:07
and became full time.
常勤になりました
11:10
That must have been hard,
慣れるまで
11:11
adjusting to that. No?
大変だったんじゃないですか?
11:12
MG: Yeah. I think actually,
そうですね
11:14
for the foundation employees,
ビルを迎えるにあたり 私よりも
11:17
there was way more angst for them
多くの不安があったのは
11:19
than there was for me about Bill coming.
財団職員の方だと思います
11:21
I was actually really excited.
私はワクワクしていました
11:23
I mean, Bill made this decision
ビルがこの決断を下したのは
11:24
even obviously before it got announced in 2006,
当然 2006年に公表する前のことで
11:26
and it was really his decision,
彼自身が決めたことでした
11:28
but again, it was a beach vacation
でも 始まりは
あのビーチ休暇で
11:30
where we were walking on the beach
ビーチを2人で歩きながら
11:32
and he was starting to think of this idea.
ビルがアイデアを構想しました
11:33
And for me, the excitement of Bill
私にとっては
ビルが
11:35
putting his brain and his heart
彼の知性とハートを
11:38
against these huge global problems,
立ちはだかるグローバル問題や
11:41
these inequities, to me that was exciting.
不公正に注ぐのは
嬉しかったです
11:43
Yes, the foundation employees had angst about that.
他方で財団職員には
漠然とした不安がありました
11:45
(Applause)
(拍手)
11:49
CA: That's cool.
素晴らしいです
11:51
MG: But that went away within three months,
でもビルが来て3ヶ月で
11:53
once he was there.
それは消えました
11:55
BG: Including some of the employees.
職員も何人か消えたね
11:56
MG: That's what I said, the employees,
そう 職員のことよ
11:57
it went away for them three
months after you were there.
貴方の就任後3ヶ月で消えたでしょ
11:58
BG: No, I'm kidding.
MG: Oh, you mean, the employees didn't go away.
ビル:冗談だよ
メリンダ:職員は消えてないわよ
12:01
BG: A few of them did, but —
数人は消えたよ
いいけどさ
12:03
(Laughter)
(笑)
12:05
CA: So what do you guys argue about?
お二人はどんなことで
議論されますか?
12:07
Sunday, 11 o'clock,
日曜日の朝11時
12:09
you're away from work,
仕事は休み
12:11
what comes up? What's the argument?
話題は何ですか?
どんな議論になりますか?
12:13
BG: Because we built this thing
私たちは財団を一から
12:15
together from the beginning,
2人で築き上げました
12:17
it's this great partnership.
素晴らしい協力関係にあります
12:20
I had that with Paul Allen
マイクロソフトを立ち上げた頃
12:22
in the early days of Microsoft.
私のパートナーは
ポール・アレンでした
12:23
I had it with Steve Ballmer as Microsoft got bigger,
会社が成長する頃は
スティーブ・バルマーでした
12:25
and now Melinda, and in even stronger,
そして今はメリンダです
これまで以上に強固で
12:28
equal ways, is the partner,
対等なパートナーです
12:31
so we talk a lot about
私たちが議論するのは
12:33
which things should we give more to,
何を もっと与えるべきか
12:35
which groups are working well?
どの団体がうまく行っているか?です
12:37
She's got a lot of insight.
メリンダは沢山の見識があり
12:40
She'll sit down with the employees a lot.
職員とも膝を交えて話します
12:41
We'll take the different trips she described.
彼女が話したとおり
出張は別々です
12:42
So there's a lot of collaboration.
そんな感じで協力してやっていることが
沢山あります
12:45
I can't think of anything where one of us
2人の内のどちらかが
12:48
had a super strong opinion
絶対に意見を譲れないというような場面は
12:50
about one thing or another?
思いつきません
12:53
CA: How about you, Melinda,
though? Can you? (Laughter)
でもメリンダは?
思いつくんじゃない?(笑)
12:55
You never know.
あり得ますよ
12:58
MG: Well, here's the thing.
私の考えはこうです
12:59
We come at things from different angles,
私たちは取り組む角度が違い
13:01
and I actually think that's really good.
それが良いんだと思います
13:02
So Bill can look at the big data
ビルはビッグデータを見て
13:04
and say, "I want to act based
on these global statistics."
「僕はグローバルな統計をもとに
活動したい」と言います
13:06
For me, I come at it from intuition.
私は直感に従います
13:09
I meet with lots of people on the ground
現地で沢山の人達と会います
13:11
and Bill's taught me to take that
ビルが教えてくれたのは
13:13
and read up to the global data and see if they match,
集めた会話をもとに
グローバルなデータと照合すること
13:15
and I think what I've taught him
私がビルに教えたのは
13:18
is to take that data
データをもとに
13:19
and meet with people on the ground to understand,
現地の人々と会って
13:20
can you actually deliver that vaccine?
「このワクチンを届けられるか?」
13:22
Can you get a woman to accept those polio drops
「母親たちはポリオの薬を飲ませることを
了承するか?」
13:24
in her child's mouth?
などを判断することです
13:28
Because the delivery piece
なぜなら流通の部分は
13:29
is every bit as important as the science.
科学と全く同様に重要だからです
13:30
So I think it's been more a coming to over time
ですから この活動によって
お互いの考え方が
13:33
towards each other's point of view,
徐々に近づいてきていて
13:35
and quite frankly, the work is better because of it.
率直に言って そのお陰で
いい仕事ができていると思います
13:36
CA: So, in vaccines and polio and so forth,
さてワクチンとポリオなどにおいて
13:40
you've had some amazing successes.
お二人は素晴らしい成功を
おさめていますが
13:42
What about failure, though?
失敗例はどうでしょう?
13:46
Can you talk about a failure
失敗や そこから学んだことを
13:47
and maybe what you've learned from it?
話していただくことはできますか?
13:49
BG: Yeah. Fortunately, we can afford a few failures,
そうですね
幸い いくつかネタがあります
13:51
because we've certainly had them.
当然 失敗はありました
13:53
We do a lot of drug work or vaccine work
薬やワクチンに関する仕事を
たくさんやれば
13:56
that you know you're going to have different failures.
いろんな失敗をするものです
14:00
Like, we put out, one that got a lot of publicity
たとえば大きな反響を呼んだ例は
14:03
was asking for a better condom.
次世代コンドームの公募です
14:05
Well, we got hundreds of ideas.
何百もの応募がありました
14:07
Maybe a few of those will work out.
一部は成功するかもしれません
14:08
We were very naïve, certainly I was, about a drug
私たちの考えは甘かったんです
間違いなく私は甘かった
14:11
for a disease in India, visceral leishmaniasis,
インドの内臓リーシュマニア症の
治療薬について
14:15
that I thought, once I got this drug,
私は薬さえ手に入れば 病を
14:17
we can just go wipe out the disease.
根絶できると考えていました
14:19
Well, turns out it took an injection
でも実際には注射を10日間
14:20
every day for 10 days.
毎日 打つ必要がありました
14:23
It took three more years to get it than we expected,
薬の開発は予想より3年長くかかり
14:25
and then there was no way
しかもそれを現地に届ける
14:27
it was going to get out there.
手段が無いことが分かったのです
14:28
Fortunately, we found out
幸運にも私たちは
14:31
that if you go kill the sand flies,
サシチョウバエを殺せば病を防げることを
14:32
you probably can have success there,
突き止めましたが
14:35
but we spent five years,
私たちは5年も費やしました
14:37
you could say wasted five years,
5年の歳月と6千万ドルが
14:39
and about 60 million,
ほんのわずかな進歩にしかならず
14:41
on a path that turned out to have
無駄遣いだったと
14:43
very modest benefit when we got there.
言われても仕方ありません
14:44
CA: You're spending, like, a billion dollars a year
お二人は年間 約10億ドルを―
教育にだったと思いますが
14:48
in education, I think, something like that.
助成されています
14:52
Is anything, the story of what's gone right there
そこに至るまでの物語は
14:53
is quite a long and complex one.
かなり長く複雑なものです
14:57
Are there any failures that you can talk about?
お話しいただける失敗はありますか?
15:00
MG: Well, I would say a huge lesson for us
初期の活動から得た大きな教訓は
15:04
out of the early work is we thought
学校が小さければ
15:06
that these small schools were the answer,
解決すると
私たちが思っていたことです
15:07
and small schools definitely help.
小さいことは確かに有効です
15:09
They bring down the dropout rate.
中退率低下に貢献しています
15:11
They have less violence and crime in those schools.
小規模学校では
暴力や犯罪も少ないです
15:12
But the thing that we learned from that work,
ただ この事業で
私たちが学んだこと
15:15
and what turned out to be the fundamental key,
そして重要な鍵だとわかったのは
15:17
is a great teacher in front of the classroom.
教室に立つ
素晴らしい教師の存在です
15:20
If you don't have an effective teacher
力のある教師が
15:22
in the front of the classroom,
現場にいなければ―
15:23
I don't care how big or small the building is,
建物の大小は どうでもいいんです
15:24
you're not going to change the trajectory
大学に進めるかどうか
15:27
of whether that student will be ready for college.
生徒の進路を変えることはできません
15:28
(Applause)
(拍手)
15:30
CA: So Melinda, this is you and
メリンダ、この写真は
15:35
your eldest daughter, Jenn.
貴女と長女のジェンですね
15:37
And just taken about three weeks ago, I think,
ほんの3〜4週間前ですね
15:41
three or four weeks ago. Where was this?
これはどこですか?
15:43
MG: So we went to Tanzania.
タンザニアです
ジェンは以前にも
15:44
Jenn's been to Tanzania.
行っています
15:46
All our kids have been to Africa quite a bit, actually.
うちの子たちは アフリカに
何度も行っています
15:47
And we did something very different,
私たちは趣向を変えて
15:49
which is, we decided to go spend
2泊3日を現地の家族と
15:52
two nights and three days with a family.
一緒に過ごしました
15:53
Anna and Sanare are the parents.
ご両親の名前はアナとサナレです
15:56
They invited us to come and stay in their boma.
ボマ(小屋)で
寝泊まりさせてくれました
15:59
Actually, the goats had been there, I think,
私たちが訪れる前
16:02
living in that particular little hut
その囲いのついた小屋には
16:04
on their little compound before we got there.
ヤギがいたんでしょうね
16:05
And we stayed with their family,
その家族に泊めてもらい
16:08
and we really, really learned
そこで身をもって学んだのは
16:09
what life is like in rural Tanzania.
タンザニアの
農村の暮らしです
16:11
And the difference between just going
ちょっと訪ねて行って
16:13
and visiting for half a day
半日過ごして帰ってくるのと
16:15
or three quarters of a day
宿泊するのとは
16:16
versus staying overnight was profound,
まったく違いました
16:18
and so let me just give you one explanation of that.
これについて一つだけ
ご説明します
16:20
They had six children, and as I talked to Anna
彼らには子供が6人います
私はアナと
16:24
in the kitchen, we cooked for about five hours
調理用の小屋で
その日
16:26
in the cooking hut that day,
5時間 料理していました
16:27
and as I talked to her, she had absolutely planned
話しながら分かったのは
アナが
16:29
and spaced with her husband
ご主人と相談し計画的に
16:31
the births of their children.
出産の間隔を空けていること
16:32
It was a very loving relationship.
とても愛情深い夫婦関係でした
16:34
This was a Maasai warrior and his wife,
ご主人はマサイ族の戦士でしたが
16:36
but they had decided to get married,
2人は結婚を決めました
16:38
they clearly had respect and love in the relationship.
尊敬と愛がはっきりわかるような
関係でした
16:40
Their children, their six children,
6人の子供たちの真ん中には
16:43
the two in the middle were twins, 13,
13才の
男の子と女の子との双子がいて
16:45
a boy, and a girl named Grace.
女の子の名前はグレースです
16:47
And when we'd go out to chop wood
私たちは薪割りなど
16:49
and do all the things that Grace
and her mother would do,
グレースと母親がやることを
全部やりました
16:51
Grace was not a child, she was an adolescent,
グレースは思春期で
もう子供ではありませんが
16:53
but she wasn't an adult.
大人でもありません
16:56
She was very, very shy.
彼女はとってもシャイでした
16:58
So she kept wanting to talk to me and Jenn.
私とジェンに話しかけたい様子で
16:59
We kept trying to engage her, but she was shy.
私たちも声をかけましたが
恥ずかしがっていました
17:01
And at night, though,
でも夜になって
17:04
when all the lights went out in rural Tanzania,
タンザニアの僻地らしく
電気は全て消えました
17:05
and there was no moon that night,
それは初日の夜で
月もなく
17:08
the first night, and no stars,
星も出ていませんでした
17:10
and Jenn came out of our hut
ジェンがアウトドア用の
17:12
with her REI little headlamp on,
ヘッドランプを付けて小屋から出ると
17:13
Grace went immediately,
グレースが直ぐに後を追いました
17:16
and got the translator,
通訳者を連れて
17:18
came straight up to my Jenn and said,
ジェンに一目散に駆け寄ると
17:20
"When you go home,
「帰るときに
17:22
can I have your headlamp
ヘッドランプくれない?
17:23
so I can study at night?"
そしたら夜も勉強できるわ」と
17:24
CA: Oh, wow.
すごいですね
17:26
MG: And her dad had told me
父親に聞いたのですが
17:27
how afraid he was that unlike the son,
中学校の試験に受かった
17:28
who had passed his secondary exams,
双子の男の子の方と違って
17:31
because of her chores,
家事を手伝うグレースは
17:32
she'd not done so well
試験に合格できず
17:34
and wasn't in the government school yet.
まだ公立学校に入れないのです
17:35
He said, "I don't know how I'm
going to pay for her education.
父親は「彼女の教育費を
工面できるかわからない
17:37
I can't pay for private school,
私立は高すぎるから
妻のように―
17:39
and she may end up on this farm like my wife."
娘は この農場で
一生を終えるかもしれない」と
17:41
So they know the difference
つまり彼らは教育が
17:44
that an education can make
大きな違いを
17:45
in a huge, profound way.
もたらすと知っているのです
17:46
CA: I mean, this is another pic
こちらは別の写真ですね
17:49
of your other two kids, Rory and Phoebe,
お二人のお子さんの
ローリーとフィービーが
17:50
along with Paul Farmer.
ポール・ファーマーと写っています
17:54
Bringing up three children
世界で最も裕福な家庭で
17:58
when you're the world's richest family
3人の子供を育てるのは
18:00
seems like a social experiment
あまり前例がない
18:03
without much prior art.
社会的実験をするようなものです
18:05
How have you managed it?
成功の秘訣は何ですか?
18:08
What's been your approach?
どのように子育てされましたか?
18:10
BG: Well, I'd say overall
そうですね
私たちの子供は
18:12
the kids get a great education,
素晴らしい教育を受けましたが
18:15
but you've got to make sure
子供たちには
18:17
they have a sense of their own ability
自分の能力や進路
将来何をするかを
18:18
and what they're going to go and do,
しっかり意識させてきました
18:19
and our philosophy has been
私たちが とても明確に示してきた方針は
18:21
to be very clear with them --
資産の殆どを財団に
18:24
most of the money's going to the foundation --
寄付するということと
18:25
and help them find something they're excited about.
子供たちが夢中になれることを
見つける支援をすることです
18:26
We want to strike a balance where they have
私たちは子供たちに
18:31
the freedom to do anything
バランスを取ってほしいのです
18:32
but not a lot of money showered on them
何をやるのも自由ですが
大金が降ってきて
18:34
so they could go out and do nothing.
何もせずに遊んで暮らせるようには
なりませんから
18:37
And so far, they're fairly diligent,
これまでのところ
子供たちは まあ勤勉で
18:40
excited to pick their own direction.
自分たちの進路選択に
心を踊らせています
18:43
CA: You've obviously guarded their
privacy carefully for obvious reasons.
当然ながら お子さんのプライバシーを
守ることに留意されてきましたね
18:47
I'm curious why you've given me permission
今回お子さんの写真を見せる許可を
18:52
to show this picture now here at TED.
下さったのは何故ですか
18:54
MG: Well, it's interesting.
興味深いことに
18:56
As they get older, they so know
大きくなった子供たちには
18:57
that our family belief is about responsibility,
我が家の信念が「責任」であると
よくわかっています
18:59
that we are in an unbelievable situation
米国に住み 素晴らしい教育を
19:02
just to live in the United States
受けられるだけでも
19:04
and have a great education,
信じられない境遇であり
19:06
and we have a responsibility
to give back to the world.
世界に還元する責任があるのです
19:07
And so as they get older
彼らが成長する中で
19:09
and we are teaching them --
私たちは教え
19:10
they have been to so many
countries around the world —
世界各国を訪れてもいますが
19:11
they're saying,
彼らは言うのです
19:14
we do want people to know that we believe
「ママとパパの活動を
私たちが信じていると
19:15
in what you're doing, Mom and Dad,
皆に知って欲しいから
19:17
and it is okay to show us more.
私たちのことを
もっと話しても良いよ」と
19:18
So we have their permission to show this picture,
それで この写真を公開して
良いことになりました
19:20
and I think Paul Farmer is probably going to put it
おそらくポール・ファーマーは
19:23
eventually in some of his work.
著書に載せるだろうと思います
19:25
But they really care deeply
子供たちは財団の使命も
19:27
about the mission of the foundation, too.
本当に気にかけてくれるんです
19:29
CA: You've easily got enough money
ご自身の財団に
莫大な寄付をされても
19:31
despite your vast contributions to the foundation
3人のお子さんを
億万長者にできるだけの
19:33
to make them all billionaires.
資産をお持ちですよね
19:36
Is that your plan for them?
そのような計画はありますか?
19:37
BG: Nope. No. They won't have anything like that.
いいえ
そんな風に残すつもりはありません
19:39
They need to have a sense
子供たちは自分の仕事こそが
19:41
that their own work is meaningful and important.
やりがいであり大切だと
実感してもらわなくてはなりません
19:43
We read an article long, actually,
before we got married,
私たちは結婚前に
ある記事に載っていた
19:49
where Warren Buffett talked about that,
ウォーレン・バフェットの言葉を読んで
19:53
and we're quite convinced that it wasn't a favor
子供に莫大な資産を残すのは
社会のためにも
19:56
either to society or to the kids.
子供のためにも良くないと確信しました
19:58
CA: Well, speaking of Warren Buffett,
ウォーレン・バフェット氏ですが
20:01
something really amazing happened in 2006,
2006年に素晴らしい出来事がありました
20:03
when somehow your only real rival
米国一の大富豪を競う
20:06
for richest person in America
唯一のライバルだった彼が
20:09
suddenly turned around and agreed to give
突然 方針を変え
20:10
80 percent of his fortune
資産の8割を貴方の財団に
20:12
to your foundation.
寄付すると決めました
20:14
How on Earth did that happen?
一体何が起こったんですか?
20:16
I guess there's a long version
and a short version of that.
長いバージョンと短いバージョンが
あるでしょう
20:18
We've got time for the short version.
今日は短い方をお願いします
20:20
BG: All right. Well, Warren was a close friend,
分かりました
ウォーレンは親しい友人でした
20:21
and he was going to have his wife Suzie
彼は財産のすべてを奥様のスージーに
20:25
give it all away.
残すつもりでした
20:30
Tragically, she passed away before he did,
残念なことに
その前にスージーが亡くなってしまい
20:31
and he's big on delegation, and
委譲することが大好きな—
20:35
— (Laughter) —
(笑)
20:38
he said —
ウォーレンは・・・
20:40
CA: Tweet that.
今のツイートして
20:42
BG: If he's got somebody
who is doing something well,
何かに長けている人がいて
お金を求めずに
20:43
and is willing to do it at no charge,
それをやってくれる人がいたら
それで良いのではないかと
20:46
maybe that's okay. But we were stunned.
私たちは驚きを隠せませんでした
20:50
MG: Totally stunned.
BG: We had never expected it,
メリンダ:本当に驚いたわ
ビル:想像だにしてなかったからね
20:53
and it has been unbelievable.
そこからは驚きの連続でした
20:55
It's allowed us to increase our ambition
いただいた寄付によって
20:56
in what the foundation can do quite dramatically.
財団の可能性を
劇的に広げることができました
20:59
Half the resources we have
財団の資産の半分は
21:03
come from Warren's mind-blowing generosity.
ウォーレンの驚くべき
寛大な寄付によるものです
21:04
CA: And I think you've pledged that
お二人は
21:07
by the time you're done,
役目を終える頃までに
21:08
more than, or 95 percent of your wealth,
資産の95%以上を
21:10
will be given to the foundation.
財団に寄付すると公約されています
21:12
BG: Yes.
そのとおり
21:14
CA: And since this relationship, it's amazing—
ウォーレンとの—
素晴らしいですよね
21:15
(Applause)
(拍手)
21:19
And recently, you and Warren
最近ですが
お二人とウォーレンは
21:22
have been going around trying to persuade
他の億万長者や成功者たちにも
21:25
other billionaires and successful people
資産の半分以上を
慈善活動に
21:27
to pledge to give, what,
寄付するよう
21:29
more than half of their assets for philanthropy.
説得することに
奔走されています
21:30
How is that going?
進み具合はどうですか?
21:36
BG: Well, we've got about 120 people
これまで約120名の方々が
21:38
who have now taken this giving pledge.
「寄付の誓い」に賛同してくれました
21:41
The thing that's great is that we get together
この活動の魅力は
賛同者が毎年集まって
21:44
yearly and talk about, okay,
雇用を増やしたとか
どんな施しをしたとか
21:46
do you hire staff, what do you give to them?
話し合うことです
21:49
We're not trying to homogenize it.
均質化は目指しません
21:51
I mean, the beauty of philanthropy
慈善活動の長所は
21:52
is this mind-blowing diversity.
驚くほどの多様性です
21:53
People give to some things.
誰かが施しをします
21:55
We look and go, "Wow."
私たちはそれを見て
感嘆の声をあげます
21:56
But that's great.
それが良いんです
21:59
That's the role of philanthropy
それが慈善の役割で
22:00
is to pick different approaches,
たとえば教育のような
一つのテーマの中でも
22:01
including even in one space, like education.
様々な手段を採ることです
22:03
We need more experimentation.
もっと実験する必要があります
22:05
But it's been wonderful, meeting those people,
でも楽しくやっています
メンバーに会って
22:08
sharing their journey to philanthropy,
慈善活動に至った経過や
22:11
how they involve their kids,
子育ての話を聞きます
22:13
where they're doing it differently,
やり方は皆それぞれです
22:14
and it's been way more successful than we expected.
思い描いていた以上に
成功しています
22:16
Now it looks like it'll just keep growing in size
今後 団体は規模の面で
22:19
in the years ahead.
成長を続けていくでしょう
22:21
MG: And having people see that other people
慈善活動によって
変化を生み出している人の姿を
22:24
are making change with philanthropy,
人々に示すことにも意義があります
22:27
I mean, these are people who have
なにしろ 彼らは自ら
ビジネスを立ち上げ
22:29
created their own businesses,
創造力を元手に
22:31
put their own ingenuity behind incredible ideas.
すごいアイデアを
実現した人たちです
22:32
If they put their ideas and their brain
彼らのアイデアと能力を元手に
22:35
behind philanthropy, they can change the world.
慈善活動を起こせば
世界を変えることができます
22:37
And they start to see others doing it, and saying,
彼らは他の人達の活動を見て
こう言います
22:40
"Wow, I want to do that with my own money."
「自分の資産で同じことをやりたい」
22:42
To me, that's the piece that's incredible.
私はそこが素晴らしいと思います
22:44
CA: It seems to me, it's actually really hard
私が思うに
一部の人達にとっては
22:46
for some people to figure out
そのような大金を
22:49
even how to remotely spend that much money
間接的に他のことに使うということ自体
22:50
on something else.
理解しがたいです
22:53
There are probably some billionaires in the room
この会場にも大富豪や成功者が
22:55
and certainly some successful people.
いらっしゃるでしょう
22:57
I'm curious, can you make the pitch?
ここで売り込んでみませんか?
22:59
What's the pitch?
どんな風に誘いますか?
23:01
BG: Well, it's the most fulfilling thing
この活動によって私たちは
23:03
we've ever done,
最高の充実感を味わっています
23:04
and you can't take it with you,
亡くなる時に お金は持って行けません
23:06
and if it's not good for your kids,
お子さんに富を残すことが
得策でなければ
23:09
let's get together and brainstorm
何が出来るか
一緒に
23:12
about what we can be done.
アイデアを出し合いましょう
23:13
The world is a far better place
過去の慈善活動家のお陰で
23:16
because of the philanthropists of the past,
世界は ずっと良い場所になりました
23:18
and the U.S. tradition here, which is the strongest,
慈善活動は米国の伝統であり
世界で最も力のある
23:21
is the envy of the world.
羨望の的です
23:24
And part of the reason I'm so optimistic
私がこれほど楽観的なのは
23:25
is because I do think philanthropy
社会奉仕活動が広がっていき
23:27
is going to grow
政治では行き届かない部分に
23:29
and take some of these things
光を当て
23:30
government's not just good at
working on and discovering
正しい方向へ導いていくだろうと
23:32
and shine some light in the right direction.
思っているからです
23:34
CA: The world's got this terrible inequality,
世界には許しがたい不平等が
はびこっていて
23:38
growing inequality problem
構造的とも言える
23:41
that seems structural.
不平等の問題が増えています
23:42
It does seem to me that if more of your peers
より多くの賛同者が
23:43
took the approach that you two have made,
お二人が築き上げてきた道に従えば
23:46
it would make a dent
問題そのものについても
23:49
both in that problem and certainly
問題の認識についても
23:50
in the perception of that problem.
効果があるように思います
23:52
Is that a fair comment?
いかがでしょうか?
23:53
BG: Oh yeah. If you take from the most wealthy
賛成です
持てる者の富を
23:55
and give to the least wealthy, it's good.
そうでない人達に渡せたら
良いと思います
23:56
It tries to balance out, and that's just.
バランスが取れますし 公正です
24:00
MG: But you change systems.
でも体制も変える必要があります
24:02
In the U.S., we're trying to
change the education system
米国では教育システムを
誰にとっても公正で
24:03
so it's just for everybody
生徒全員の役に立つように
24:06
and it works for all students.
変えようとしています
24:08
That, to me, really changes
私が思うに
これが不平等を解消する
24:10
the inequality balance.
真の変革です
24:12
BG: That's the most important.
一番大切なことだね
24:13
(Applause)
(拍手)
24:14
CA: Well, I really think that most people here
会場にお越しいただいた皆さんと
24:18
and many millions around the world
世界中の何百万人の方々が
24:21
are just in awe of the trajectory
お二人のこれまでの軌跡と
24:23
your lives have taken
未来を形作るための
24:26
and the spectacular degree to which
お二人の目覚しい貢献度に
24:27
you have shaped the future.
畏敬の念を抱いていることでしょう
24:31
Thank you so much for coming to TED
お二人のTEDへのご参加—
24:33
and for sharing with us and for all you do.
お話と活動の全てに感謝します
24:34
BG: Thank you.
MG: Thank you.
ビル:ありがとう
メリンダ:ありがとう
24:36
(Applause)
(拍手)
24:37
BG: Thank you.
MG: Thank you very much.
ビル:ありがとう
メリンダ:本当にありがとう
24:46
BG: All right, good job. (Applause)
ビル:お疲れさま (拍手)
24:51
Translated by Mari Arimitsu
Reviewed by Emi Kamiya

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About the Speakers:

Melinda Gates - Philanthropist
Melinda French Gates is co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where she puts into practice the idea that every life has equal value.

Why you should listen

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. As co-chair, Melinda French Gates helps shape and approve strategies, review results, advocate for foundation issues and set the overall direction. In developing countries, the foundation focuses on improving people's health with vaccines and other life-saving tools and giving them a chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to dramatically improve education so that all young people have the opportunity to reach their full potential. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEO Jeff Raikes and co-chair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill Gates, Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett.

In recent years, Melinda French Gates has become a vocal advocate for access to contraception, advancing the idea that empowering women to decide whether and when to have children can have transformational effects on societies. In 2012, Gates spearheaded the London Summit on Family Planning, with the goal of delivering contraceptives to 120 million women in developing countries by 2020. When asked why she got involved in this issue, Gates said, "We knew that 210 million women were saying they wanted access to the contraceptives we have here in the United States and we weren't providing them because of political controversy in our country. To me, that was just a crime. I kept looking around trying to find the person to get this back on the global stage. I realized I just had to do it."

 

More profile about the speaker
Melinda Gates | Speaker | TED.com
Bill Gates - Philanthropist
A passionate techie and a shrewd businessman, Bill Gates changed the world while leading Microsoft to dizzying success. Now he's doing it again with his own style of philanthropy and passion for innovation.

Why you should listen

Bill Gates is the founder and former CEO of Microsoft. A geek icon, tech visionary and business trailblazer, Gates' leadership -- fueled by his long-held dream that millions might realize their potential through great software -- made Microsoft a personal computing powerhouse and a trendsetter in the Internet dawn. Whether you're a suit, chef, quant, artist, media maven, nurse or gamer, you've probably used a Microsoft product today.

In summer of 2008, Gates left his day-to-day role with Microsoft to focus on philanthropy. Holding that all lives have equal value (no matter where they're being lived), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has now donated staggering sums to HIV/AIDS programs, libraries, agriculture research and disaster relief -- and offered vital guidance and creative funding to programs in global health and education. Gates believes his tech-centric strategy for giving will prove the killer app of planet Earth's next big upgrade.

Read a collection of Bill and Melinda Gates' annual letters, where they take stock of the Gates Foundation and the world. And follow his ongoing thinking on his personal website, The Gates Notes. His new paper, "The Next Epidemic," is published by the New England Journal of Medicine.

More profile about the speaker
Bill Gates | Speaker | TED.com