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TEDxMidAtlantic 2013

Jackie Savitz: Save the oceans, feed the world!

ジャッキー・サビッツ: 海を保護して世界に食料を

October 25, 2013

海洋生物学者が世界の食糧問題について何を語れるでしょうか。世界の海の課題を解決することで10億の飢えた人々に食料を提供できるとジャッキー・サビッツは述べています。この目からウロコのトークでは、世界の漁業が置かれた窮状を述べ、いかに巧みにその回復を援助しながら同時に人類のための食料を増やすことができるのかということを、サビッツが語ります。

Jackie Savitz - Ocean advocate
Jackie Savitz works to protect the world's oceans. A marine biologist, she is passionate that saving the seas will benefit us all. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
You may be wondering
なぜ オセアナの
00:12
why a marine biologist from Oceana
海洋生物学者が
00:14
would come here today to talk to you
この場で 世界の飢餓について
00:15
about world hunger.
話すのでしょうか
00:17
I'm here today because
なぜ ここに今日いるかといえば
00:18
saving the oceans is more than an ecological desire.
海を守ることは環境問題以上のことだからです
00:21
It's more than a thing we're doing
私たちの活動にとどまらず
00:24
because we want to create jobs for fishermen
漁業の仕事を創り出したり
00:26
or preserve fishermen's jobs.
漁業を守ることだからです
00:28
It's more than an economic pursuit.
経済行為の追及にとどまりません
00:30
Saving the oceans can feed the world.
海を守ることで世界の食料を得られます
00:33
Let me show you how.
どうしてなのか説明します
00:36
As you know, there are already
ご存じのように
00:38
more than a billion hungry people on this planet.
この星には10億人以上の飢えた人がいます
00:39
We're expecting that problem to get worse
今世紀の中ごろに
00:42
as world population grows to nine billion
世界の人口が90億から100億人に達すると
00:44
or 10 billion by midcentury,
状況はさらに悪くなるでしょう
00:47
and we can expect to have greater pressure
食料資源に加わる圧力は
00:49
on our food resources.
今よりも厳しいものになります
00:52
And this is a big concern,
たいへん心配なことです
00:54
especially considering where we are now.
今の食料を考えるとさらに困った事態です
00:55
Now we know that our arable land per capita
人口一人当たりの耕作可能地は
00:57
is already on the decline
先進国でも開発途上国でも
01:00
in both developed and developing countries.
すでに減少しつつありますし
01:01
We know that we're headed for climate change,
気候変動も進んでおり
01:04
which is going to change rainfall patterns,
降水のパターンが変化して
01:07
making some areas drier, as you can see in orange,
オレンジ色で示した地域では
さらに乾燥し
01:09
and others wetter, in blue,
青色の地域では 雨が増えます
01:13
causing droughts in our breadbaskets,
中東や中央ヨーロッパで
01:15
in places like the Midwest and Central Europe,
食料の不足を招く一方
01:17
and floods in others.
洪水が増える地域もあります
01:18
It's going to make it harder for the land
陸地を使って
01:20
to help us solve the hunger problem.
食糧問題を解決するのは難しくなるでしょう
01:21
And that's why the oceans need
to be their most abundant,
そこで 海をできるだけ豊かな状態にして
01:24
so that the oceans can provide us
できるだけ多くの
01:26
as much food as possible.
食料を供給できるようにしなければなりません
01:28
And that's something the oceans have been doing
海はこれまでもずっと
01:31
for us for a long time.
私たちの食料源でした
01:32
As far back as we can go, we've seen an increase
可能な限り遡ると
01:35
in the amount of food we've been able to harvest
海から収穫される食料は
01:38
from our oceans.
増えてきていました
01:40
It just seemed like it was continuing to increase,
ただ 増え続けていたのは
01:41
until about 1980,
1980年頃までで
01:44
when we started to see a decline.
それから減少に転じました
01:45
You've heard of peak oil.
石油のピークの話のように
01:48
Maybe this is peak fish.
魚のピークかもしれません
01:50
I hope not. I'm going to come back to that.
違っているといいのですが
後でまた説明します
01:51
But you can see about an 18-percent decline
ご覧のように世界の漁獲量は
01:53
in the amount of fish we've gotten in our world catch
1980年から 18パーセントほど
01:56
since 1980.
減少しました
01:59
And this is a big problem. It's continuing.
これは大きな問題です
02:00
This red line is continuing to go down.
赤いカーブは下がり続けています
02:02
But we know how to turn it around,
しかしこれを復元する方法は
分かっています
02:05
and that's what I'm going to talk about today.
今日はその話をします
02:07
We know how to turn that curve back upwards.
このカーブを上向きに変える方法は
分かっているのです
02:09
This doesn't have to be peak fish.
漁業はピークは越えていないはずです
02:11
If we do a few simple things in targeted places,
適切な場所でいくつかの単純な取り組みを行えば
02:13
we can bring our fisheries back and use them
漁獲高を取り戻し
人々の食料を
02:17
to feed people.
供給することができます
02:19
First we want to know where the fish are,
まず 魚はどこにいるのかを
02:21
so let's look where the fish are.
知る必要があります
02:23
It turns out the fish, conveniently,
好都合なことに
02:25
are located for the most part
魚の大半は
02:27
in our coastal areas of the countries,
陸地近くの沿岸域にいます
02:29
in coastal zones,
沿岸です
02:31
and these are areas that national jurisdictions
沿岸地域では
それぞれの国の司法権によって
02:32
have control over,
支配されています
02:35
and they can manage their fisheries
そこで沿岸地域では漁業を
02:36
in these coastal areas.
管理することができます
02:38
Coastal countries tend to have jurisdictions
沿岸の国の権利は
02:40
that go out about 200 nautical miles,
200海里まで及ぶことが多く
02:42
in areas that are called exclusive economic zones,
排他的経済水域と呼ばれています
02:44
and this is a good thing that they can control
これは良いことで
02:48
their fisheries in these areas,
こういう地域の漁業は管理できるのです
02:50
because the high seas,
公海では
02:51
which are the darker areas on this map,
地図に濃い色で示した部分ですが―
02:52
the high seas, it's a lot harder to control things,
公海では 管理をするのは遥かに難しくなります
02:55
because it has to be done internationally.
国際的に行わなければならないからです
02:57
You get into international agreements,
国際条約を作らなければなりません
02:59
and if any of you are tracking
the climate change agreement,
気候変動の合意について知っている人なら
03:01
you know this can be a very slow,
どれほど時間がかかり
腹立たしく
03:03
frustrating, tedious process.
手間のかかる過程かわかるでしょう
03:05
And so controlling things nationally
国レベルで管理できるというのは
03:07
is a great thing to be able to do.
とても良いことです
03:09
How many fish are actually in these coastal areas
沿岸域の魚の量は公海と比べて
03:11
compared to the high seas?
どれ程でしょうか
03:14
Well, you can see here about
ここに示したように
03:15
seven times as many fish in the coastal areas
沿岸域の魚は公海よりも
03:17
than there are in the high seas,
7倍多くなっています
03:20
so this is a perfect place for us to be focusing,
つまり沿岸域に集中するのが一番良いのです
03:21
because we can actually get a lot done.
なぜなら成果が上がるからです
03:23
We can restore a lot of our fisheries
沿岸域に集中するだけで
03:26
if we focus in these coastal areas.
漁獲高を大幅に取り戻せます
03:28
But how many of these countries
do we have to work in?
この取り組みが必要な国はいくつあるのでしょうか
03:30
There's something like 80 coastal countries.
沿岸の国は 80か国ほどです
03:33
Do we have to fix fisheries management
そのすべての国で
漁業管理を改善しなければ
03:35
in all of those countries?
ならないのでしょうか
03:37
So we asked ourselves, how many countries
集中的に行うべき国はいくつか
03:38
do we need to focus on,
考えてみました
03:40
keeping in mind that the European Union
都合の良いことに EU 諸国は
03:42
conveniently manages its fisheries
共通の漁業政策で
03:44
through a common fisheries policy?
管理をしています
03:45
So if we got good fisheries management
EU での漁業管理がうまく行われ
03:48
in the European Union and,
say, nine other countries,
その他の 9か国でもうまく管理できたら
03:50
how much of our fisheries would we be covering?
魚のどれほどがカバーされるでしょうか
03:53
Turns out, European Union plus nine countries
実は EUと9か国で
03:55
covers about two thirds of the world's fish catch.
世界の漁獲高の3分の2ほどになります
03:58
If we took it up to 24 countries
plus the European Union,
EU に加えて 24か国まで含めれば
04:01
we would up to 90 percent,
90パーセントに達し
04:05
almost all of the world's fish catch.
世界の漁獲高のほぼ全てになります
04:06
So we think we can work in
a limited number of places
世界の漁獲高を取り戻すためには
特定の国に―
04:10
to make the fisheries come back.
働きかければ良いことのです
04:13
But what do we have to do in these places?
そういう国では何をすれば良いのでしょうか
04:14
Well, based on our work in the United States
アメリカや他の場所での取り組みから
04:17
and elsewhere, we know that there are
漁獲高を回復するためには
04:19
three key things we have to do
3つの事をする必要があると分かっています
04:20
to bring fisheries back, and they are:
3つの事をする必要があると分かっています
04:22
We need to set quotas or limits
水揚げ量の割り当て
04:25
on how much we take;
あるいは規制をしなければいけません
04:27
we need to reduce bycatch, which is the accidental
混獲を減らさなければなりません
04:29
catching and killing of fish that we're not targeting,
狙っていない別の魚を捕まえて殺すことは
04:32
and it's very wasteful;
とても無駄なのです
04:34
and three, we need to protect habitats,
第3に 生息地を守らなければなりません
04:36
the nursery areas, the spawning areas
繁殖地や産卵地を守り
04:38
that these fish need to grow
and reproduce successfully
魚の成育と繁殖がうまく行われて
04:41
so that they can rebuild their populations.
増加できるようにしなければなりません
04:43
If we do those three things, we
know the fisheries will come back.
これらの3つの事を行えば魚は復活します
04:45
How do we know?
なぜわかるかと言えば
04:49
We know because we've seen it happening
これはあちこちで実際に
04:50
in a lot of different places.
起きていることだからです
04:52
This is a slide that shows
このスライドに示すように
04:54
the herring population in Norway
ノルウェーのニシンの数は
04:55
that was crashing since the 1950s.
1950年代から激減しました
04:57
It was coming down, and when Norway set limits,
激減してからノルウェーが
漁業に
04:59
or quotas, on its fishery, what happens?
制限割り当てを行うと
どうなったでしょう
05:02
The fishery comes back.
水揚げ量は回復しました
05:05
This is another example, also
happens to be from Norway,
別の例は
これもノルウェーの
05:06
of the Norwegian Arctic cod.
ホッキョクダラの例です
05:09
Same deal. The fishery is crashing.
同様に 漁獲高は激減したので
05:12
They set limits on discards.
廃棄に制限を加えました
05:14
Discards are these fish they weren't targeting
混獲の廃棄は目的としていなかった魚で
05:16
and they get thrown overboard wastefully.
無駄に廃棄されます
05:18
When they set the discard limit,
廃棄に制限を加えたところ
05:21
the fishery came back.
漁獲高は復活しました
05:22
And it's not just in Norway.
ノルウェーだけではありません
05:24
We've seen this happening in countries
世界中の国々で
05:25
all around the world, time and time again.
何度も見られています
05:27
When these countries step in and they
これらの国で積極的な
05:30
put in sustainable fisheries management policies,
持続可能な漁業の管理政策を掲げることで
05:32
the fisheries, which are always crashing, it seems,
壊滅的な状態と思われていた漁業は
05:35
are starting to come back.
復活をはじめるのです
05:38
So there's a lot of promise here.
これは大変有望な結果です
05:40
What does this mean for the world fish catch?
世界的な漁業に対して
05:42
This means that if we take that fishery catch
どういう意味を持つでしょうか
減少している水産物の水揚げを
05:43
that's on the decline
回復させて
05:46
and we could turn it upwards, we could increase it
毎年1億トンまで増大させることが
05:47
up to 100 million metric tons per year.
できるということです
05:49
So we didn't have peak fish yet.
つまり漁業はまだピークを迎えていません
05:53
We still have an opportunity
これから
05:55
to not only bring the fish back
魚を取り戻すだけでなく
05:56
but to actually get more fish
さらに多くの水揚げを得て
05:58
that can feed more people
今よりも多くの人の食料にできる―
05:59
than we currently are now.
可能性が残されています
06:01
How many more? Right about now,
どれほど多いのか
06:02
we can feed about 450 million people
今の時点で世界の漁獲高から考えると
06:04
a fish meal a day
4億5千万人を
06:07
based on the current world fish catch,
養っています
06:08
which, of course, you know is going down,
これは減少傾向にありますが
06:10
so that number will go down over time
対策を取らなければ
06:13
if we don't fix it,
ますます減っていきます
06:15
but if we put fishery management practices
10ヵ国から25ヵ国で
06:16
like the ones I've described in place
今述べたような漁業管理を行えば
06:19
in 10 to 25 countries,
今述べたような漁業管理を行えば
06:21
we could bring that number up
この数字を増加させて
06:23
and feed as many as 700 million people a year
7億人を健康な魚で
06:25
a healthy fish meal.
養うことができるようになるでしょう
06:28
We should obviously do this just because
これは明らかに行うべきことです
06:30
it's a good thing to deal with the hunger problem,
食糧問題は解決すべきことだからです
06:31
but it's also cost-effective.
さらに費用対効果も大きく
06:34
It turns out fish is the most cost-effective protein
実は地球上で魚介類が一番
06:35
on the planet.
費用対効果に優れたタンパク質なのです
06:40
If you look at how much fish protein you get
1ドルのお金を投じて得られる
06:41
per dollar invested
タンパク質の量に注目すると
06:43
compared to all of the other animal proteins,
他のどの動物性タンパクよりも
06:44
obviously, fish is a good business decision.
魚の経済効果は大きいのです
06:47
It also doesn't need a lot of land,
今やそれ自体が不足している
06:50
something that's in short supply,
大規模な土地も
06:52
compared to other protein sources.
必要としませんし
06:53
And it doesn't need a lot of fresh water.
淡水をたくさん使うということもありません
06:57
It uses a lot less fresh water than,
例えば家畜と比べて
06:59
for example, cattle,
必要な淡水の量は
07:01
where you have to irrigate a field
遥かに少ないのです
07:02
so that you can grow the food to graze the cattle.
家畜は飼料を育てるために
水が必要なのです
07:04
It also has a very low carbon footprint.
また二酸化炭素生成量も
07:08
It has a little bit of a carbon footprint
はるかに少なく
07:10
because we do have to get out and catch the fish.
もちろん漁に出るのに燃料を少し使い
07:12
It takes a little bit of fuel,
二酸化炭素を排出します
07:14
but as you know, agriculture
can have a carbon footprint,
農業の二酸化炭素排出量に比べてずっと
07:15
and fish has a much smaller one,
その影響は小さいものです
07:17
so it's less polluting.
つまり汚染が少ないのです
07:19
It's already a big part of our diet,
すでに食卓の大きな割合を占めてはいますが
07:21
but it can be a bigger part of our diet,
さらに割合を増やすことができます
07:23
which is a good thing, because we know
それは良いことです
07:25
that it's healthy for us.
健康面でも良いことなのです
07:27
It can reduce our risks of cancer,
ガンや心臓疾患や肥満のリスクを
07:29
heart disease and obesity.
低減します
07:31
In fact, our CEO Andy Sharpless,
私たちの CEO である アンディ・シャープレスが
07:33
who is the originator of this concept, actually,
提唱し始めたコンセプトですが
07:35
he likes to say fish is the perfect protein.
「魚は完ぺきなタンパク源なのだ」と
彼はよく言っています
07:37
Andy also talks about the fact that
アンディは また
07:41
our ocean conservation movement really grew
われわれの海洋保護の活動が発展して
07:43
out of the land conservation movement,
陸も含めた保護活動になったということも
07:46
and in land conservation,
よく語っています
07:48
we have this problem where biodiversity
陸上では 生物多様性の保存と
食糧生産との間には
07:50
is at war with food production.
戦いがあります
07:53
You have to cut down the biodiverse forest
多様な生物の住む森を切り開いて
07:56
if you want to get the field
人々の食べるトウモロコシの畑を作るなど
07:59
to grow the corn to feed people with,
そこには常に
08:00
and so there's a constant push-pull there.
せめぎあいがあります
08:03
There's a constant tough decision
そこではいつも 2つの重要な課題の間で
08:05
that has to be made between
困難な意思決定が
08:06
two very important things:
求められます
08:08
maintaining biodiversity and feeding people.
生物多様性の保護と食糧生産です
08:10
But in the oceans, we don't have that war.
でも海にはその戦いはありません
08:13
In the oceans, biodiversity is not at war
海では 生物多様性と豊かな収穫とは
08:15
with abundance.
争わないのです
08:18
In fact, they're aligned.
両者は並立します
08:19
When we do things that produce biodiversity,
生物多様性を生み出す行動をとると
08:21
we actually get more abundance,
収穫も増えるのです
08:24
and that's important so that we can feed people.
そうしてヒトの食料を提供できるのが大事な点です
08:26
Now, there's a catch.
しかし キャッチ(課題・獲物)もあります
08:30
Didn't anyone get that? (Laughter)
わかりませんでしたか?
(笑)
08:33
Illegal fishing.
違法操業です
08:35
Illegal fishing undermines the type of
違法操業は
08:37
sustainable fisheries management I'm talking about.
ここまで話してきた漁業管理を
台無しにします
08:39
It can be when you catch fish using gears
禁止された漁具を用いた漁業も
08:41
that have been prohibited,
禁止された漁具を用いた漁業も
08:44
when you fish in places where
you're not supposed to fish,
漁業禁止区域での漁業も
08:45
you catch fish that are the wrong
size or the wrong species.
大きさや種類の制限に違反した漁も
違法です
08:47
Illegal fishing cheats the consumer
違法な漁業は消費者を欺き
08:51
and it also cheats honest fishermen,
正直な水産業者を欺くものであり
08:53
and it needs to stop.
止めさせなければなりません
08:55
The way illegal fish get into our
market is through seafood fraud.
違法操業の魚が市場に入ってくる経路は
食品偽装です
08:56
You might have heard about this.
耳にしたことがあるでしょう
08:59
It's when fish are labeled as something they're not.
違う魚のラベルが貼られているのです
09:01
Think about the last time you had fish.
最近 魚を食べた時
09:04
What were you eating?
何を食べましたか
09:05
Are you sure that's what it was?
それは本当にその魚だったでしょうか
09:06
Because we tested 1,300 different fish samples
1300種類の魚を抜き取り検査したところ
09:08
and about a third of them
その3分の1が
09:11
were not what they were labeled to be.
表示と異なる魚でした
09:12
Snappers, nine out of 10
snappers were not snapper.
フエダイと表示されていても
9割は別のものでした
09:14
Fifty-nine percent of the tuna we tested
59パーセントのマグロは
09:16
was mislabeled.
表示が間違っていました
09:19
And red snapper, we tested 120 samples,
120サンプルの鯛のうち
09:20
and only seven of them were really red snapper,
本当の鯛は7品に留まりました
09:23
so good luck finding a red snapper.
本物だったら大当たりということです
09:25
Seafood has a really complex supply chain,
水産物の流通経路は複雑で
09:29
and at every step in this supply chain,
トレーサビリティーを導入しなければ
09:31
there's an opportunity for seafood fraud,
そのどのステップでも
09:33
unless we have traceability.
表示偽装の余地があります
09:35
Traceability is a way where the seafood industry
トレーサビリティによって水産業界は
09:37
can track the seafood from the boat to the plate
船から料理皿までの間の魚介を追跡し
09:40
to make sure that the consumer can then find out
消費者がその魚介がどこから来たのかを
09:42
where their seafood came from.
確かめることができるようになります
09:45
This is a really important thing.
これは極めて重要なことです
09:47
It's being done by some in
the industry, but not enough,
取り組みは一部で始まっていますが
まだ不十分です
09:48
so we're pushing a law in Congress
私たちは議会に
09:51
called the SAFE Seafood Act,
SAFE シーフード法の制定を働きかけています
09:52
and I'm very excited today to announce the release
今日は 議会に向けて
09:54
of a chef's petition, where 450 chefs
SAFE シーフード法制定を求めた
09:56
have signed a petition calling on Congress
450人のシェフからの請願を
記者発表することができて
09:59
to support the SAFE Seafood Act.
大変喜んでいます
10:02
It has a lot of celebrity chefs you may know --
著名なシェフが何人も名を連ねています
10:04
Anthony Bourdain, Mario Batali,
アンソニー・ボーディンやマリオ・バタリ
10:06
Barton Seaver and others —
バートン・シ―バーをはじめとする
10:09
and they've signed it because they believe
シェフたちは 食べている物について
10:11
that people have a right to know
知る権利が当然だと考えて
10:12
about what they're eating.
署名したのです
10:14
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:16
Fishermen like it too, so there's a good chance
漁業者も賛同しているので
10:22
we can get the kind of support we need
法案実現のために必要な
10:24
to get this bill through,
支援が得られることでしょう
10:25
and it comes at a critical time,
まさに重要な時期に差しかかっています
10:26
because this is the way we stop seafood fraud,
なぜなら これが表示偽装を止める方法であり
10:28
this is the way we curb illegal fishing,
違法な漁業を抑制する方法であり
10:30
and this is the way we make sure
漁獲割り当てや生息地保護や
10:32
that quotas, habitat protection,
混獲の削減などが
10:34
and bycatch reductions can do the jobs
きちんと機能するために
10:36
they can do.
必要だからです
10:37
We know that we can manage
our fisheries sustainably.
持続可能な漁業を運営することは可能です
10:39
We know that we can produce
何億人もの人に
10:42
healthy meals for hundreds of millions of people
健康な食事を提供することが可能です
10:43
that don't use the land, that don't use much water,
土地を利用せず
水もほとんど利用せず
10:47
have a low carbon footprint,
二酸化炭素排出も少なく
10:49
and are cost-effective.
経済的な方法です
10:51
We know that saving the oceans
海を保護することで
10:52
can feed the world,
世界の食料を提供できるのだから
10:54
and we need to start now.
今 始めなければいけません
10:56
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:58
Thank you. (Applause)
ありがとう
(拍手)
11:01
Translator:Natsuhiko Mizutani
Reviewer:Mari Arimitsu

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Jackie Savitz - Ocean advocate
Jackie Savitz works to protect the world's oceans. A marine biologist, she is passionate that saving the seas will benefit us all.

Why you should listen

Jackie Savitz is the Vice President for US Oceans at Oceana, an organization focused on conserving and saving the world's oceans. With a background in marine biology and environmental toxicology, she has worked at Oceana for more than a decade and has produced campaigns focused on sea-affecting hazards such as climate change, mercury, and cruise ship pollution. 

Ocean water runs in Jackie's blood. She earned her bachelor’s degree in marine science and biology from the University of Miami, and then went on to get her master's in environmental science from the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory at the University of Maryland. That led her to spend some five years working to protect Chesapeake Bay, before working at ocean-focused groups such as Coast Alliance, a network of over 600 American organizations working to protect the coasts from pollution and development.

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