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TED1984

Nicholas Negroponte: 5 predictions, from 1984

1984年に、ニコラス・ネグロポンテが語った5つの予測

February 2, 1984

ニコラスネグロポンテの予測は、CD-ROM、ウェブ・インターフェース、自動対応端末、iPhoneのタッチパネル入力、「子ども1人に1台のラップトップ計画」など驚くほど的確である。

Nicholas Negroponte - Tech visionary
The founder of the MIT Media Lab, Nicholas Negroponte pushed the edge of the information revolution as an inventor, thinker and angel investor. He's the driving force behind One Laptop per Child, building computers for children in the developing world. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
In this rather long sort of marathon presentation,
マラソンみたいに長い講演になりますので
00:12
I've tried to break it up into three parts:
3部に分けてお話しします
00:16
the first being a whole lot of examples on how it can be
第1部では コンピューター操作を楽しくする方法や
00:18
a little bit more pleasurable to deal with a computer
ヒューマン インターフェースの特徴について
00:23
and really address the qualities of the human interface.
例をたくさんあげて紹介します
00:27
And these will be some simple design qualities
シンプルに設計されたものや
00:30
and they will also be some qualities of, if you will,
双方向性のある高度なインターフェースについても
00:33
the intelligence of interaction.
できれば紹介します
00:36
Then the second part will really just be examples of new technologies --
第2部では 新しい技術を紹介します
00:38
new media falling very much into that mold.
新しいメディアが間違いなく向かう方向です
00:42
Again, I will go through them as fast as possible.
これも手短にお話しします
00:46
And then the last one will be some examples
第3部は これまでの成果です
00:49
I've been able to collect, which I think
楽しむという事について
00:52
illustrate this at least as best I can, in the world of entertainment.
一番うまく説明できる例です
00:56
People have this belief -- and I share most of it --
皆さんも 私もかなり信じている事があります
01:02
that we will be using the TV screens or their equivalents
将来はテレビ画面などが電子書籍になる
01:08
for electronic books of the future. But then you think,
ということです
01:12
"My God! What a terrible image you get when you look at still pictures on TV."
「テレビの静止画は汚い」と思うかもしれませんが
01:15
Well, it doesn't have to be terrible.
汚いとは限りません
01:20
And that is a slide taken from a TV set
このスライドはテレビ画面を撮影したものです
01:22
and it was pre-processed to be very sympathetic to the TV medium,
テレビに合うように前処理した画像ですから
01:26
and it absolutely looks beautiful.
かなり綺麗です
01:30
Well, what's happened? How did people get into this mess?
なぜこんな問題が起きるのでしょう?
01:33
Where you are now, all of a sudden,
使用環境が急変したので
01:39
sitting in front of personal computers
パソコンの前や
01:41
and video text -- teletext systems,
文字多重放送システムの前に座って
01:43
and somewhat horrified by what you see on the screen?
画面を見るとなんだかガッカリするのです
01:47
Well, you have to remember that TV was designed
テレビは 対角線の8倍の長さだけ離れて
01:50
to be looked at eight times the distance of the diagonal.
見るように設計されています
01:53
So you get a 13-inch, 19-inch, whatever, TV,
13インチでも19インチでもいいですが
01:56
and then you should multiply that by eight
8倍してください
02:01
and that's the distance you should sit away from the TV set.
それだけ離れて見るものです
02:03
Now we've put people 18 inches in front of a TV,
でも 状況が変わって開発者が考えもしないほど
02:06
and all the artifacts that none of the original designers expected to be seen,
近い距離で画面を見るように
02:11
all of a sudden, are staring you in the face:
なりました
02:16
the shadow mask, the scan lines, all of that.
シャドーマスクや走査線もすぐ近くに見えます
02:18
And they can be treated very easily;
でも変更は簡単です
02:21
there are actually ways of getting rid of them,
解決方法はあります
02:23
there are actually ways of just making absolutely beautiful pictures.
かなり綺麗な画像を映す方法があるのです
02:26
I'm talking here a little bit about display technologies.
少し ディスプレイ技術についてお話しします
02:32
Let me talk about how you might input information.
情報を入力する方法の話です
02:35
And my favorite example is always fingers.
指の話をよくするのですが 私はタッチセンサー式の
02:38
I'm very interested in touch-sensitive displays.
ディスプレイが大好きです
02:42
High-tech, high-touch. Isn't that what some of you said?
ハイテク ハイタッチという言い方をする人もいます
02:44
It's certainly a very important medium for input,
もちろん非常に重要な入力手段ですが
02:48
and a lot of people think that fingers are a very low-resolution
ディスプレイに入力するには
02:55
sort of stylus for inputting to a display.
指では分解能が低いという人もいます
02:58
In fact, they're not: it's really a very, very high-resolution input medium --
でも実際は かなり高分解能です
03:02
you have to just do it twice, you have to touch the screen
2度しか操作は必要ありません
03:06
and then rotate your finger slightly --
画面に触って指を少し回せば
03:09
and you can move a cursor with great accuracy.
かなり正確にカーソルが動きます
03:12
And so when you see on the market these systems
端にダイオードがついた
03:15
that have just a few light emitting diodes on the side and are very low resolution,
とても分解能の低いこんな装置を店で見たら
03:17
it's nice that they exist because it still is better than nothing.
無いよりはましだと思うかもしれませんが
03:22
But it, in some sense, misses the point:
それは思い違いです
03:26
namely, that fingers are a very, very high-resolution input medium.
指はとても分解能が高いのです
03:28
Now, what are some of the other advantages?
ほかに特徴はあるでしょうか?
03:34
Well, the one advantage is that you don't have to pick them up,
何も持たなくてよい事です
03:36
and people don't realize how important that is --
この重要さに気づいてもらえないのですが
03:40
not having to pick up your fingers to use them. (Laughter)
指を使う時に 指を持つ必要はないのです
03:44
When you think for a second of the mouse on Macintosh --
マッキントッシュのマウスを思い出してください
03:47
and I will not criticize the mouse too much --
マウスをそんなに否定するつもりはありませんが
03:54
when you're typing -- what you have -- you want to now put something --
タイピング中に何か付け加えようとしたら
03:58
first of all, you've got to find the mouse.
まずマウスを探します
04:02
You have to probably stop. Maybe not come to a grinding halt,
すると動作が止まります 長い時間ではありませんが
04:04
but you've got to sort of find that mouse. Then you find the mouse,
マウスを見つける必要がありますし 見つけたら
04:09
and you're going to have to wiggle it a little bit
すこしグルグルさせて
04:12
to see where the cursor is on the screen.
カーソルを探します
04:14
And then when you finally see where it is,
位置が分かったら
04:16
then you've got to move it to get the cursor over there,
カーソルを移動させて
04:18
and then -- "Bang" -- you've got to hit a button or do whatever.
クリックします 何をするにもボタンを押しますから
04:20
That's four separate steps versus typing and then touching
4段階必要です それに比べてタイビングしてタッチして
04:23
and typing and just doing it all in one motion --
またタイピングするなら 1段階で済みます
04:26
or one-and-a-half, depending on how you want to count.
1段階半かもしれませんが 数え方しだいです
04:31
Again, what I'm trying to do is just illustrate
繰り返しますが 私は
04:35
the kinds of problems that I think face the designers
新しいコンピューターシステムや 娯楽システムや
04:37
of new computer systems and entertainment systems
教育システムの開発者たちが直面する問題を
04:41
and educational systems
インターフェースの特徴という観点から
04:44
from the perspective of the quality of that interface.
説明したいのです
04:47
And another advantage, of course, of using fingers is you have 10 of them.
指は10本あるので それも利点になりますが
04:50
And we have never known how to do this technically,
技術的にどう扱うかは未知数です
04:55
so this slide is a fake slide.
このスライドは見た目だけで
04:58
We never succeeded in using ten fingers,
まだ 10本の指を使うには至っていませんが
05:00
but there are certain things you can do, obviously,
入力に2本以上の指を使ってできる事は
05:03
with more than one-finger input, which is rather fascinating.
もちろんありますし かなり面白いものです
05:06
What we did stumble across was something ...
コンピューター分野では
05:11
Again, which is typical of the computer field,
解決できない問題点があっても
05:14
is when you have a bug that you can't get rid of you turn it into a feature.
それを仕様としてしまうことがよくあります
05:17
And maybe ... (Laughter)
(笑)
05:22
maybe a mouse is a new kind of bug.
マウスも新たな問題点といえるかもしれません
05:24
But the bug in our case was in touch-sensitive displays:
今回の例では タッチパネルに問題があります
05:28
we wanted to be able to draw -- you know, rub your finger
指で画面をこすって 連続した点を描けるようにしたいと
05:32
across the screen to input continuous points --
思ったのですが
05:36
and there was just too much friction
画面がガラスの場合
05:39
created between your finger and the glass --
指とガラスの摩擦が
05:41
if glass was the substrate, which it usually is.
大きすぎるのです
05:43
So we found that that actually was a feature
でも 圧力検知ディスプレイを作るなら
05:47
in the sense you could build a pressure-sensitive display.
これを長所として利用できるのです
05:50
And when you touch it with your finger,
指で触った時に
05:53
you can actually, then, introduce all the forces on the face of that screen,
ある強さでいろんな力を
05:55
and that actually has a certain amount of value.
画面に伝えることができるのです
06:00
Let me see if I can load another disc
ディスクを入れ替えて
06:04
and show you, quickly, an example.
一例を紹介しましょう
06:06
Now, imagine a screen, which is not only touch-sensitive now,
接触だけでなく圧力も検知できる画面を
06:15
it's pressure-sensitive.
想像してください
06:18
And it's pressure-sensitive to the forces both in the plane of the screen --
画面に沿うXY平面内と 奥に向かうZ方向の少なくとも1方向に
06:20
X, Y, and Z at least in one direction;
圧力を検知します
06:24
we couldn't figure out how to come in the other direction.
手前方向は検知できません
06:26
But let me get rid of the slide,
このスライドは消しましょう
06:30
and let's see if this comes on.
さて映るでしょうか
06:34
OK. So there is the pressure-sensitive display in operation.
圧力検知ディスプレイで入力しているところです
06:41
The person's just, if you will, pushing on the screen to make a curve.
必要に応じて画面を押します
06:45
But this is the interesting part.
面白い映像です
06:50
I want to stop it for a second
ちょっと停止させましょう
06:52
because the movie is very badly made.
映像がかなり悪いですね
06:56
And the particular display was built about six years ago,
このディスプレイは6年前に作ったものですが
07:00
and when we moved from one room to another room,
部屋を移した時に
07:03
a rather large person sat on it and it got destroyed.
大きな人が座って壊したので
07:05
So all we have is this record. (Laughter)
この映像しか残っていません
07:09
But imagine that screen having lots of objects on it
いろんな項目が画面に表示されますので
07:12
and the person has touched an object --
さっきの人みたいに
07:20
one of N -- like he did there, and then pushed on it.
どれかに触れて ぐっと押すのです
07:23
Now, imagine a program
ここで 表示されたものが
07:28
where some of those objects are physically heavy and some are light:
重かったり軽かったりしたらどうでしょう
07:30
one is an anvil on a fuzzy rug
一つは じゅうたんに置いた金床で
07:34
and the other one is a ping-pong ball on a sheet of glass.
もう一つは ガラスに置いたピンポン玉だとします
07:38
And when you touch it, you have to really push very hard
画面の金床に触って移動させるには
07:42
to move that anvil across the screen,
かなり強い力が必要です
07:46
and yet you touch the ping-pong ball very lightly
でも ピンポン玉ならサッと動かして 画面上を
07:48
and it just scoots across the screen.
飛びまわらせることができます
07:51
And what you can do -- oops, I didn't mean to do that --
何ができるかといえば -- おっとこれじゃない
07:53
what you can do is actually feed back to the user
操作する人が物理的な特徴を感じるように
07:58
the feeling of the physical properties.
フィードバックするのです
08:02
So again, they don't have to be weight;
重さとは限りません
08:05
they could be a general trying to move troops,
軍の指揮官なら
08:08
and he's got to move an aircraft carrier versus a little boat.
小型船と空母を区別して動かせます
08:11
In fact, they funded it for that very reason.
まさしくそんな理由で投資してくれています
08:15
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:18
The whole notion, then, is one that at the interface
このインターフェースの包括的な概念は
08:22
there are physical properties in that transducer --
変換装置が物理的特徴を利用するという事です
08:28
in this case it's pressure and touches --
今の例では圧力と接触です
08:32
that allow you to present things to the user that you could never present before.
これによって今までになかったものを実現できます
08:34
So it's not simply looking at the quality or, if you will, the luxury of that interface,
性能 つまりインターフェースの使いやすさだけに注目するのではなく
08:38
but it's actually looking at the idea
今までになかったものを
08:43
of presenting things that previously couldn't be presented before.
生み出していこうと考えているのです
08:45
I want to move on to another example,
では 別の例を紹介しましょう
08:48
which is one of a different sort, where we're trying to use computer
コンピューターやビデオディスク技術を利用した
08:52
and video disc technology now to come up with a new kind of book.
新しい形態の書籍を作り出そうとしています
08:58
Here, the idea is that you're going to take this book,
考え方としては 普通の本に
09:03
if you will, and it's going to come alive.
命を
09:08
You're going to sort of breathe life into it.
吹き込むのです
09:10
We are so used to doing monologues.
一方的な伝達手段はよく目にします
09:13
Filmmakers, for example, are the experts in monologue making:
映画会社は一方向に情報を伝える作品を作っています
09:17
you make a film and it has a well-formed beginning, middle and end,
始まり 中盤 終わりをよく練って映画を作成します
09:21
and in some sense the art of it is that.
いってみれば その巧みさこそが本質です
09:24
And you then say, "There's an opportunity
「双方向形式の映画を作る可能性もあるよ」
09:27
for making conversational movies." Well, what does that mean?
という人もいますが どういう意味でしょう?
09:31
And it sort of nibbles at the core of the whole profession
まるで映画とは何か 何を表現したいかという核心部分を
09:35
and all the assumptions of that medium.
覆してしまうかのような意見です
09:41
So, book writing is the same thing.
書籍も同じことです
09:43
What I'll show you very quickly is a new kind of book
そこで 新形態の書籍に触れておきたいと思います
09:46
where it is mixed now with ... all sorts of things live in there,
あらゆるものがここに集約されています
09:49
but you have to keep a few things in mind.
ただ 少し心に留めておいてほしい事があります
09:53
One is that this book knows about itself.
一つ目は この書籍が自分を分かっているという事です
09:56
Each frame of the movie has information about itself.
映画の各フレームにも自身の情報は入っていますが
10:01
So it knows, or at least there is computer-readable information
この書籍には 少なくともコンピューターで読める情報が
10:07
in the medium itself. It's just not a static movie frame.
入っています 固定された映画のフレームとは違います
10:12
That's one thing. The other is that you have to realize
二つ目は お気づきのように
10:16
that it is a random access medium,
ランダムアクセス可能な記憶媒体だという事です
10:18
and you can, in fact, branch and expand and elaborate and shrink.
分岐 拡張 詳細化 短縮などが可能です
10:21
And here -- again, my favorite example -- is the cookbook,
私は料理本ラルース ガストロノミックがお気に入りで
10:24
the "Larousse Gastronomique."
例として使いすぎかもしれませんが
10:28
And I think I use the example all too often,
事典のようなこの料理本は
10:31
but it's a great one because there is a classic ending in that little
お約束の台詞が最後に出てくるのでちょうどいいのです
10:34
encyclopedia-style cookbook that tells you how to do something like penguin,
ペンギンなんかのレシピの最後に
10:39
and you get to the end of the recipe and it says, "Cook until done."
「火が通るまで加熱」と書いてあるのです
10:46
Now, that would be, if you will, the top green track,
一番上の緑のトラックがその表現だとしましょう
10:50
which doesn't mean too much. But you might have to elaborate for me
漠然とした表現ですから 初心者にはもっと
10:55
or for somebody who isn't an expert, and say,
詳しい説明が必要です
10:59
"Cook at 380 degrees for 45 minutes."
「380度で45分加熱する」
11:01
And then for a real beginner, you would go down even further
もっと初心者なら さらに詳しく説明します
11:03
and elaborate more -- say, "Open the oven, preheat, wait for the light to go out,
「オーブンを開ける 予熱する ランプが消えるまで待つ
11:06
open the door, don't leave it open too long,
扉を開ける 長時間放置しない
11:10
put the penguin in and shut the door ..." (Laughter) whatever.
ペンギンを中に入れる 扉を閉める」
11:13
And that's a much more elaborate one than you dribble back.
読み返すよりも分かりやすくなります
11:16
That's one kind of use of random access.
これがランダムアクセスを利用した一例です
11:19
And the other is where you want to explain the same thing in different ways.
次は 言い方を変えて説明する例です
11:24
If you're in a classroom situation and somebody asks a question,
学校で誰かに質問されたら
11:32
the last thing you do is repeat what you just said.
同じ事を ただ繰り返すことはしません
11:36
You try and think of a different way of saying the same thing,
言い方を変えて説明する方法を考えたり
11:39
or if you know the particular student and that student's cognitive style,
その学生を知っていて考え方も分かっているなら
11:43
then you might say it in a way that you think
その学生の理解に合わせて
11:48
would have a good impedance match with that student.
説明したりしますね
11:50
There are all sorts of techniques you will use --
いろんな手法が使えます
11:53
and again, this is a different kind of branching.
これは分岐の一例です
11:55
So, what I will show you is ... it's a rather boring book,
さて もっとつまらない本を紹介しましょう
11:59
but I'm afraid sometimes you have to do boring books
残念ですが つまらない本を何度か見ていただきます
12:05
because your sponsors aren't necessarily interested in fiction
スポンサーが 小説や娯楽本を好まない場合も
12:08
and entertainment. And this is a book on how to repair a transmission.
あるからです これは変速機の修理法です
12:13
Now, I don't even know what vintage the transmission is,
変速機の価値は知りませんが
12:19
but let me just show you very quickly some of it, and we'll move on.
一部をざっとお見せします では行きましょう
12:22
(Video) Narrator: And continue to get descriptions for each of these chapters.
(映像)
12:33
Nicholas Negroponte: Now, this is his table of contents.
これは目次です
12:36
Just a picture of the transmission, and as you rub your finger across the transmission
変速機の絵だけです
12:38
it highlights the various parts.
指でなぞると各部位が強調されます
12:42
Narrator: When I find a chapter that I want to see,
見たい章があれば
12:45
I just touch the text and the system will format pages for me to read.
その文字に触れると 装置がページを用意します
12:47
The words or phrases that are lit up in red are glossary words,
赤い語句には解説集が用意されていますので
12:59
so I can get a different definition by just touching the word,
語句に触れるといろんな定義が表示されます
13:05
and the definition appears, superimposed over the illustration.
定義は絵に重なって表示されます
13:08
NN: This is about the oil pan, or the oil filter and all that.
これは油の受け皿や濾過機などの説明です
13:33
This is relatively important because it sets the page ...
これは比較的重要なもので --
13:44
Narrator: This is another example of a page with glossary words
このページでは 用語集が用意されている語句が
13:48
highlighted in red.
赤く表示されています
13:53
I can get a definition of these words just by touching them,
触るだけで言葉の意味が分かります
13:57
and the definition will appear in the illustration corner.
定義はこの描画領域に表示されます
14:00
I can get back to the illustration, but in this case it's not a single frame,
さっきの絵にも戻せます この場合静止画ではなく
14:08
but it's actually a movie of someone coming into the frame and doing the repair
解説文どおりに修理する様子が
14:13
that's described in the text.
動画で表示されます
14:16
The two-headed slider is a speed control that allows me to watch the movie
2方向スライダーで速度を調節できます
14:19
at various speeds, in forward or reverse.
動画の速度や再生方向を変えます
14:23
And the movie is displayed as a full frame movie.
全画面で表示します
14:26
I can go back to the beginning ... and play the movie at full speed.
最初に戻せますし 高速再生もできます
14:31
Here's another step-by-step procedure, only in this case --
これは別の手順です --
14:49
NN: Okay, this movie is ... Everybody's heard of sound-sync movies --
音声と同期した動画はご存じだと思いますが
14:51
this is text-sync movies, so as the movie plays, the text gets highlighted.
これは文章と動画が同期します 動画が再生されると
14:55
We highlight the text as we go through the movie.
動画に合わせて文章が強調されます
15:00
Repairman: ... Not too far out. Front poles, preferably.
離しすぎないでください 前側のポールがいいでしょう
15:04
Don't loosen them too far. If you loosen them too far, you'll have a big mess.
緩めすぎないように 緩めすぎると大変なことになります
15:08
NN: I suspect that some of you might not even understand that language.
言ってる事は よく分からないかもしれませんね
15:14
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:18
OK. I'm at the third and last part of this,
さて 3番目です これで最後です
15:23
which I said I would make an attempt to at least give you some examples
いくつか例をお見せすると言いましたが
15:28
that may be more directly related to the world of entertainment.
これはもっと遊びに近いものです
15:32
And of course, good education has got to be good entertainment,
良い教育とは よく楽しめるものでなければなりません
15:36
so my first example will be drawn from a very recent experiment
最初の例は 最近の実験結果です
15:41
that we've been doing -- in this case, in Senegal --
セネガルで
15:48
where we have tried to use personal computers
パソコンを教材として使ってみました
15:51
as a pedagogical medium. But not as teaching machines at all;
機械に教えてもらうわけではなく
15:56
the whole notion is to use this as an instrument
道具として使うのが目的ですから
16:01
where there is a complete reversal of roles --
立場が逆転します
16:05
the child is, if you will, the teacher and the machine is the student --
この子が教師で 機械が生徒なのです
16:08
and the art of computer programming is a vehicle that sort of
プログラミング技術は
16:12
approximates thinking about thinking.
思考に似た手段ではありますが 子どもに
16:14
But teaching kids programming per se is utterly irrelevant.
プログラミング自体を教えるのは絶対に間違いです
16:17
And there are just a few slides I want to go through,
スライドは少ししかありませんが
16:22
but there's a story I'd like to tell. And that was when,
ぜひお伝えしたい話があります
16:25
before we did this in any developing countries --
今はパキスタン コロンビア セネガル
16:31
we're doing it, in fact, in three developing countries right now:
3ヶ国で実施していますが
16:33
Pakistan, Colombia and Senegal --
これは その途上国でやる前の
16:35
we did it in some pretty rough areas of New York City.
ニューヨークのかなり荒れた地域での話です
16:37
And one child, whose name I've forgotten, was about seven or eight years old,
名前は忘れましたが7歳か8歳ぐらいの
16:42
absolutely considered mentally handicapped --
知的障害があって字が読めず
16:47
couldn't read, didn't even make it in the lowest section of the school's classes --
低い学年でもついていけないと見られていた子がいました
16:52
and was pretty much not in school, though physically there.
学校には来ても 参加していないに等しい状態でしたが
17:00
But did hang around the, quote, "computer room,"
「コンピューター室」に出入りしていました
17:03
where there were quite a few computers,
コンピューターがあったので
17:06
and learned this particular language called Logo --
そこでLogoという言語を学習していました
17:08
and learned it with great ease and found it a lot of fun,
すぐに理解して楽しんでもいました 驚きますね
17:12
it was very interesting. And one day, by chance,
ある日 NIEのお偉いさんたちが
17:15
some visitors from the NIE came by in their double-breasted suits
たまたまその部屋に立ち寄って装置を見ていました
17:20
looking at this setup, and none of the children who were normally there,
普段から誰もいない部屋ですが
17:26
except for this one child, were there.
その子だけはいましたから
17:31
He was, and he said, "Let me show you how this works,"
「どうやるかみせてあげるよ」と
17:35
and they got an absolutely ingenuous, wonderful description of Logo.
実に分かりやすく見事に Logoについて解説したのです
17:38
And the child was just zipping right through it, showing them all sorts of things
すごい勢いで全部説明しました
17:43
until they asked him how to do something which he couldn't explain
説明できなかったところを質問されれば
17:47
and so he flipped through the manual, found the explanation
マニュアルで説明を見つけて コマンドを打ち込んで
17:51
and typed the command and got it to do what they asked.
実行して見せたのです
17:54
They were delighted, and by the time it was time to go see the principal,
実はコンピューター室ではなく校長室に行く予定でしたが
17:56
whom they'd actually come to see -- not the computer room --
彼らは校長に会う前にすっかり満足してしまいました
18:00
they went upstairs and they said,
上の階に行くと
18:03
"This is absolutely remarkable!
「素晴らしいですね
18:04
That child was very articulate and showed us
あの子が 流暢に説明してくれて実演もしてくれました
18:06
and even dealt with the things he couldn't do automatically
できない事は自分でマニュアルを見て対応したり
18:10
with that manual. It was just absolutely fantastic."
ほんとうにすごいです」と伝えると
18:14
The principal said, "There's a dreadful mistake,
校長は「そんなはずはありませんよ
18:18
because that child can't read.
あの子は字が読めませんから
18:21
And you obviously have been hoodwinked
きっとだまされたか
18:23
or you've talked about somebody else."
別の子だと思いますよ」と返しました
18:25
And they all got up and they all went downstairs
皆で下の階に降りると
18:28
and the child was still there. And they did something very intelligent:
その子がまだいたので ちょっと試してみました
18:30
they asked the child, "Can you read?"
「字が読めるかい」と聞いたら
18:34
And the child said, "No, I can't."
「よめないよ」とその子は答えました
18:38
And then they said, "But wait a minute. You
「ちょっとまってよ
18:41
just looked through that manual and you found ... "
マニュアルを見て理解してたじゃない」と言ったら
18:43
and he said, "Oh, but that's not reading."
「よんでいるんじゃないよ」とその子は答えるのです
18:46
And so they said, "Well, what's reading then?"
「じゃあ 読むって何?」と聞いたら
18:49
He says, "Well, reading is this junk they give me in little books to read.
その子は「つまらない本でやらされるんだ
18:51
It's absolutely irrelevant, (Laughter) and I get nothing for it.
いみがないから やりたくないんだ でもこっちは
18:55
But here, with a little bit of effort I get a lot of return."
ちょっとやってみたら いろんなことがわかるんだ」
19:02
And it really meant something to the child.
その子にとっては価値があったのです
19:06
The child read beautifully, it turned out,
その子は見事に読みこなして
19:08
and was really very competent. So it actually meant something.
すごく身についたのですから 有意義だったのです
19:10
And that story has many other anecdotes that are similar,
この出来事には 他にも逸話がたくさんあって
19:14
but wow. The key to the future of computers in education is right there,
コンピューターを使うこれからの教育にとって 重要な事が まさにここにあります
19:19
and it is: when does it mean something to a child?
では 子どもが価値を感じるのはいつでしょうか
19:26
There is a myth, and it truly is a myth:
ここで ある誤解があります
19:29
we believe -- and I'm sure a lot of you believe in this room --
私も皆さんも ほとんどが信じている事です
19:32
that it is harder to read and write than it is to learn how to speak.
話すことより 読み書きのほうが難しいと信じていますが
19:35
And it's not, but we think speech -- "My God, little children pick it up somehow,
違います 小さな子は勝手に言葉を使いだして
19:40
and by the age of two they're doing a mediocre job,
2歳までには つたなく話し出し
19:46
and by three and four they're speaking reasonably well.
3歳から4歳までには それなりに話すようになりますが
19:48
And yet you've got to go to school to learn how to read,
学校で読むことを習うようになると
19:51
and you have to sit in a classroom and somebody has to teach you.
教室に座って 授業を聞く必要があります
19:53
Hence, it must be harder." Well, it's not harder.
だから難しくなるのです でも本当は難しくありません
19:56
What the truth is is that speaking has great value to a child;
しゃべることは子どもにとってすごく価値があります
19:59
the child can get a great deal by talking to you.
しゃべれば相手から得る事がたくさんありますが
20:06
Reading and writing is utterly useless.
読み書きは役に立ちません
20:09
There is no reason for a child to read and write except blind faith,
意味がないから 機械的にやるしかないのです
20:11
and that it's going to help you. (Laughter)
まあ後で役には立ちます
20:16
So what happens is you go to school and people say,
学校ではこう言われます
20:19
"Just believe me, you're going to like it.
「信じなさい だんだん好きになるから
20:22
You're going to like reading," and just read and read.
だんだん好きになるから どんどん読みなさい」と
20:25
On the other hand, you give a kid -- a three-year-old kid -- a computer
これとは違って 3歳の子でもコンピューターを使えば
20:28
and they type a little command and -- Poof! -- something happens.
コマンドを入力すれば パッと何かが起きます
20:32
And all of a sudden ... You may not call that reading and writing,
すぐです こういうのを読み書きとは言わないでしょうが
20:35
but a certain bit of typing and reading stuff on the screen
画面に少し打ち込んだり読んだりするだけで
20:38
has a huge payoff, and it's a lot of fun.
大きな成果があって すごく楽しいのです
20:41
And in fact, it's a powerful educational instrument.
実に 効果的な教材です
20:44
Well, in Senegal we found that this was the traditional classroom:
セネガルでも経験しました こちらは普通の教室です
20:48
120 kids -- three per desk -- one teacher, a little bit of chalk.
子どもが120人 各机に3人 先生が1人 チョークが少し
20:53
This student was one of our first students,
この子は 私たちが初めて受け持った生徒です
20:58
and it's the girl on the left leaning with her chalkboard,
左の女の子は黒板を使って学習をしています
21:01
and she came ... within two days --
彼女が2日で作ったプログラムを
21:05
I want to show you the program she wrote,
お見せしましょう
21:08
and remember her hairstyle. And that is the program she made.
髪形を覚えておいてください プログラムはこちら
21:10
That's what meant something to her, is doing the hair pattern,
彼女にとっては髪形を決めることが重要なのです
21:16
and actually did it within two days -- an hour each day --
1日1時間だけ作業して 2日で作り上げました
21:20
and found it was, to her,
彼女にとっては
21:25
absolutely the most meaningful piece ...
これが一番重要な事なのです
21:27
But rooted in that, little did she know how much knowledge
そこから 幾何学 数学 論理学などいろんな事を
21:30
she was acquiring about geometry
どれだけ学習したか
21:34
and just math and logic and all the rest.
彼女にはまだ分からないかと思います
21:36
And again, I could talk for three hours about this subject.
これについて3時間はお話しができます
21:39
I will come to my last example and then quit.
では 最後の例を紹介しましょう
21:42
And my last example -- as some of my former colleagues,
ここにいるかつての同僚たちなら
21:50
whom I see in the room, can imagine what it will be.
想像がつくと思います
21:56
Yes, it is. It's our work -- that was a while ago,
私たちが取り組んだ これまで そして今でも
21:59
and it still is my favorite project -- of teleconferencing.
大好きなプロジェクトです そうテレビ会議システムです
22:02
And the reason it remains a favorite project
なぜ今でも好きかというと
22:06
is that we were asked to do a teleconferencing system
次のような状況のテレビ会議システムを実現するよう
22:08
where you had the following situation:
依頼されたのです
22:15
you had five people at five different sites -- they were known people --
知り合い5人がそれぞれ別の場所にいるのに
22:17
and you had to have these people in teleconference,
他の4人も現実にそばにいると
22:22
such that each one was utterly convinced
それぞれの人を完全に信じ込ませて
22:27
that the other four were physically present.
テレビ会議をさせるのです
22:30
Now, that is sufficiently
そんな誘いにのったらばかだと思うかもしれませんが
22:34
zany that we would, obviously, jump to the bait, and we did.
のってしまいましたし
22:38
And the fact that we knew the people --
実際にそんな人たちと知り合いになりました
22:43
we had to take a page out of the history of Walt Disney --
ウォルト ディズニーの歴史から学ぶ必要もありました
22:46
we actually went so far as to build CRTs
人の顔をしたブラウン管までも
22:49
in the shapes of the people's faces.
作ったりしました
22:52
So if I wanted to call my friend Peter Sprague on the phone,
友人のピーター スピローグに電話を掛けるときには
22:55
my secretary would get his head out and bring it and set it on the desk,
秘書が机まで彼の頭部を抱えてきます
23:00
(Laughter)
(笑)
23:03
and that would be the TV used for the occasion.
そのために用意されたテレビです
23:04
And it's uncanny: there's no way I can explain to you
おかしなことではありません 言うまでもなく
23:09
the amount of eye contact you get with that physical face
3次元テレビに映し出された現実味のある顔と
23:12
projected on a 3D CRT of that sort.
じっくり目を見合わせることができます
23:16
The next thing that we had to do is to persuade them
次に 空間の同期が必要だという提案もしました
23:20
that there needed to be spatial correspondence, which is straightforward,
これは単純な話ですが 遠距離通信や
23:23
but again, it's something that didn't fall naturally
コンピューターシステムの
23:27
out of a telecommunications or computing style of thinking;
概念から自然に導かれるものではありません
23:29
it was a very, if you will, architectural or spatial concept.
まさに設計思想とか空間的概念の話になります
23:32
And that was to recognize that when you sit around the table,
テーブルに座った時の
23:36
the actual location of the people becomes rather important.
実際の位置がとても重要だと理解するための概念です
23:39
And when somebody gets up, in fact, to go answer a phone
誰かが席を立って電話に出たりトイレに行くとき
23:44
or use a bathroom or something, the empty seat becomes,
空席とその人を結びつけることも現実にあります
23:47
if you will, that person. And you point frequently to the empty seat
空席を何度も指さしながら
23:50
and you say, "He or she wouldn't agree,"
「この人は賛成しないよ」と言うこともありますね
23:53
and the empty chair is that person and the spatiality is crucial.
空席が人を意味するので 空間内の位置が重要です
23:56
So we said, "Well, these will be on round tables
だから「丸テーブルで使用するなら テーブルの周りの
24:02
and the order around the table had to be the same,
座る位置の対応がとれないといけない」と言ったのです
24:05
so that at my site, I would be, if you will, real
自分のいる所には 実在の自分がいて
24:08
and then at each other's site you'd have these plastic heads.
別の人がいる所には 樹脂で作った頭部が置かれます
24:11
And the plastic heads, sometimes you want to project them.
樹脂で作った頭部でも 投影した頭部でもよく
24:16
And there are a number of schemes, which I don't want to dwell on,
手段はいろいろありますが長々とお話はしません
24:20
but this is the one that we finally used
最終的にはこれを使いました
24:23
where we projected onto rear screen material
後方から投影するタイプのディスプレイで
24:25
that was molded in the face -- literally in the face of the person.
表面が顔の形に立体成形されています
24:29
And I'll show you one more slide, where this is actually made
もう1枚スライドをお見せしましょう
24:33
from something called a solid photograph and is the screen.
立体写真といわれるもので画面でもあります
24:37
Now, we track, on the person's head, the head motions --
頭部の動きを検出して
24:41
so we transmit with a video the head positions --
映像と一緒に頭部の位置を送信します
24:44
and so this head moves in about two axes.
この頭部は2軸に沿って動きます
24:48
So if I, all of a sudden, turn to the person to my left
突然 私が左を向いて 左の人と話し始めると
24:55
and start talking to that person, then at the person to my right's site,
右にいる人にはまるで 二つの樹脂製の頭部が
25:00
he'll see these two plastic heads talking to each other.
会話をしているように見えるのです
25:05
And then if that person interrupts, then those two heads may turn.
その人が会話に割り込むと 二つの頭部が振り返ります
25:08
And it really is reconstructing, quite accurately, teleconferencing.
これでテレビ会議をとても正確に再構築できます
25:13
Translator:Satoshi Tatsuhara
Reviewer:Jun Sasaki

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Nicholas Negroponte - Tech visionary
The founder of the MIT Media Lab, Nicholas Negroponte pushed the edge of the information revolution as an inventor, thinker and angel investor. He's the driving force behind One Laptop per Child, building computers for children in the developing world.

Why you should listen

A pioneer in the field of computer-aided design, Negroponte founded (and was the first director of) MIT's Media Lab, which helped drive the multimedia revolution and now houses more than 500 researchers and staff across a broad range of disciplines. An original investor in Wired (and the magazine's "patron saint"), for five years he penned a column exploring the frontiers of technology -- ideas that he expanded into his 1995 best-selling book Being Digital. An angel investor extraordinaire, he's funded more than 40 startups, and served on the boards of companies such as Motorola and Ambient Devices.

But his latest effort, the One Laptop per Child project, may prove his most ambitious. The organization is designing, manufacturing and distributing low-cost, wireless Internet-enabled computers costing roughly $100 and aimed at children. Negroponte hopes to put millions of these devices in the hands of children in the developing world.

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