03:57
TED2008

Christopher deCharms: A look inside the brain in real time

クリストファー・デシャーム 「リアルタイムの脳スキャナー」

Filmed:

神経科学者であり発明家であるクリストファー・デシャームが、fMRIの新たな使い方をお見せします。思考、感情、苦痛といった脳の活動をリアルタイムに見ることができるのです。つまり、実際にあなたがどう感じているか見ることができるということです。

- Brain researcher
Christopher deCharms is working on a way to use fMRI scans to show brain activity -- in real time. Full bio

Hi. I'm going to ask you to raise your arms and wave back,
ちょっと腕を上げて左右に振ってもらえますか
00:12
just the way I am -- kind of a royal wave.
私がやっているように -- 王室の人みたいに
00:15
You can mimic what you can see.
私達は見たものを真似ることができます
00:18
You can program the hundreds of muscles in your arm.
腕の何百もの筋肉をプログラムできます
00:20
Soon, you'll be able to look inside your brain and program,
まもなく 脳の中を見て そこに見える何百もの
00:23
control the hundreds of brain areas that you see there.
脳のエリアをプログラムし操作できるようになるでしょう
00:28
I'm going to tell you about that technology.
その技術についてお話します
00:30
People have wanted to look inside the human mind,
人間は何千年もの間 人の心の中
00:33
the human brain, for thousands of years.
人間の脳を見たいと思っていました
00:34
Well, coming out of the research labs just now, for our generation, is the possibility to do that.
ちょうど今研究所から私達の世代の為に生み出そうとしているものには その可能性があります
00:37
People envision this as being very difficult.
これはとても困難なことと思えるでしょう
00:42
You had to take a spaceship, shrink it down, inject it into the bloodstream.
宇宙船を縮小して 血液に注入するとか
00:44
It was terribly dangerous. (Laughter)
恐ろしく危険なことです
00:48
You could be attacked by white blood cells in the arteries.
動脈で白血球に攻撃されるでしょう
00:50
But now, we have a real technology to do this.
しかしようやく それを実現する技術ができました
00:53
We're going to fly into my colleague Peter's brain.
私の同僚ピーターの脳に飛び込みます
00:57
We're going to do it non-invasively using MRI.
MRIを使って人体に危害を加えることなく...
00:59
We don't have to inject anything. We don't need radiation.
何も注入する必要なく 放射線も必要ありません
01:02
We will be able to fly into the anatomy of Peter's brain -- literally, fly into his body --
ピーターの脳の生体構造に飛び込みます --文字通り身体に飛び込むのです
01:06
but more importantly, we can look into his mind.
でもより重要なのは 彼の心を見れることです
01:11
When Peter moves his arm, that yellow spot you see there
ピーターが腕を動かすと そこの黄色い点が
01:13
is the interface to the functioning of Peter's mind taking place.
ピーターの心の動きとの接点になります
01:16
Now you've seen before that with electrodes you can control robotic arms,
ロボットの腕を操作できる電極付きのを見たことがあるでしょう
01:20
that brain imaging and scanners can show you the insides of brains.
脳のイメージングとスキャナーで脳の中が見えるヤツです
01:23
What's new is that that process has typically taken days or months of analysis.
ただその処理には 通常何日とか何ヶ月もの解析が必要です
01:27
We've collapsed that through technology to milliseconds,
私達はそれを技術によって数ミリ秒にしました
01:32
and that allows us to let Peter to look at his brain in real time as he's inside the scanner.
それによってピーターはスキャナーの中にいる時にリアルタイムで自分の脳を見れます
01:35
He can look at these 65,000 points of activation per second.
1秒当り65,000もの活動点を見れるのです
01:39
If he can see this pattern in his own brain, he can learn how to control it.
自分の脳のパターンを見れば どう操作すれば良いか学べます
01:44
There have been three ways to try to impact the brain:
脳に衝撃を与えるにはこれまで3つの方法がありました
01:48
the therapist's couch, pills and the knife.
セラピストのソファと 薬 そしてナイフ
01:51
This is a fourth alternative that you are soon going to have.
これはもうすぐ4番目の方法になります
01:55
We all know that as we form thoughts, they form deep channels in our minds and in our brains.
思考を形成する際に 心と脳に深いチャンネルが形成されます
01:59
Chronic pain is an example. If you burn yourself, you pull your hand away.
慢性の痛みはその例です やけどをすれば手を引っ込めますが
02:04
But if you're still in pain in six months' or six years' time,
6ヶ月とか6年経っても痛みが消えなければ
02:08
it's because these circuits are producing pain that's no longer helping you.
それは脳の回路が生み出したもので もう役に立ちません
02:12
If we can look at the activation in the brain that's producing the pain,
痛みを生んでいる脳の動きを見ることができれば
02:16
we can form 3D models and watch in real time the brain process information,
3Dモデルを作って リアルタイムで脳が処理する情報を見て
02:19
and then we can select the areas that produce the pain.
痛みを生み出しているエリアを特定できます
02:24
So put your arms back up and flex your bicep.
ではもう一度 腕を上げ 力こぶを作ってみて下さい
02:27
Now imagine that you will soon be able to look inside your brain
もうすぐ脳の中が見えるようになり 同じことをするための
02:30
and select brain areas to do that same thing.
脳のエリアを選択できると想像してみて下さい
02:34
What you're seeing here is, we've selected the pathways in the brain of a chronic pain patient.
これは 慢性の痛みを持つ患者の脳の経路を選択したものです
02:36
This may shock you, but we're literally reading this person's brain in real time.
驚かれるかもしれませんが 文字通り人の脳をリアルタイムで読んでいるのです
02:40
They're watching their own brain activation,
自分の脳の動きを見て
02:44
and they're controlling the pathway that produces their pain.
痛みを生み出す経路を操作しているのです
02:46
They're learning to flex this system that releases their own endogenous opiates.
自身の脳内麻薬を放出するシステムの動かし方を学んでいるのです
02:50
As they do it, in the upper left is a display
それと同時に 左上に表示されるのは
02:54
that's yoked to their brain activation of their own pain being controlled.
痛みを操作している時の脳の動きです
02:57
When they control their brain, they can control their pain.
脳を操作すると 痛みも操作できるのです
03:01
This is an investigational technology,
これはまだ研究中の技術ですが
03:05
but, in clinical trials, we're seeing a 44 to 64 percent decrease in chronic pain patients.
臨床試験では患者の痛みが44~64%も減っています
03:07
This is not "The Matrix." You can only do this to yourself. You take control.
これは映画「マトリックス」とは違い 自分だけに実施できます 自分で操作します
03:12
I've seen inside my brain. You will too, soon.
私は自分の脳の中を見ました あなたもまもなく見れるでしょう
03:17
When you do, what do you want to control?
その時にあなたは何を操作したいですか?
03:21
You will be able to look at all the aspects that make you yourself, all your experiences.
自分を成す全ての面 全ての経験を見れるでしょう
03:24
These are some of the areas we're working on today that I don't have time to go into in detail.
他にも私達が現在取り組んでいる分野がありますが 今日はお話する時間がありません
03:29
But I want to leave with you the big question.
ただ一つ 考えてもらいたい大きな質問があります
03:34
We are the first generation that's going to be able to enter into,
私達は この技術を使って 人間の心と脳に入れる
03:37
using this technology, the human mind and brain.
最初の世代になります
03:40
Where will we take it?
それを何に使いますか?
03:43
Translated by Masaaki Ueno
Reviewed by Masahiro Kyushima

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About the Speaker:

Christopher deCharms - Brain researcher
Christopher deCharms is working on a way to use fMRI scans to show brain activity -- in real time.

Why you should listen

Neuroscientist Christopher deCharms is helping to develop a new kind of MRI that allows doctor and patient to look inside the brain in real time -- to see visual representations of brain processes as they happen. With his company Omneuron, deCharms has developed technology they call rtfMRI, for "real-time functional MRI" -- which is exactly what it sounds like. You move your arm, your brain lights up. You feel pain, your brain lights up.

How could we use the ability to see our brains in action? For a start, to help treat chronic pain with a kind of biofeedback; being able to visualize pain can help patients control it. And longer-term uses boggle the mind. Ours is the first generation, he believes, to be able to train and build our minds as systematically as a weightlifter builds a muscle. What will we do with this?

deCharms is also the author of the book Two Views of Mind, studying Buddhist theories of perception from a neuroscientist's perspective.

More profile about the speaker
Christopher deCharms | Speaker | TED.com