sponsored links
TEDGlobal 2014

Asha de Vos: Why you should care about whale poo

アーシャ・デ・ボス: なぜ鯨の糞が大切なのか

October 6, 2014

「鯨は驚くほど重要な仕事をしています」と海洋生物学者のアーシャ・デ・ボスは話します。「この巨大な生物は生態系エンジニアで、まず糞によって海を健康で安定した状態にするのです。」鯨が海の、ひいては地球の安定と健康の維持に役立っているという見過ごされがちな役割について、TEDフェローであるデ・ボスから学びましょう。

Asha de Vos - Protector of whales
Dedicated to increasing awareness about Northern Indian Ocean blue whales, Asha de Vos is also committed to inspiring the next generation of marine biologists. Full bio

sponsored links
Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
In the 1600s, there were so many
right whales in Cape Cod Bay
1600年代 アメリカ東海岸の沖にある
ケープコッド湾には
00:12
off the east coast of the U.S.
湾の端から端まで
00:16
that apparently you could
walk across their backs
クジラの背伝いに歩いて渡れるほど
00:18
from one end of the bay to the other.
多くタイセイヨウセミクジラがいました
00:22
Today, they number in the hundreds,
and they're endangered.
今日では数百頭まで減少し
絶滅が危ぶまれています
00:25
Like them, many species of whales
saw their numbers drastically reduced
タイセイヨウセミクジラのように
200年に渡る捕鯨で
00:28
by 200 years of whaling,
多くの鯨の種類が激減しました
00:33
where they were hunted and killed
for their whale meat, oil and whale bone.
鯨肉、鯨油、鯨骨のために
狩猟されたのです
00:35
We only have whales in our waters today
70年代のセーブ・ザ・ホエールズの活動により
00:42
because of the Save the Whales
movement of the '70s.
今日でも海に鯨がいるのです
00:45
It was instrumental in stopping
commercial whaling,
商業捕鯨を阻止したことは有益で
00:48
and was built on the idea that
if we couldn't save whales,
「鯨を守れなかったら
何を守れるのか?」という
00:52
what could we save?
概念を創りました
00:56
It was ultimately a test
of our political ability
環境破壊を阻止するため
00:57
to halt environmental destruction.
私たちの政治的手腕が試されました
01:00
So in the early '80s, there was
a ban on commercial whaling
80年代初頭 反捕鯨運動により
01:04
that came into force
as a result of this campaign.
商業捕鯨が禁止になりました
01:08
Whales in our waters are still
low in numbers, however,
しかし 海の鯨の数は
依然として少ないままです
01:11
because they do face a range
of other human-induced threats.
他の人為的脅威にも
直面しているからです
01:14
Unfortunately, many people still think
that whale conservationists like myself
残念なことに 私のような
鯨の保護活動家は多くの人から
01:19
do what we do only because these creatures
are charismatic and beautiful.
鯨のカリスマ的な美しさゆえに
活動していると思われがちです
01:26
This is actually a disservice,
これはひどい誤解です
01:33
because whales are ecosystem engineers.
クジラが生態系のエンジニアだからなのです
01:35
They help maintain the stability
and health of the oceans,
鯨は海の安定と健康を護り
01:40
and even provide services
to human society.
人間社会に恩恵を
もたらしているのです
01:44
So let's talk about why
saving whales is critical
それでは 海の回復力にとって
鯨の保護がなぜ重要なのかを
01:49
to the resiliency of the oceans.
お話ししていきます
01:53
It boils down to two main things:
それは二つに要約できます
01:56
whale poop and rotting carcasses.
「蔵の糞」と「腐敗した死骸」です
02:01
As whales dive to the depths to feed
and come up to the surface to breathe,
鯨は餌を求めて海中深く潜り
呼吸のために海面に上がってくる時
02:04
they actually release these
enormous fecal plumes.
実際巨大な帯上の糞を出すのです
02:09
This whale pump, as it's called,
いわゆる この鯨のポンプで実際
02:13
actually brings essential limiting
nutrients from the depths
限りある必須栄養素を
深海からプランクトンが成長する
02:15
to the surface waters where they
stimulate the growth of phytoplankton,
海面に持ってくることで
02:18
which forms the base
of all marine food chains.
海洋生物の食物連鎖の基盤
を作るのです
02:22
So really, having more whales
in the oceans pooping
だから 海に暮らす
より多くの鯨が糞をすれば
02:26
is really beneficial
to the entire ecosystem.
生態系全体が恩恵を受けるのです
02:28
Whales are also known to undertake some
of the longest migrations of all mammals.
鯨はすべての哺乳類の中でも
一番長い距離を回遊することでも知られています
02:33
Gray whales off America
migrate 16,000 kilometers
アメリカ沖のコククジラは
豊かな餌場と餌の少ない出産、育児場所の間―
02:38
between productive feeding areas and less
productive calving, or birthing, areas
1万6千キロを回遊し
毎年戻ってきます
02:44
and back every year.
1万6千キロを回遊し
毎年戻ってきます
02:50
As they do so, they transport fertilizer
in the form of their feces
鯨が回遊するたびに
排泄物という肥料を
02:53
from places that have it
to places that need it.
たくさんある海から 必要とする海に
運ぶわけです
02:58
So clearly, whales are really
important in nutrient cycling,
ですから 明らかに
海での水平方向と深さ方向の―
03:02
both horizontally and vertically,
through the oceans.
栄養循環において
クジラはとても重要なのです
03:05
But what's really cool is that they're
also really important after they're dead.
しかし とてもカッコいいのは
死んでからも重要なことです
03:09
Whale carcasses are some of
the largest form of detritus
鯨の死骸は最大級の有機堆積物となり
03:16
to fall from the ocean's surface,
and they're called whale fall.
海面から沈むと
鯨骨生物群集と呼ばれます
03:20
As these carcasses sink,
海底に沈んだ死骸は
03:25
they provide a feast
to some 400-odd species,
ウナギに似た 体から粘液を出す
ヌタウナギなど
03:27
including the eel-shaped, slime-producing
hagfish.
400種に上る奇妙な生物の
ご馳走になるのです
03:30
So over the 200 years of whaling,
だから200年に渡る捕鯨は
03:34
when we were busy killing and removing
these carcasses from the oceans,
鯨を殺し 海から死骸を奪い
03:36
we likely altered the rate and geographic
distribution of these whale falls
深海に沈むべき鯨骨生物群集の
03:41
that would descend into deep oceans,
発生頻度や地理的分布を乱したことでしょう
03:47
and as a result, probably led
to a number of extinctions
その結果
餌として鯨の死骸に特化し
03:49
of species that were most specialized
依存した種を幾つも
03:53
and dependent on these carcasses
for their survival.
絶滅に追い込んだことでしょう
03:55
Whale carcasses are also known
to transport about 190,000 tons of carbon,
鯨の死骸は およそ 19万トンの二酸化炭素を
大気中から深海へ
03:59
which is the equivalent of that produced
運ぶことが知られています
04:07
by 80,000 cars per year
この量は 8 万台の車が1年間に排出する
04:09
from the atmosphere to the deep oceans,
量と同じです
04:12
and the deep oceans
are what we call "carbon sinks,"
そのため 深海は
「二酸化炭素吸収源」であり
04:15
because they trap and hold
excess carbon from the atmosphere,
大気中の過剰な二酸化炭素を吸収して
04:19
and therefore help
to delay global warming.
地球温暖化を遅らせるのです
04:23
Sometimes these carcasses
also wash up on beaches
時折 鯨の死骸が浜辺に打ち上げられると
04:27
and provide a meal to a number
of predatory species on land.
陸上の肉食系生物のエサとなるのです
04:31
The 200 years of whaling
was clearly detrimental
200年に渡る捕鯨の弊害は明らかで
04:36
and caused a reduction
in the populations of whales
60%から90%の鯨の頭数の
04:40
between 60 to 90 percent.
減少につながりました
04:43
Clearly, the Save the Whales movement
セーブ・ザ・ホエールズの活動は
04:46
was instrumental in preventing
commercial whaling from going on,
明らかに商業捕鯨の禁止には有益でしたが
04:48
but we need to revise this.
これを見直す時期に来たのです
04:52
We need to address the more modern,
pressing problems that these whales face
今日 鯨が海で直面している
現代の差し迫った問題について
04:55
in our waters today.
取り組む必要があるのです
05:00
Amongst other things, we need to stop them
その他にも鯨が餌場を通る
05:02
from getting plowed down by container
ships when they're in their feeding areas,
コンテナ船と衝突するのを防いだり
05:04
and stop them from getting
entangled in fishing nets
海を移動している内に
05:09
as they float around in the ocean.
漁網が絡まないようにする
必要があります
05:11
We also need to learn to contextualize
our conservation messages,
私たちの保護のメッセージをいかに状況に
合わせるか考える必要があります
05:14
so people really understand the true
ecosystem value of these creatures.
そうすれば 鯨がもたらす
生態系の真の価値を理解してもらえるのです
05:18
So, let's save the whales again,
さあ 再び鯨を保護しましょう
05:25
but this time, let's not just
do it for their sake.
ただ今回は ただ鯨のためだけではありません
05:29
Let's also do it for ours.
我々のためでもあるのです
05:34
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
05:36
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:38
Translator:Masako Kigami
Reviewer:Claire Ghyselen

sponsored links

Asha de Vos - Protector of whales
Dedicated to increasing awareness about Northern Indian Ocean blue whales, Asha de Vos is also committed to inspiring the next generation of marine biologists.

Why you should listen
Asha de Vos is a marine biologist and TED Fellow who specializes in researching and working with marine mammals. She has degrees from the Universities of St. Andrews and Oxford, and her PhD from the University of Western Australia. She oversees the Sri Lankan Blue Whale Project, the first long-term study on blue whales within the northern Indian Ocean.

A Duke University Global Fellow in Marine Conservation, de Vos previously worked at the International Union for the Conservation of Nature while she has also consulted with the National Aquatic Research Agency. She was a panelist at the Rio+20 summit in Rio de Janeiro in 2012.
sponsored links

If you need translations, you can install "Google Translate" extension into your Chrome Browser.
Furthermore, you can change playback rate by installing "Video Speed Controller" extension.

Data provided by TED.

This website is owned and operated by Tokyo English Network.
The developer's blog is here.