09:35
TEDxCERN

Topher White: What can save the rainforest? Your used cell phone

トーファー・ホワイト: リサイクル携帯電話が熱帯雨林を救う

Filmed:

熱帯雨林から聞こえてくるのは、鳥のさえずり、セミの鳴き声、テナガザルのはしゃぎ声などです。でも、背後で絶えず鳴っているのは、違法伐採者のチェーンソーの音です。エンジニアのトーファーは、違法伐採者を食い止めるための、シンプルで広範囲に使える方法について情報をシェアします。使うのは使い古しの携帯電話です。

- Conservation technologist
Through his startup Rainforest Connection, Topher White transforms used cell phones into guardians of the rainforest. Full bio

(Rainforest noises)
(熱帯雨林の音)
00:12
In the summer of 2011,
as a tourist,
2011年の夏 私は観光で
00:21
I visited the rainforests of Borneo
for the very first time,
初めて ボルネオの熱帯雨林を
訪れました
00:25
and as you might imagine,
ご想像の通り
00:29
it was the overwhelming sounds
of the forest that struck me the most.
森の中の圧倒されるような音に
何よりもびっくりしました
00:31
There's this constant cacophony of noise.
こんな風に
ずっと音が鳴り響いているのです
00:36
Some things actually do stick out.
中には目立つ音があります
00:39
For example, this here is a big bird,
a rhinoceros hornbill.
例えば これはサイチョウという
大きな鳥です
00:42
This buzzing is a cicada.
これはセミの鳴き声です
00:46
This is a family of gibbons.
これはテナガザルの群れです
00:51
It's actually singing to each other
over a great distance.
遠くから互いに歌を交わしている
テナガザルの声です
00:54
The place where this was recorded
was in fact a gibbon reserve,
これを録音したのは
テナガザルの保護区だったので
00:59
which is why you can hear so many of them,
沢山のテナガザルの声が聞こえます
01:02
but in fact the most important noise that
was coming out of the forest that time
でも実は このとき森の中から
一番重要な音が出ていることに
01:04
was one that I didn't notice,
私は気づいていませんでした
01:09
and in fact nobody there
had actually noticed it.
私だけでなく
他の誰も気づきませんでした
01:10
So, as I said, this was a gibbon reserve.
ご存知の通り
ここはテナガザルの保護区です
01:14
They spend most of their time
rehabilitating gibbons,
職員は1日の大半を
テナガザルの保護に費やしますが
01:16
but they also have
to spend a lot of their time
周辺の違法伐採から森を守ることにも
01:19
protecting their area from illegal logging
that takes place on the side.
多くの時間を取られています
01:21
And so if we take the sound of the forest
森の音から
01:25
and we actually turn down the gibbons,
the insects, and the rest,
テナガザルや昆虫などの音を
取り去ってみましょう
01:27
in the background, the entire time,
in recordings you heard,
背景でずっと鳴っている音があります
01:31
was the sound of a chainsaw
at great distance.
遠くから聞こえる
チェーンソーの音です
01:34
They had three full-time guards
who were posted around this sanctuary
この保護区にはフルタイムの
森林警備隊員が3人配置されています
01:38
whose job was in fact
to guard against illegal logging,
任務は違法伐採を取り締まることです
01:42
and one day, we went walking,
again as tourists, out into the forest,
ある日 旅行者として
もう一度森の中を訪れると
01:46
and within five minutes' walk,
5分も歩かないうちに
01:50
we stumbled upon somebody
who was just sawing a tree down,
伐採現場に出くわしました
01:52
five minutes' walk, a few hundred meters
from the ranger station.
歩いて5分 警備隊の詰所から
数百メートルのところでした
01:55
They hadn't been able
to hear the chainsaws,
でも チェーンソーの音は届きませんでした
01:58
because as you heard,
the forest is very, very loud.
理由は 先ほどお聞かせしたように
大きな森の音に消されたからです
02:01
It struck me as quite unacceptable
that in this modern time,
びっくりして 受け入れ難かったです
この現代において
02:04
just a few hundred meters away
from a ranger station in a sanctuary,
保護区の詰所から
たった数百メートルで発生する
02:08
that in fact nobody could hear it when
someone who has a chainsaw gets fired up.
チェーンソーの猛烈な音が
誰にも聞こえないなんて と思いました
02:13
It sounds impossible,
but in fact, it was quite true.
まさかそんなはずはないと思えますが
事実です
02:17
So how do we stop illegal logging?
どうやって違法伐採を食い止めるか?
02:21
It's really tempting, as an engineer,
always to come up with a high-tech,
エンジニアとしては超クールな
ハイテクの解決策を編み出したいと
02:23
super-crazy high-tech solution,
常々思っていますが
02:26
but in fact, you're in the rainforest.
でも 現場は熱帯雨林の真っ只中なんです
02:28
It has to be simple,
it has to be scalable,
シンプルで広範囲に利用できる
解決策が必要です
02:30
and so what we also noticed
while were there was that
私たちは森の中に必要なものが
02:33
everything we needed was already there.
全部そろっていることに気づきました
02:36
We could build a system
that would allow us to stop this
既存のものを使って
02:38
using what's already there.
違法伐採を阻止できそうでした
02:41
Who was there? What was
already in the forest?
では既存のものとは?
02:43
Well, we had people.
まず 人材です
02:45
We had this group there that was
dedicated, three full-time guards,
森林警備を専門とする
フルタイムのスタッフが3人
02:46
that was dedicated to go and stop it,
いつでも現場に
駆けつけられる状態でした
02:50
but they just needed to know
what was happening out in the forest.
でもまずは
伐採に気づかなければなりません
02:51
The real surprise, this is the big one,
そして意外にも重要なことがわかりました
02:54
was that there was connectivity
out in the forest.
なんと 森の中なのに
ネットに接続できたのです
02:56
There was cell phone service
way out in the middle of nowhere.
森のど真ん中の 誰もいないところで
携帯電話が受信できました
02:59
We're talking hundreds of kilometers
from the nearest road,
最寄りの道路まで数百キロもあるのに
電話が通じたんです
03:02
there's certainly no electricity,
but they had very good cell phone service,
電気もないのに
携帯の電波の感度は良好でした
03:05
these people in the towns
were on Facebook all the time,
町にいる人はいつもSNSを見て
03:08
they're surfing the web on their phones,
携帯でネットを閲覧しています
03:11
and this sort of got me thinking
that in fact it would be possible
それで 私はひょっとしたら
できるんじゃないかなと思ったんです
03:13
to use the sounds of the forest,
森の中の音を使って
03:16
pick up the sounds
of chainsaws programmatically,
人間の耳には聞こえない
03:18
because people can't hear them,
チェーンソーの音をアプリで拾って
03:20
and send an alert.
警告を送るシステムを作る
03:22
But you have to have a device
to go up in the trees.
でもそのためには
デバイスを木に取り付けなければ
03:24
So if we can use some device
to listen to the sounds of the forest,
なんらかのデバイスで 森の音を拾って
03:26
connect to the cell phone
network that's there,
既存の携帯ネットワークに接続し
03:30
and send an alert to people on the ground,
地上の人間に警告を送ることができれば
03:32
perhaps we could have a solution
to this issue for them.
森林の違法伐採を阻止できるかもしれません
03:34
But let's take a moment
to talk about saving the rainforest,
でも その前に熱帯雨林の保護について
話したいと思います
03:38
because it's something that we've
definitely all heard about forever.
というのは 雨林の保護について
ずいぶん前から言われていて
03:41
People in my generation
have heard about saving the rainforest
私の世代は 子供のころから
03:45
since we were kids,
熱帯雨林保護について
03:48
and it seems that the message
has never changed:
同じようなメッセージを
聞かされてきました
03:50
We've got to save the rainforest,
it's super urgent,
「熱帯雨林の保護は緊急の課題だ
03:52
this many football fields
have been destroyed yesterday.
昨日1日で サッカー場何個分もの
森林が破壊された
03:54
and yet here we are today,
about half of the rainforest remains,
「いや 緊急どころか まだ熱帯雨林は
半分も残っているじゃないか」
03:57
and we have potentially more urgent
problems like climate change.
「だけど もっと緊急な
気候変動などの問題が深刻化している」と
04:00
But in fact, this is the little-known fact
that I didn't realize at the time:
にもかかわらず 私が当時
ほとんど認識していなかった事実は
04:05
Deforestation accounts
for more greenhouse gas
森林破壊が地球温暖化に与える影響が
04:09
than all of the world's planes,
trains, cars, trucks and ships combined.
世界中の飛行機 列車 乗用車 トラック 船舶
全部よりも大きいことです
04:12
It's the second highest contributor
to climate change.
森林破壊は 気候変動の2番目の要因です
04:16
Also, according to Interpol,
またインターポールによると
04:18
as much as 90 percent of the logging
that takes place in the rainforest
熱帯雨林で行われる伐採の90%が
04:21
is illegal logging,
like the illegal logging that we saw.
私たちが見たのと同じ
違法伐採だということです
04:25
So if we can help people in the forest
enforce the rules that are there,
ですからもし森林法を
徹底することができれば
04:29
then in fact we could eat heavily
into this 17 percent
温暖化の原因の17%をなくすことができ
04:33
and potentially have a major impact
in the short term.
短期間で大きな成果となるでしょう
04:37
It might just be the cheapest,
fastest way to fight climate change.
これが実現すれば 気候変動の問題を
手っ取り早く安上がりに解決できるかも
04:39
And so here's the system that we imagine.
私たちの構想するシステムを
紹介しましょう
04:44
It looks super high tech.
一見 超ハイテクに見えます
04:46
The moment a sound of a chainsaw
is heard in the forest,
森の中でチェーンソーの音がした瞬間に
04:48
the device picks up the sound
of the chainsaw,
デバイスでその音を拾って
04:50
it sends an alert through the standard
GSM network that's already there
既存の標準GSMネットワークで警報を送り
04:52
to a ranger in the field
森林警備隊に知らせる
04:56
who can in fact show up in real time
and stop the logging.
警備隊が現場に駆けつけて
伐採を阻止するのです
04:58
It's no more about going out
and finding a tree that's been cut.
現場に乗り込んだのに
伐採後ということはなくなります
05:01
It's not about seeing
a tree from a satellite
遠くにある衛星から 伐採現場を
05:05
in an area that's been clear cut,
指をくわえて見るだけでもありません
05:07
it's about real-time intervention.
リアルタイムで介入するのです
05:09
So I said it was the cheapest
and fastest way to do it,
一番安上がりで手っ取り早いと
言いましたが
05:11
but in fact, actually, as you saw,
they weren't able to do it,
動作するかどうかも
05:14
so it may not be so cheap and fast.
安く早くできるかもわかりません
05:17
But if the devices in the trees
were actually cell phones,
ところが 木に取り付けるデバイスが
携帯電話であれば
05:19
it could be pretty cheap.
コストダウンは可能でした
05:22
Cell phones are thrown away
by the hundreds of millions every year,
毎年 数億台の携帯電話が処分されます
05:24
hundreds of millions in the U.S. alone,
アメリカだけでですよ
05:28
not counting the rest of the world,
which of course we should do,
アメリカ国外で処分される数を入れたら
もっとになります
05:30
but in fact, cell phones are great.
携帯電話は捨てたものではありません
05:33
They're full of sensors.
まずセンサーが満載です
05:36
They can listen
to the sounds of the forest.
チェーンソーの音をしっかり拾えます
05:37
We do have to protect them.
耐久性を上げなければなりません
05:39
We have to put them in this box
that you see here,
こんな風に 箱に入れ
05:41
and we do have to power them.
電源の確保も必要です
05:43
Powering them is one of the greater
engineering challenges
電源の確保には 高い技術が必要で
05:45
that we had to deal with,
エンジニアの課題です
05:47
because powering a cell phone
under a tree canopy,
木が茂る森の中で
携帯電話の電源を確保することは
05:49
any sort of solar power
under a tree canopy,
なんとかして 木陰で太陽光発電をすることは
05:51
was an as-yet-unsolved problem,
未解決課題でした
05:54
and that's this unique
solar panel design that you see here,
そこでこのユニークな
太陽光発電パネルを開発しました
05:56
which in fact is built also from recycled
byproducts of an industrial process.
実はこれも パネル製造の副産物を
リサイクルしています
05:58
These are strips that are cut down.
長い紐状のものを切って作ります
06:03
So this is me putting it all together
組み立て現場です
06:05
in my parents' garage, actually.
両親の家のガレージです
06:09
Thanks very much to them
for allowing me to do that.
場所を提供してくれた
両親に感謝です
06:11
As you can see,
this is a device up in a tree.
ご覧ください デバイスを
木に取り付けたところです
06:13
What you can see from here, perhaps,
is that they are pretty well obscured
ここから見ると 森の木陰に
06:18
up in the tree canopy at a distance.
うまく隠れていますね
06:21
That's important, because although
they are able to hear chainsaw noises
これはとても大事です なぜなら
たとえチェーンソーの音を聞き取れても
06:23
up to a kilometer in the distance,
1キロ先の音が聞き取れても
06:27
allowing them to cover
about three square kilometers,
約3平方キロメートルの範囲をカバーできても
06:28
if someone were to take them,
it would make the area unprotected.
誰かが取り外してしまったら
このエリアの保護ができなくなります
06:31
So does it actually work?
ちゃんと動作するでしょうか?
06:35
Well, to test it,
we took it back to Indonesia,
動作確認のため
またインドネシアに行きました
06:38
not the same place, but another place,
同じ場所ではなく別の
06:41
to another gibbon reserve
テナガザルの保護区で
06:43
that was threatened daily
by illegal logging.
違法伐採に悩まされている地域です
06:44
On the very second day, it picked up
illegal chainsaw noises.
開始から2日目に 違法伐採の
チェーンソーの音を感知しました
06:48
We were able to get a real-time alert.
リアルタイムで警報を受信できました
06:52
I got an email on my phone.
私は携帯メールを受信しました
06:54
Actually, we had just climbed the tree.
Everyone had just gotten back down.
我々は木登りを終えて
地上に降りて
06:55
All these guys are smoking cigarettes,
みんなでタバコを
吸っているところでした
06:59
and then I get an email,
and they all quiet down,
そこにメールを受信し
他のみんなも聞き耳を立てたんです
07:01
and in fact you can hear the chainsaw
すると チェーンソーの音が聞こえました
07:04
really, really faint in the background,
ごくかすかな音でした
07:06
but no one had noticed it
until that moment.
このときまで誰も気づいていませんでした
07:08
And so then we took off
to actually stop these loggers.
そして 伐採者を阻止しに現場へ向かいました
07:11
I was pretty nervous.
かなり緊張しました
07:14
This is the moment where we've actually
arrived close to where the loggers are.
これは伐採者に近づいたところ
07:15
This is the moment where you can see
where I'm actually regretting
このとき私はこれまでの努力を
07:20
perhaps the entire endeavor.
後悔しているところです
07:23
I'm not really sure what's on
the other side of this hill.
私は 山の向こうで何が起きているか
不安がっています
07:25
That guy's much braver than I am.
でも相方は私よりも勇敢なので
07:27
But he went, so I had to go, walking up,
彼が行くなら
私も行かなければならない
07:29
and in fact, he made it over the hill,
というわけで
彼は山の向こうにたどり着き
07:34
and interrupted the loggers in the act.
伐採者を止めることができたのです
07:36
For them, it was such a surprise --
伐採者にしてみれば
びっくりです
07:39
they had never, ever
been interrupted before --
今までこんな形で中断されたことがなく
07:41
that it was such an impressive
event for them,
衝撃だったようです
07:43
that we've heard from our partners
they have not been back since.
これ以降 伐採者は戻ってこなかったそうです
07:45
They were, in fact, great guys.
実は 伐採者たちのおかげで
07:48
They showed us how
the entire operation works,
このシステム全体の動作を
目の当たりにしました
07:50
and what they really convinced us
on the spot was that
現場で伐採者と遭遇したことで
07:52
if you can show up
in real time and stop people,
リアルタイムで現場に入って阻止できれば
07:55
it's enough of a deterrent
they won't come back.
伐採者は怖がって二度と
やって来ないと確信できたのです
07:57
So --
だから
08:01
Thank you. (Applause)
ありがとうございます(拍手)
08:03
Word of this spread, possibly
because we told a lot of people,
いろんな人に話して
このことが くちコミで広がり
08:09
and in fact, then some really
amazing stuff started to happen.
すごいことが起こりはじめました
08:13
People from around the world
started to send us emails, phone calls.
世界中の人から メールや電話が
集まってきました
08:16
What we saw was that people
throughout Asia,
なんと アジア全域
08:20
people throughout Africa,
people throughout South America,
アフリカ全域
南米全域から
08:22
they told us that they could use it too,
このシステムは使えると
言ってくれました
08:25
and what's most important,
重要なのは
08:27
what we'd found that
we thought might be exceptional,
特別かもしれないと思っていたのですが
08:28
in the forest there was
pretty good cell phone service.
森林の中で通信が良好だということです
08:31
That was not exceptional, we were told,
そして当然 森林は周辺部が
08:33
and that particularly is on the periphery
of the forests that are most under threat.
もっとも違法伐採の脅威にさらされていたのです
08:35
And then something
really amazing happened,
さらにすごいことに
08:39
which was that people started sending us
their own old cell phones.
人々が自分の古い携帯電話を
寄付してくれたんです
08:41
So in fact what we have now is a system
こうやって今や私たちが
手にしたシステムは
08:45
where we can use people on the ground,
people who are already there,
地上の人材、既存の人材を使って
08:47
who can both improve
and use the existing connectivity,
既存のネット接続サービスを
使ったり改良を加えたりしながら
08:50
and we're using old cell phones
that are being sent to us
世界中の人が送ってくれた
08:53
by people from around the world
中古の携帯電話を使っています
08:56
that want their phones to be doing
something else in their afterlife,
自分たちの古い携帯電話が
もう一度何かの役に立てば嬉しいと
08:57
so to speak.
そんな感じです
09:01
And if the rest of the device
can be completely recycled,
もし残りのデバイスに全部
リサイクル品を使うことができれば
09:01
then we believe it's
an entirely upcycled device.
まさに リサイクルの上をいく
「アップサイクル」です
09:04
So again, this didn't come
because of any sort of high-tech solution.
だから このシステムはなんら
ハイテク由来のシステムではないんです
09:07
It just came from using
what's already there,
これは既存の技術だけを使っています
09:11
and I'm thoroughly convinced
that if it's not phones,
私が確信していることは
携帯電話に限らず
09:13
that there's always
going to be enough there
いつも既に材料はそろっていて
09:16
that you can build similar solutions
誰だって同様に
09:18
that can be very effective
in new contexts.
新しい使い方で効果的な発明が
できるのです
09:20
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
09:22
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:24
Translated by Hiroko Kawano
Reviewed by Takafusa Kitazume

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About the Speaker:

Topher White - Conservation technologist
Through his startup Rainforest Connection, Topher White transforms used cell phones into guardians of the rainforest.

Why you should listen

In 2012, Topher White founded Rainforest Connection, a startup which converts recycled cell-phones into solar-powered listening devices to monitor and protect remote areas of the rainforest. Now an established NGO, Rainforest Connection has helped stop illegal logging and poaching operations in Sumatra, and the system is being expanded to three more rainforest reserves in Indonesia, the Amazon and Africa.

With a background in physics and engineering, White worked as web chief of ITER and co-founded Enthuse, a sports engagement and mobile rewards platform. For Rainforest Connection, he’s fashioned a simple device made of discarded cell phones and solar panels that detects and sends alerts when it picks up the sound of chainsaws in protected rainforests, allowing for intervention in real time.

More profile about the speaker
Topher White | Speaker | TED.com