06:57
TEDYouth 2014

Erin McKean: Go ahead, make up new words!

エリン・マッキーン: さあ、新しい言葉を作りだそう!

Filmed:

辞書編纂者のエリン・マッキーンは、TEDYouthでの楽しいショートトークで、若者たちに向けて、今ある言葉ではうまくいかない時に新しい言葉を作ることを勧める・・・いや、作るように応援します。彼女は「複合」から「動詞化」まで、英語で新しい言葉を作る6つの方法を挙げます。新しい言葉を作る目的は、自分の意図をよりよく表現できるように言葉を改良し、お互いを理解する方法をより多く生み出すためなのです。

- Dictionary editor
As the co-founder of Reverb Technologies, the maker of the online dictionary Wordnik, Erin McKean is reshaping how we interact with language itself. Full bio

I'm a lexicographer.
私は辞書編纂者です
00:12
I make dictionaries.
辞書を作る仕事をしています
00:13
And my job as a lexicographer
辞書編纂者の仕事は
00:15
is to try to put all the words possible
into the dictionary.
可能な限りあらゆる言葉を
辞書に載せることです
00:17
My job is not to decide what a word is;
that is your job.
でも何が言葉かを決めるのは
私ではなく 皆さんの仕事です
00:20
Everybody who speaks English
decides together
言葉か言葉でないかは
英語を話す人が
00:26
what's a word and what's not a word.
みんなで決めるのです
00:29
Every language is just a group of people
who agree to understand each other.
「言語」とは意思疎通に合意した
人々の間で使うものです
00:32
Now, sometimes when people are trying
to decide whether a word is good or bad,
ところで 誰かがある言葉の
良し悪しを判断する時
00:37
they don't really have a good reason.
大した理由がない場合があります
00:41
So they say something like,
"Because grammar!"
だから「文法だからさ!」
なんて言うのです
00:43
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:46
I don't actually really care about grammar
too much -- don't tell anybody.
私自身は文法はそれほど気にしません
― 内緒ですよ
00:48
But the word "grammar," actually,
there are two kinds of grammar.
ただ「文法」には
実は2種類あるのです
00:52
There's the kind of grammar
that lives inside your brain,
1つは脳内にある文法です
00:55
and if you're a native
speaker of a language
ある言語を母語とする人や
00:58
or a good speaker of a language,
ある言語を話すのが上手な人が
01:00
it's the unconscious rules that you follow
when you speak that language.
話す時に無意識に従う規則です
01:02
And this is what you learn when
you learn a language as a child.
また子どもが言語を学ぶ時
身につける文法です
01:05
And here's an example:
例をあげましょう
01:08
This is a wug, right?
これは「ワグ」です
01:10
It's a wug.
1匹だと“a wug”です
01:11
Now there is another one.
もう1匹出てきて
01:13
There are two of these.
2匹になりました
01:15
There are two ...
だから2匹の・・・
01:16
Audience: Wugs.
(観客)ワグズ(wugs)
01:17
Erin McKean: Exactly! You know
how to make the plural of wug.
その通り!
ワグを複数形にできますよね
01:19
That rule lives in your brain.
この規則は脳の中にあります
01:22
You never had to be taught this rule,
you just understand it.
教わる必要もなかったのに
知っているんです
01:24
This is an experiment that was invented
by a professor at [Boston University]
この実験を開発したのは
ボストン大学の
01:27
named Jean Berko Gleason back in 1958.
ジーン・バーコ・グリースン教授で
1958年にさかのぼります
01:30
So we've been talking about this
for a long time.
だから かなり前から
議論されているんです
01:34
Now, these kinds of natural rules
that exist in your brain,
このように脳内にある
自然な規則は
01:37
they're not like traffic laws,
they're more like laws of nature.
交通法規というより
むしろ自然法則に近いものです
01:40
And nobody has to remind you to obey
a law of nature, right?
言われければ自然法則に
従わない人なんていないでしょう?
01:44
When you leave the house in the morning,
your mom doesn't say,
朝 家を出るとき
皆さんのお母さんは
01:48
"Hey, honey, I think
it's going to be cold, take a hoodie,
「ちょっと 今日は寒くなるから
上着を持っていくのよ
01:51
don't forget to obey the law of gravity."
重力の法則には従ってね」なんて
01:53
Nobody says this.
言いませんよね
01:56
Now, there are other rules that are more
about manners than they are about nature.
一方で自然法則というよりも
マナーに近い規則があります
01:58
So you can think of a word as like a hat.
この場合 言葉はまるで帽子のようです
02:05
Once you know how hats work,
一度 帽子の役割を知ってしまえば
02:08
nobody has to tell you,
"Don't wear hats on your feet."
「帽子を足に履いちゃダメ」なんて
言う必要はありません
02:10
What they have to tell you is,
"Can you wear hats inside?
伝える必要があるのは
「帽子を部屋でかぶっていいか?」
02:13
Who gets to wear a hat?
「かぶっていいのはどんな人か?」
02:16
What are the kinds of hats
you get to wear?"
「かぶっていいのはどんな帽子か?」
といったことですよね
02:18
Those are more of the second kind
of grammar,
これらは第2の文法と
呼ぶべきでしょう
02:21
which linguists often call usage,
as opposed to grammar.
言語学者はこれを「用法」と呼んで
文法と区別することがあります
02:23
Now, sometimes people use this kind of
rules-based grammar
ところで 人はこういう
規則のような文法を使って
02:28
to discourage people from making up words.
新たな言葉を作るのを
阻止しようとすることがあります
02:32
And I think that is, well, stupid.
でもそれは愚かなことだと
私は思います
02:35
So, for example,
people are always telling you,
だって誰だって
いつもこう言うでしょう
02:37
"Be creative, make new music, do art,
invent things, science and technology."
「創造性豊かに 新しい音楽や芸術を作り
いろいろな科学技術を発明しよう」
02:40
But when it comes to
words, they're like,
でも言葉となると
こう言うのです
02:46
"Don't! No. Creativity stops right here,
whippersnappers. Give it a rest."
「やめろ! もう創造はやめだ
若造ども 黙ってろ」って
02:48
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:53
But that makes no sense to me.
でもそんな態度は理解できません
02:54
Words are great.
We should have more of them.
言葉は素晴らしいし
もっとたくさんあってもいいはずです
02:56
I want you to make
as many new words as possible.
だから新しい言葉を
どんどん作って欲しいんです
02:58
And I'm going to tell you six ways that
you can use to make new words in English.
皆さんに新しい英語の言葉を作る
6つの方法をお教えしましょう
03:02
The first way is the simplest way.
1つ目の方法は一番簡単です
03:07
Basically, steal them from other
languages.
他の言語から盗ってくるんです
03:09
["Go rob other people"]
(Laughter)
[他人の物を盗め]
(笑)
03:11
Linguists call this borrowing,
言語学では「借用」と呼びますが
03:15
but we never give the words back ,
so I'm just going to be honest
借りた言葉を返すことはないので
ここは率直に
03:17
and call it stealing.
「盗用」と呼びましょう
03:20
We usually take words for things
that we like, like delicious food.
私たちは大抵 好きな物
例えば美味しい物の名前をとります
03:22
We took "kumquat" from Chinese,
we took "caramel" from French.
中国語の キンカン(kumquat)や
フランス語の カラメル(caramel)がそうです
03:26
We also take words
for cool things like "ninja," right?
カッコいいものの名前もとります
「ニンジャ」がそうです
03:29
We took that from Japanese,
これは日本語です
03:32
which is kind of a cool trick because
ninjas are hard to steal from.
忍者から盗むのは大変ですから
すごい技ですよね
03:34
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:37
So another way that you
can make words in English
英語で言葉を作る
もう1つの方法は
03:39
is by squishing two
other English words together.
2つの英単語を
ギュッとまとめることです
03:42
This is called compounding.
これは「複合」と言います
03:45
Words in English are like Lego:
英単語はレゴのようです
03:47
If you use enough force,
you can put any two of them together.
しっかり力を入れれば
どれでもくっつけられます
03:49
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:52
We do this all the time in English:
英語ではよくあることです
03:54
Words like "heartbroken," "bookworm,"
"sandcastle" all are compounds.
傷心の(heartbroken) 読書家(bookworm)
砂の城(sandcastle)は どれも複合語です
03:56
So go ahead and make words like
"duckface," just don't make duckface.
アヒルみたいな口をするくらいなら
アヒル口(duckface)という言葉を作っては?
04:02
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:05
Another way that you can make words
in English is kind of like compounding,
次の言葉を作る方法は
複合にちょっと似ていますが
04:07
but instead you use so much force
when you squish the words together
単語をまとめる時に
力を入れ過ぎたせいで
04:11
that some parts fall off.
一部が欠けてしまう場合です
04:16
So these are blend words,
こういう言葉を「混成語」と言います
04:18
like "brunch" is a blend
of "breakfast" and "lunch."
例えば ブランチ(blunch)は
朝食(breakfast)と 昼食(lunch)の混成語で
04:20
"Motel" is a blend of "motor" and "hotel."
モーテル(motel)は 車(motor)と
ホテル(hotel)の混成語です
04:24
Who here knew that "motel"
was a blend word?
モーテルが混成語だと
知っていた人はいますか?
04:26
Yeah, that word is so old in English
この単語は歴史が古いので
04:29
that lots of people don't know that
there are parts missing.
欠けた部分があると
気づかない人も多いんです
04:31
"Edutainment" is a blend
of "education" and "entertainment."
エデュテイメント(edutainment)は
教育(education)と 娯楽(entertainment)
04:34
And of course, "electrocute" is a
blend of "electric" and "execute."
感電死させる(electrocute)は
電気(electric)と 殺す(execute)です
04:38
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:44
You can also make words
by changing how they operate.
さらに言葉の働きを
変えることもできます
04:46
This is called functional shift.
「機能推移」と言って
04:49
You take a word that acts
as one part of speech,
ある品詞として振舞う言葉を
04:50
and you change it into another
part of speech.
別の品詞に変えることです
04:53
Okay, who here knew that "friend"
hasn't always been a verb?
“friend” が「友だちになる」という
動詞ではなかったことを知ってました?
04:55
"Friend" used to be noun
and then we verbed it.
昔 “friend” は名詞だったんです
その後 動詞になったのです
05:00
Almost any word in English can be verbed.
英語では大体どの単語でも
動詞化できます
05:05
You can also take adjectives
and make them into nouns.
形容詞を名詞にすることも可能です
05:08
"Commercial" used to be an adjective
and now it's a noun.
コマーシャル(commercial)は
昔は形容詞でしたが今は名詞です
05:10
And of course, you can "green" things.
緑色の(green)も
「緑化する」という動詞として使えます
05:14
Another way to make words
in English is back-formation.
言葉を作るさらに別の方法が
「逆成」です
05:17
You can take a word and you can
kind of squish it down a little bit.
言葉を取り上げて
少し手を加えるのです
05:20
So for example, in English we had the word
"editor" before we had the word "edit."
例えば英語では 編集者(editor)から
編集する(edit)ができました
05:23
"Edit" was formed from "editor."
動詞“edit”の元になったのが
“editor”なんです
05:28
Sometimes these back-formations
sound a little silly:
こういった逆成は
少し変に聞こえることもあります
05:30
Bulldozers bulldoze, butlers butle
and burglers burgle.
ブルドーザー(bulldozer)は 整地し(bulldoze)
執事(butler)が 仕え(butle)
05:33
(Laughter)
泥棒(burglar)は
泥棒に入る(burgle)のですから(笑)
05:37
Another way to make words in English
もう1つの言葉の作り方は
05:39
is to take the first letters of something
and squish them together.
最初の文字をとって
組み合わせることです
05:41
So National Aeronautics and Space
Administration becomes NASA.
アメリカ航空宇宙局は
NASAになります
05:44
And of course you can do this
with anything, OMG!
どんな言葉も同じようにできます
「なんてこと!(OMG!)」みたいにね
05:47
So it doesn't matter how silly
the words are.
言葉がどんなにおかしくても
関係ありません
05:50
They can be really good words of English.
どれもちゃんとした英語の単語です
05:56
"Absquatulate" is a perfectly
good word of English.
逃げる(absquatulate) は
立派な英単語です
05:58
"Mugwump" is a perfectly
good word of English.
日和見主義者(mugwump) も
立派な英単語です
06:02
So the words don't have have to sound
normal, they can sound really silly.
言葉は自然に聞こえなくてもいい
おかしくたっていいんです
06:05
Why should you make words?
では なぜ言葉を作るべきなのか?
06:10
You should make words because every word
その理由は すべての言葉が
06:12
is a chance to express your idea and get
your meaning across.
自分のアイデアや意図を
伝える機会だからです
06:14
And new words grab people's attention.
新しい言葉は人の注目を集めます
06:18
They get people to focus on what
you're saying
それで人々はあなたの話に注目し
06:21
and that gives you a better chance to get
your meaning across.
おかげで自分の意図を伝える
チャンスが増えるのです
06:24
A lot of people
on this stage today have said,
今日は この場で
多くの人が言っています
06:27
"In the future, you can do this,
「将来 みなさんは
06:30
you can help with this, you can
help us explore, you can help us invent."
あれをしたり これを支援したり
探求や発明を手伝えるようになる」って
06:31
You can make a new word right now.
でも新しい言葉なら
今すぐ作れます
06:35
English has no age limit.
英語に年齢制限はありません
06:37
Go ahead, start making words today,
さあ今日から言葉を作りましょう
06:39
send them to me, and I will put them
in my online dictionary, Wordnik.
私に送ってくれれば
オンライン辞書Wordnikに載せますよ
06:41
Thank you so much.
どうもありがとう
06:45
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:46
Translated by Kazunori Akashi
Reviewed by Reiko O Bovee

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About the Speaker:

Erin McKean - Dictionary editor
As the co-founder of Reverb Technologies, the maker of the online dictionary Wordnik, Erin McKean is reshaping how we interact with language itself.

Why you should listen

Erin McKean's job as a lexicographer involves living in a constant state of research. She searches high and low -- from books to blogs, newspapers to cocktail parties -- for new words, new meanings for old words, or signs that old words have fallen out of use. In June of this year, she involved us all in the search by launching Wordnik, an online dictionary that houses all the traditionally accepted words and definitions, but also asks users to contribute new words and new uses for old words. Wordnik pulls real-time examples of word usage from Twitter, image representations from Flickr along with many more non-traditional, and highly useful, features. 

Before Wordnik, McKean was one of the youngest editors of the New Oxford American Dictionary. She continues to serve as the editor of the language quarterly  Verbatim ("language and linguistics for the layperson since 1974") and is the author of multiple books, including That's Amore and the entire Weird and Wonderful Words series. All that, and she maintains multiple blogs, too: McKean is the keen observationalist behind A Dress a Day and Dictionary Evangelist. Is there anything she can't do? Surprisingly, she is notoriously bad at Scrabble.  

 

 

More profile about the speaker
Erin McKean | Speaker | TED.com