12:49
TED2002

Chris Anderson: TED's nonprofit transition

クリス・アンダーソンが語るTEDのビジョン

Filmed:

TEDの管理者であるクリス・アンダーソンが2002年に講演をした時、TEDの将来は不安定でした。ここで、彼は聴衆たちに営利のカンファレンスを非営利のイベントにしても上手くいくことを訴えかけます。実際、上手くいったのです。

- TED Curator
After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in 2002 and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading. Full bio

This is your conference,
TEDは、あなたたちが主役の会議です
00:13
and I think you have a right to know a little bit right now, in this transition period,
だから、あなた方はTEDが変革期にある今
00:15
about this guy who's going to be looking after it for you for a bit.
その運営を行っていく者のことを知る権利があります
00:21
So, I'm just going to grab a chair here.
それで、私はここに出てくることにしました
00:24
Two years ago at TED, I think --
2年前のTEDで、私は-
00:35
I've come to this conclusion --
こう結論づけたのですが―
00:42
I think I may have been suffering from a strange delusion.
私は妙な思い込みに囚われていたかもしれません
00:44
I think that I may have believed unconsciously,
無意識のうちにこう思っていました
00:47
then, that I was kind of a business hero.
自分はある種のビジネス・ヒーローだと
00:53
I had this company that I'd spent 15 years building. It's called Future;
私には15年かけて築き上げたフューチャーという会社がありました
00:59
it was a magazine publishing company.
雑誌の出版社です
01:05
It had recently gone public
少し前に株式公開したところでした
01:07
and the market said that it was apparently worth two billion dollars,
市場では20億ドルほどの価値があると評価されました
01:09
a number I didn't really understand.
理解できないほどの大金です
01:13
A magazine I'd recently launched called Business 2.0
また、少し前に立ち上げた「ビジネス2.0」という雑誌は
01:15
was fatter than a telephone directory,
電話帳よりも分厚くて
01:21
busy pumping hot air into the bubble.
バブル景気に熱気を吹きこんでいました
01:23
(Laughter)
(笑い)
01:26
And I was the 40 percent owner of a dotcom
-そして私はあるドットコム企業の株を40%保有していました
01:28
that was about to go public and no doubt be worth billions more.
間もなく上場しそうで、数十億ドルの価値はあるはずの会社でした
01:34
And all this had come from nothing.
これらすべては一から築き上げたものです
01:37
Fifteen years earlier, I was a science journalist who people just laughed at
15年前、私は科学ジャーナリストでした
01:40
when I said, "I really would like to start my own computer magazine."
「本気でコンピュータ雑誌を立ち上げたいんだ」と言うとみんなに笑われました
01:45
And 15 years later, there are 100 of them
でも15年経ってみると-100誌もあります
01:50
and 2,000 people on staff and it was just such heady times.
私の会社には2000人の従業員がいて-熱気にあふれた日々でした
01:54
The date was February 2000.
2000年2月のことです
02:00
I thought the little graph of my business life
私は自分のビジネス人生が
02:03
that kind of looked a bit like Moore's Law --
ムーアの法則のようだと考えていました
02:06
ever upward and to the right -- it was going to go on forever.
ずっと右肩上がりになっていくだろうと
02:08
I mean, it had to. Right? I was in for quite a surprise.
そうでなければならなかったのです そうでしょう? 自分でも驚いていました
02:10
The dotcom, ironically called Snowball,
私のドットコム企業は 皮肉にもスノーボールという名前で、
02:19
was the very last consumer web company to go public
その翌月、ナスダックが暴落する前に株式公開した
02:22
the next month before NASDAQ exploded, and I entered 18 months of business hell.
最後の消費者向けウェブ企業で、私は18ヶ月間の地獄を見ることになりました
02:25
I watched everything that I'd built crumbling,
それまで築き上げたものすべてが目の前で崩れてきました
02:36
and it looked like all this stuff was going to die
すべてが死に絶えてしまうかのようで、
02:42
and 15 years work would have come for nothing.
15年間の仕事が無に帰してしまうかのようでした
02:44
And it was gut wrenching.
心が張り裂けそうでした
02:47
It took eight years of blood, sweat and tears to reach 350 employees,
まず、従業員を350人に増やすのに費やした8年間の血と汗が犠牲になりました
02:49
something which I was very proud of in the business.
自分はそのことをとても誇りにしていたのに
02:56
February 2001 -- in one day we laid off 350 people,
2001年2月、私は350人をレイオフしたのです
02:59
and before the bloodshed was finished, 1,000 people had lost their jobs
その流血が止まる前に、私の会社で働く1000人が仕事を失いました
03:04
from my companies. I felt sick.
ひどい気分でした
03:08
I watched my own net worth falling
私の資産もどんどん減っていきました
03:12
by about a million dollars a day, every day, for 18 months.
18か月に渡って、1日に100万ドルずつ減っていったのです
03:18
And worse than that, far worse than that,
それよりもさらにずっと悪いことに
03:25
my sense of self-worth was kind of evaporating.
私の自尊心が消えて行きました
03:27
I was going around with this big sign on my forehead: "LOSER."
私の額には大きな「負け犬」という印が刻まれていました
03:31
(Laughter)
(笑い)
03:36
And I think what disgusts me more than anything, looking back,
振り返ってみると、何よりも最低だったのは
03:37
is how the hell did I let my personal happiness
私が自分の個人的な幸せを
03:41
get so tied up with this business thing?
あれほどまでにビジネスと結びつけていたことです
03:45
Well, in the end, we were able to save Future and Snowball,
最後にはフューチャーもスノーボールも救うことができましたが
03:50
but I was, at that point, ready to move on.
その時には私は次に進もうと考えていました
03:56
And to cut a long story short, here's where I came to.
そして、手短に言うと、ここにやって来たのです
03:59
And the reason I'm telling this story is that I believe, from many conversations,
この話をしているのは、多くの人と話す中で
04:03
that a lot of people in this room have been through a similar kind of rollercoaster --
ここにいる人の中に同じような激動-感情の激動ーを過去数年の間に
04:09
emotional rollercoaster -- in the last couple years.
経験した人がたくさんいることがわかったからです
04:14
This has been a big, big transition time,
今は非常に大きな変革期です
04:17
and I believe that this conference can play a big part for all of us
TEDカンファレンスは私たち皆が次なるステージに進む上で
04:20
in taking us forward to the next stage to whatever's next.
大きな役割を果たすはずです それがどんな「次」であろうとも
04:27
The theme next year is re-birth.
来年のテーマは「再生」にします
04:30
It was at the same TED two years ago
2年前のTEDで
04:33
when Richard and I reached an agreement on the future of TED.
私はリチャードとTEDの将来について合意に達しました
04:37
And at about the same time, and I think partly because of that,
ちょうど同じ頃、そして恐らくはそのせいもあって、
04:41
I started doing something that I'd forgotten about in my business focus:
私は自分が仕事を行う中で忘れていたことを始めました
04:45
I started to read again.
再び本を読み始めたのです
04:50
And I discovered that while I'd been busy playing business games,
そして、自分が仕事にいそしんでいる間に
04:53
there'd been this incredible revolution in so many areas of interest:
いろんな分野で信じられないほどの大変化が起きていることに気づきました -
04:58
cosmology to psychology to evolutionary psychology to anthropology
宇宙論でも、心理学でも、進化心理学でも、人類学でも、
05:03
to ... all this stuff had changed.
あらゆることが変わっていたのです
05:09
And the way in which you could think about us as a species
我々をひとつの種族やひとつの惑星とみなす方法が大きく変わっていて
05:11
and us as a planet had just changed so much, and it was incredibly exciting.
とても刺激的でした
05:16
And what was really most exciting --
一番興奮したのは、
05:20
and I think Richard Wurman discovered this at least 20 years before I did --
リチャード・ワーマンは私より20年も前に気づいていたのですが、
05:22
was that all this stuff is connected.
すべてのものはつながっているということでした
05:27
It's connected; it all hooks into each other.
つながっているのです お互いに
05:31
We talk about this a lot,
私たちは、このことをたくさん話しました
05:34
and I thought about trying to give an example of this. So, just one example:
そして私は何かその例となることができないかと考えました
05:36
Madame de Gaulle, the wife of the French president,
よく知られているように、フランス大統領の妻だったド・ゴール夫人は
05:39
was famously asked once, "What do you most desire?"
かつて「何がお望みですか?」と聞かれて
05:46
And she answered, "A penis."
「ペニス」と答えました
05:49
And when you think about it, it's very true:
考えてみるとその通りです
05:53
what we all most desire is a penis --
私たちが皆もっとも望んでいるのはペニスです
05:56
or "happiness" as we say in English.
もとい、英語で言うところの「ハッピネス(幸福)」です
05:59
(Laughter)
(笑い)
06:02
And something ... good luck with that one in the Japanese translation room.
ええと、日本語の翻訳ルームさん、がんばって訳してくださいね
06:12
(Laughter)
(笑い)
06:20
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:22
But something as basic as happiness,
幸せと同じぐらい基本的なものは
06:27
which 20 years ago would have been just something for discussion
20年前には教会やモスクやシナゴーグのような所でしか
06:31
in the church or mosque or synagogue,
話されないものでしたが
06:34
today it turns out that there's dozens of TED-like questions
今では何十というTEDに出てくるような
06:37
that you can ask about it, which are really interesting.
本当に面白い問いがあります
06:41
You can ask about what causes it biochemically:
その原因は何なのか、生化学的に問いかけることもできます
06:44
neuroscience, serotonin, all that stuff.
神経科学やセロトニン、そういったものたちです
06:47
You can ask what are the psychological causes of it:
その心理学的な原因は何なのかを問いかけることもできます
06:49
nature? Nurture? Current circumstance?
それが本性なのか教育の結果か、それとも現在の状況によるものか?
06:53
Turns out that the research done on that is absolutely mind-blowing.
このことについての研究は本当に驚くようなものでした
06:56
You can view it as a computing problem, an artificial intelligence problem:
それはコンピュータの問題、人工知能の問題だと考えることができます
06:59
do you need to incorporate
なぜ、ある種アナログである幸せを
07:04
some sort of analog of happiness into a computer brain to make it work properly?
コンピュータの頭脳と一緒にしなければ上手く機能しないのでしょうか?
07:06
You can view it in sort of geopolitical terms
地政学的な用語を使えばこう言うこともできます
07:11
and say, why is it that a billion people on this planet
なぜ地球上の10億の人々がどうしようもなく困窮していて
07:15
are so desperately needy that they have no possibility of happiness,
幸せになる可能性すらないのか、
07:19
and whereas almost all the rest of them,
そしてその他ほとんどの人々が
07:25
regardless of how much money they have -- whether it's two dollars a day or whatever --
どれ程のお金を持っているかに関わらず、たとえ1日に2ドルだったとしても、
07:27
are almost equally happy on average?
平均するとほとんど同じぐらい幸せなのか?
07:31
Or you can view it as an evolutionary psychology kind of thing:
もしくは、進化心理学的な見方をすることもできます
07:36
did our genes invent this as a kind of trick
なぜ私たちの遺伝子は我々が何らかの特定の行動を
07:41
to get us to behave in certain ways? The ant's brain, parasitized,
するように我々を作り上げたのか?蟻の脳が寄生されて
07:45
to make us behave in certain ways so that our genes would propagate?
私たちの遺伝子が繁殖するように特定の行動を取らせるようになったのか?
07:49
Are we the victims of a mass delusion?
私たちは大量の思い込みの被害者なのか?
07:52
And so on, and so on.
などなど
07:54
To understand even something as important to us as happiness,
幸せと同じぐらい大切な何かを理解するためにさえ
07:56
you kind of have to branch off in all these different directions,
こうしたあらゆる方向へ分け入っていかないといけないのです
08:00
and there's nowhere that I've discovered -- other than TED --
そしてTEDの他にこれほど多くの質問を
08:03
where you can ask that many questions in that many different directions.
これほど多くの違った方向に投げかけることのできる場所はありません
08:09
And so, it's the profound thing that Richard talks about:
だから、リチャードが語ったのは本当に重要なことなのです
08:14
to understand anything, you just need to understand the little bits;
何かを理解するためには、少しだけ理解すればいいのです
08:17
a little bit about everything that surrounds it.
それを取り囲むすべてについて、少しずつ
08:21
And so, gradually over these three days,
これまでの3日間で
08:23
you start off kind of trying to figure out,
あなた方は少しずつ理解し始めています
08:25
"Why am I listening to all this irrelevant stuff?"
なぜ自分はこれらの無関係なことを聞いているのか、と
08:27
And at the end of the four days,
4日目が終わる頃には
08:30
your brain is humming and you feel energized, alive and excited,
あなた方の頭脳は活発になり、元気づけられ、生き生きとして興奮していることでしょう
08:32
and it's because all these different bits have been put together.
それは、これら全てのかけらたちがつながったからです
08:37
It's the total brain experience, we're going to ...
それは全脳的な体験です
08:40
it's the mental equivalent of the full body massage.
心に行う全身マッサージなのです
08:42
(Laughter)
(笑い)
08:44
Every mental organ addressed. It really is.
全ての心的器官に効きます 本当です
08:45
Enough of the theory, Chris. Tell us what you're actually going to do, all right?
理論についてはもう十分でしょう 私が実際何をするつもりなのかを聞きたいですよね
08:50
So, I will. Here's the vision for TED.
これがTEDのビジョンです
08:54
Number one: do nothing. This thing ain't broke, so I ain't gonna fix it.
一つ目 - 何もしない TEDは文無しではないので 直すところもありません
08:57
Jeff Bezos kindly remarked to me,
ジェフ・ベゾスがこう言ってくれました
09:05
"Chris, TED is a really great conference.
「クリス、TEDは本当に素晴らしい会議だ
09:08
You're going to have to fuck up really badly to make it bad."
本当にひどいことをしなければダメにはならないよ」
09:11
(Laughter)
(笑い)
09:14
So, I gave myself the job title of TED Custodian for a reason,
つまり、私が自分の肩書を「TEDの管理人」としているのには理由があるのです
09:18
and I will promise you right here and now
今、ここでお約束しましょう
09:27
that the core values that make TED special are not going to be interfered with.
TEDを特別なものとしている中核的な価値観はこれからも変わらないと
09:29
Truth, curiosity, diversity, no selling, no corporate bullshit,
真実、好奇心、多様性、商売や企業のたわごとは禁止、
09:33
no bandwagoning, no platforms.
流行の後追いや政治的な演説も許可しません
09:44
Just the pursuit of interest, wherever it lies,
ただ興味を追求します それがどんなものであろうと、この場で表明された
09:49
across all the disciplines that are represented here.
全ての分野を横断して追求します
09:54
That's not going to be changed at all.
それはこれからも変わりません
09:55
Number two: I am going to put together
二つ目-私は来年に向けて
10:01
an incredible line up of speakers for next year.
素晴らしいラインナップの講演者を集めます
10:03
The time scale on which TED operates is just fantastic
TEDが運営されるタイムスケールは
10:06
after coming out of a magazine business with monthly deadlines.
毎月の締切がある雑誌の世界から来た身にとってはとてもありがたいものです
10:09
There's a year to do this, and already --
1年間も余裕があるのですから
10:13
I hope to show you a bit later --
後で少し紹介できればと思っていますが
10:15
there's 25 or so terrific speakers signed up for next year.
来年に向けて25人ばかりの素晴らしい講演者が登録しています
10:17
And I'm getting fantastic help from the community;
TEDのコミュニティからの大きな助力もあります
10:22
this is just such a great community. And combined, our contacts
本当にすごいコミュニティです これらが合わさって、私たちが連絡を取っている人は
10:25
reach pretty much everyone who's interesting in the country, if not the planet.
この国で面白いことをしている人のほぼすべてに及んでいます - 地球全体ではないにしても
10:28
It's true.
本当ですよ
10:34
Number three: I do want to, if I can, find a way
三つ目 - できることならば
10:36
of extending the TED experience throughout the year a little bit.
1年を通じてTEDの経験が得られるようにできないかと考えています
10:43
And one key way that we're going to do this is to introduce this book club.
そのためのひとつの方法がブッククラブです
10:46
Books kind of saved me in the last couple years,
この数年、私は本に救われました
10:51
and that's a gift that I would like to pass on.
その贈り物を受け継いでいきたいのです
10:57
So, when you sign up for TED2003, every six weeks you'll get a care package
TED2003に申し込んだ人には、6週間ごとに小包とともに1、2冊の本と
11:00
with a book or two and a reason why they're linked to TED.
なぜそれらがTEDにつながっているかの説明書きが送られます
11:05
They may well be by a TED speaker,
本はTEDの講演者によるものかもしれません
11:08
and so we can get the conversation going during the year
それにより私たちは1年を通して会話をつづけることができ
11:10
and come back next year having had the same intellectual, emotional journey.
同じ知的・感情的な旅行をした上で来年ここに帰ってくることができます
11:13
I think it will be great.
それはすごいことだと思います
11:19
And then, fourthly: I want to mention the Sapling Foundation,
四つ目 - サプリング財団について話をします
11:22
which is the new owner of TED.
TEDの新しいオーナーです
11:26
What Sapling's ownership means is that all of the proceeds of TED
サプリング財団がオーナーになったということは、TEDの収益のすべてが
11:29
will go towards the causes that Sapling stands for.
サプリング財団の支持する理念のために使われるということです
11:31
And more important, I think, the ideas that are exhibited and realized here
また、より重要なことだと思うのですが、TEDで表明され、実現されたアイデアは
11:38
are ideas that the foundation can use, because there's fantastic synergy.
サプリング財団が利用することで素晴らしい相乗効果を上げることができるのです
11:46
Already, just in the last few days,
すでに、この数日だけでも大勢の人々が
11:51
we've had so many people talking about stuff that they care about,
気にかけていることや情熱を燃やしていること、世界の変化につながるようなこと
11:53
that they're passionate about, that can make a difference in the world,
について話をしてきました
11:56
and the idea of getting this group of people together --
こうした人々をひとつにするというアイデアは -
11:58
some of the causes that we believe in,
それは私たちの理念でもあるのですが、
12:02
the money that this conference can raise and the ideas --
この会議が生み出すお金やアイデアは -
12:04
I really believe that that combination will, over time, make a difference.
それらを組み合わせることでやがて変化を作り出すことになるはずです
12:07
I'm incredibly excited about that.
そのことに心からわくわくしています
12:12
In fact, I don't think, overall, that I've been as excited by anything ever in my life.
実際、自分の人生の中でこれほど興奮していることはありません
12:14
I'm in this for the long run,
私は長期に渡ってTEDに関わっていきます
12:22
and I would be greatly honored and excited
もしあなた方がこの旅をともにしてくれるなら
12:25
if you'll come on this journey with me.
とても名誉に思います
12:29
Translated by Wataru Narita
Reviewed by Masahiro Kyushima

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About the Speaker:

Chris Anderson - TED Curator
After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in 2002 and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading.

Why you should listen

Chris Anderson is the Curator of TED, a nonprofit devoted to sharing valuable ideas, primarily through the medium of 'TED Talks' -- short talks that are offered free online to a global audience.

Chris was born in a remote village in Pakistan in 1957. He spent his early years in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, where his parents worked as medical missionaries, and he attended an American school in the Himalayas for his early education. After boarding school in Bath, England, he went on to Oxford University, graduating in 1978 with a degree in philosophy, politics and economics.

Chris then trained as a journalist, working in newspapers and radio, including two years producing a world news service in the Seychelles Islands.

Back in the UK in 1984, Chris was captivated by the personal computer revolution and became an editor at one of the UK's early computer magazines. A year later he founded Future Publishing with a $25,000 bank loan. The new company initially focused on specialist computer publications but eventually expanded into other areas such as cycling, music, video games, technology and design, doubling in size every year for seven years. In 1994, Chris moved to the United States where he built Imagine Media, publisher of Business 2.0 magazine and creator of the popular video game users website IGN. Chris eventually merged Imagine and Future, taking the combined entity public in London in 1999, under the Future name. At its peak, it published 150 magazines and websites and employed 2,000 people.

This success allowed Chris to create a private nonprofit organization, the Sapling Foundation, with the hope of finding new ways to tackle tough global issues through media, technology, entrepreneurship and, most of all, ideas. In 2001, the foundation acquired the TED Conference, then an annual meeting of luminaries in the fields of Technology, Entertainment and Design held in Monterey, California, and Chris left Future to work full time on TED.

He expanded the conference's remit to cover all topics, including science, business and key global issues, while adding a Fellows program, which now has some 300 alumni, and the TED Prize, which grants its recipients "one wish to change the world." The TED stage has become a place for thinkers and doers from all fields to share their ideas and their work, capturing imaginations, sparking conversation and encouraging discovery along the way.

In 2006, TED experimented with posting some of its talks on the Internet. Their viral success encouraged Chris to begin positioning the organization as a global media initiative devoted to 'ideas worth spreading,' part of a new era of information dissemination using the power of online video. In June 2015, the organization posted its 2,000th talk online. The talks are free to view, and they have been translated into more than 100 languages with the help of volunteers from around the world. Viewership has grown to approximately one billion views per year.

Continuing a strategy of 'radical openness,' in 2009 Chris introduced the TEDx initiative, allowing free licenses to local organizers who wished to organize their own TED-like events. More than 8,000 such events have been held, generating an archive of 60,000 TEDx talks. And three years later, the TED-Ed program was launched, offering free educational videos and tools to students and teachers.

More profile about the speaker
Chris Anderson | Speaker | TED.com