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TEDGlobal 2014

Alison Killing: There’s a better way to die, and architecture can help

アリソン・キリング: より良い死を迎えるために、建築ができること

October 20, 2014

この短くも刺激的な講演で、建築家のアリソン・キリングが焦点を当てるのは、墓地や病院、家といった私たちが死を迎える建物です。死の迎え方が変わりつつある今、死にゆく場所としての建物のあり方も変わるべきではないのか―アリソンは、私たちの街や生活の隠れた面に着目し、思いもつかないような素敵な見方を提示します。

Alison Killing - Architect
An architect and urban designer, Alison Killing uses journalism, filmmaking and exhibitions to help people better understand the built environment. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I'd like to tell you a story
about death and architecture.
今日は 死と建築について
お話しします
00:12
A hundred years ago, we tended to die
of infectious diseases like pneumonia,
百年前 私たちは肺炎などの感染症で
命を落とすことが多く
00:16
that, if they took hold,
would take us away quite quickly.
病気にかかってからは
あっという間でした
00:21
We tended to die at home,
in our own beds, looked after by family,
自宅のベッドで
家族に看取られながら死ぬのが
00:24
although that was the default option
一般的でした
00:28
because a lot of people
lacked access to medical care.
医療が広く行き渡って
いなかったからです
00:30
And then in the 20th century
a lot of things changed.
20世紀に入って
多くのことが変わりました
00:33
We developed new medicines like penicillin
ペニシリンといった
新薬が開発され
00:36
so we could treat
those infectious diseases.
感染症の治療も
できるようになりました
00:38
New medical technologies
like x-ray machines were invented.
レントゲン撮影機などの
医療技術も開発されました
00:40
And because they were
so big and expensive,
そうした機械は
非常に大きく高価だったため
00:44
we needed large, centralized
buildings to keep them in,
それらを集中管理するための
大きな建物も必要になり
00:46
and they became our modern hospitals.
現代の病院の姿ができました
00:49
After the Second World War,
第二次世界大戦後
00:51
a lot of countries set up
universal healthcare systems
多くの国で
国民皆保険制度が導入され
00:53
so that everyone who needed
treatment could get it.
誰もが必要なときに
医療を受けられるようになりました
00:55
The result was that lifespans extended
from about 45 at the start of the century
その結果 20世紀初頭には
45歳だった寿命も
00:58
to almost double that today.
現在では ほぼ2倍にまで
延びました
01:02
The 20th century was this time of huge
optimism about what science could offer,
20世紀は 科学の力に
多大な期待が寄せられた時代ですが
01:04
but with all of the focus on life,
death was forgotten,
「生」の面ばかりが取り上げられ
「死」は忘れ去られていました
01:08
even as our approach to death
changed dramatically.
死の迎え方が
劇的に変わったにもかかわらずです
01:12
Now, I'm an architect,
さて 私は建築家で
01:15
and for the past year and a half
I've been looking at these changes
この1年半の間
こうした変化が
01:16
and at what they mean for architecture
related to death and dying.
死にまつわる建築に
どんな意味をもたらすか考えてきました
01:19
We now tend to die
of cancer and heart disease,
今 私たちの死因で多いのは
がんや心臓疾患です
01:22
and what that means is that many of us
will have a long period of chronic illness
つまり多くの人は
長い間 慢性の疾患をかかえて
01:26
at the end of our lives.
人生の終わりを迎えます
01:30
During that period,
その間
01:32
we'll likely spend a lot of time
in hospitals and hospices and care homes.
多くの時間を 病院やホスピス
介護施設で過ごします
01:33
Now, we've all been in a modern hospital.
皆さん 現代の病院は
ご存知でしょう
01:38
You know those fluorescent lights
and the endless corridors
蛍光灯や 延々と続く廊下
01:40
and those rows of uncomfortable chairs.
そして 座り心地の悪い椅子
01:43
Hospital architecture
has earned its bad reputation.
病院建築の評判は
悪いですね
01:46
But the surprising thing is,
it wasn't always like this.
でも 驚かれるでしょうが
昔から そうだったわけではありません
01:50
This is L'Ospedale degli Innocenti,
built in 1419 by Brunelleschi,
こちらはインノチェンティ養育病院
1419年にブルネレスキが設計しました
01:53
who was one of the most famous
and influential architects of his time.
ブルネレスキは 当時
最も有名で影響力のあった建築家です
01:58
And when I look at this building
and then think about hospitals today,
今日の病院と比べると
この建物が
02:01
what amazes me is
this building's ambition.
いかに意欲的なものか
感心させられます
02:05
It's just a really great building.
ただただ素晴らしい建物です
02:08
It has these courtyards in the middle
中央に このような中庭があり
02:10
so that all of the rooms
have daylight and fresh air,
どの部屋でも
日差しと新鮮な空気が取り込め
02:11
and the rooms are big
and they have high ceilings,
部屋自体も大きく
天井も高いので
02:14
so they just feel
more comfortable to be in.
居心地が良いように
作られています
02:16
And it's also beautiful.
さらに美しくもあります
02:19
Somehow, we've forgotten
that that's even possible for a hospital.
病院でも こんな風にできるのを
私たちは忘れてしまったようです
02:21
Now, if we want better buildings
for dying, then we have to talk about it,
死を迎える建物を良くしたいなら
死について話さないといけません
02:24
but because we find the subject
of death uncomfortable,
死というと
とかく敬遠されがちで
02:28
we don't talk about it,
死について話すことも
02:31
and we don't question how we
as a society approach death.
社会が死にどう向き合うか
問題にすることもありません
02:32
One of the things that surprised me
most in my research, though,
でも 私が研究を進めるなかで
最も驚いたのは
02:36
is how changeable attitudes actually are.
人々の態度の
変わりやすさです
02:39
This is the first crematorium in the U.K.,
こちらは
イギリス初の火葬場で
02:42
which was built in Woking in the 1870s.
1870年代にウォキングという町に
建てられました
02:44
And when this was first built,
there were protests in the local village.
火葬場が初めてできたとき
地元では反対運動が起こりました
02:47
Cremation wasn't socially acceptable,
and 99.8 percent of people got buried.
火葬は社会的に受け入れられておらず
当時 99.8%は土葬でした
02:50
And yet, only a hundred years later,
three quarters of us get cremated.
でも たった百年で
4分の3が火葬されるまでに変わります
02:55
People are actually really open
to changing things
話し合う機会さえ
与えられれば
02:59
if they're given the chance
to talk about them.
人は 物事の変化に
非常に寛容になれるのです
03:01
So this conversation
about death and architecture
ですから こうして死と建築について
お話ししたいと思っていました
03:04
was what I wanted to start
when I did my first exhibition on it
このテーマで初めて展示会を
開いたときからです
03:07
in Venice in June,
which was called "Death in Venice."
6月にベニスで開いた
『ベニスに死す』という
03:10
It was designed to be quite playful
遊び心満載の展示会で
皆さんに
03:14
so that people would
literally engage with it.
文字通り 死と戯れていただきました
03:17
This is one of our exhibits,
which is an interactive map of London
こちらは展示の一つ
ロンドンのインタラクティブ・マップで
03:19
that shows just how much
of the real estate in the city
市内にある
どれだけの不動産が
03:22
is given over to death and dying,
「死」と関わっているか
示しています
03:25
and as you wave your hand across the map,
地図に手をかざせば
03:27
the name of that piece of real estate,
the building or cemetery, is revealed.
その不動産 建物や墓地の
名前が現れます
03:29
Another of our exhibits
was a series of postcards
こちらの展示は
ポストカードで
03:34
that people could take away with them.
皆さんに持ち帰って
いただけます
03:37
And they showed people's homes
and hospitals
ポストカードにあるのは
民家や病院
03:39
and cemeteries and mortuaries,
墓地や遺体安置所で
03:41
and they tell the story
of the different spaces
死の向こう側とこちら側で
私たちが通る
03:43
that we pass through
on either side of death.
さまざまな場所を
物語っています
03:46
We wanted to show
that where we die
伝えたかったのは
私たちが死ぬ場所こそ
03:49
is a key part of how we die.
死に方を決める
大事な要素だということです
03:51
Now, the strangest thing was the way
that visitors reacted to the exhibition,
展示―特にオーディオ・ビジュアル作品への
来訪者の反応は
03:54
especially the audio-visual works.
とても不思議でした
03:59
We had people dancing
and running and jumping
作品を楽しんでいただくには
踊ったり 走ったり
04:01
as they tried to activate
the exhibits in different ways,
ジャンプしたりして
もらわないといけないのですが
04:05
and at a certain point
they would kind of stop
皆さん ある時点で
ふと立ち止まるのです
04:08
and remember that they were in
an exhibition about death,
死がテーマの
展示会であることを思い出して
04:11
and that maybe that's not
how you're supposed to act.
こんな風に はしゃいでは
いけなかったというように
04:13
But actually, I would question
whether there is one way
でも 死に対して
取るべき態度は
04:16
that you're supposed to act around death,
本当に一つだけ
なんでしょうか
04:19
and if there's not, I'd ask you to think
about what you think a good death is,
もし違うなら ぜひ考えていただきたい―
良い死とは何か
04:21
and what you think that architecture
that supports a good death might be like,
良い死を迎えることを
お手伝いできる建築とはどんなものか
04:25
and mightn't it be a little less like this
and a little more like this?
こちらよりは
こちらのようなものではないでしょうか
04:29
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
04:34
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:36
Translator:Yuko Yoshida
Reviewer:Naoko Fujii

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Alison Killing - Architect
An architect and urban designer, Alison Killing uses journalism, filmmaking and exhibitions to help people better understand the built environment.

Why you should listen

Alison Killing is an architect and urban designer working to engage people with their built environment, via design of buildings and urban strategies, film making, exhibitions and events. She explores the relationship between death and modern architecture, looking at how cities are rebuilt after disaster.

Recent projects include Death in the City (and its first iteration, Death in Venice, which was shown as an independent event during the opening week of the Venice Architecture Biennale), a touring exhibition about death and modern architecture; work with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies on better rebuilding after disaster and how to integrate relevant urban design tools into humanitarian response; and a study of financial models for arts and community projects temporarily using vacant buildings to help these projects become self-sustaining.

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