07:57
TED Studio

Chris Anderson: TED's secret to great public speaking

クリス・アンダーソン: TEDが素晴らしいスピーチを生む秘密

Filmed:

素晴らしいスピーチを作るためのレシピはありませんが、最高のTEDトークが共通して持つ秘密の要素ならあります。TEDの管理人であるクリス・アンダーソンがその秘密を明かし、それを実現するための4つのポイントをお教えします。広める価値あるアイデアを伝えるのに必要なものは、お持ちですか?

- TED Curator
After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in 2002 and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading. Full bio

Some people think that there's
a TED Talk formula:
TEDプレゼン必勝法みたいなものが
あると思っている人がいます
00:12
"Give a talk on a round, red rug."
「丸い赤絨毯の上で話す」
00:15
"Share a childhood story."
「子供時代の逸話を語る」
00:17
"Divulge a personal secret."
「個人的な秘密を打ち明ける」
00:18
"End with an inspiring call to action."
「奮い立たせられるような
行動喚起で締めくくる」
00:20
No.
いいえ
00:23
That's not how to think of a TED Talk.
それはTEDトークの
考え方ではありません
00:24
In fact, if you overuse those devices,
そういった小道具を使いすぎると
00:26
you're just going to come across
as clichéd or emotionally manipulative.
ありきたりとか感情操作的と
取られるのがオチです
00:28
But there is one thing that all
great TED Talks have in common,
でも すべての優れたTEDトークに
共通するものが1つあります
00:32
and I would like to share
that thing with you,
それが何かお教えしましょう
00:36
because over the past 12 years,
I've had a ringside seat,
それと言うのも
私はこれまで12年以上の間
00:39
listening to many hundreds
of amazing TED speakers, like these.
何百人もの素晴らしいTED講演者たちの話を
最前列で聞いてきたからです
00:42
I've helped them prepare
their talks for prime time,
彼らが本番に向け
準備するのを手伝いながら
00:46
and learned directly from them
優れたTEDトークを生む秘訣を
00:49
their secrets of what
makes for a great talk.
彼らから直接学びました
00:50
And even though these speakers
and their topics all seem
それぞれの人や
その話す内容は
00:53
completely different,
まったく違って見えても
00:56
they actually do have
one key common ingredient.
実はひとつの共通する
重要な要素があります
00:57
And it's this:
それは何か?
01:01
Your number one task as a speaker
講演者のすべきことは
何よりも
01:03
is to transfer into your listeners' minds
an extraordinary gift --
聴衆の頭の中へ特別な贈り物 —
01:05
a strange and beautiful object
that we call an idea.
奇妙だけど美しい「アイデア」という
贈り物を届けることなんです
01:10
Let me show you what I mean.
どういうことか
説明しましょう
01:16
Here's Haley.
この人はヘイリーです
01:17
She is about to give a TED Talk
これからTEDトークを
するところですが
01:18
and frankly, she's terrified.
率直に言って
怯えきっています
01:20
(Video) Presenter: Haley Van Dyck!
(司会) ヘイリー・ヴァンダイクです!
01:22
(Applause)
(拍手)
01:24
Over the course of 18 minutes,
この18分間の中で
01:30
1,200 people, many of whom
have never seen each other before,
1,200人の 多くは互いに
会ったこともない人たちが
01:32
are finding that their brains
are starting to sync with Haley's brain
自分の脳とヘイリーの脳が
シンクロし始め
01:36
and with each other.
聴衆同士もシンクロしていくのを
感じます
01:40
They're literally beginning to exhibit
the same brain-wave patterns.
彼らの脳波が文字通り
同じ波形を示し始めるんです
01:41
And I don't just mean
they're feeling the same emotions.
同じ気持ちに
なるだけでなく
01:45
There's something even more
startling happening.
さらに驚くようなことが
起き始めます
01:48
Let's take a look inside
Haley's brain for a moment.
ヘイリーの脳の中を
ちょっと覗いてみましょう
01:50
There are billions of interconnected
neurons in an impossible tangle.
途方もなく絡み合った
何十億というニューロンがあります
01:54
But look here, right here --
でも ほらここに
01:58
a few million of them
are linked to each other
互いに繋がり合った
数百万のニューロンが
02:00
in a way which represents a single idea.
1つのアイデアを
表しています
02:03
And incredibly, this exact pattern
is being recreated in real time
そして すごいことに
それとちょうど同じパターンが
02:06
inside the minds of everyone listening.
聞いている1人ひとりの頭の中に
リアルタイムで再構成されていきます
02:10
That's right; in just a few minutes,
そうです ほんの数分の間に
02:13
a pattern involving millions of neurons
何百万というニューロンが
かかわるパターンが
02:15
is being teleported into 1,200 minds,
1,200人の頭の中へ
テレポートするんです
02:18
just by people listening to a voice
and watching a face.
ただ声に耳を傾け
顔を見ているだけで
02:21
But wait -- what is an idea anyway?
アイデアとは
そもそも何なのか?
02:24
Well, you can think of it
as a pattern of information
それは世界を理解し
舵取りしていく上で役立つ
02:27
that helps you understand
and navigate the world.
情報のパターンだと
考えるといいでしょう
02:31
Ideas come in all shapes and sizes,
アイデアには様々な形や
大きさがあり
02:34
from the complex and analytical
複雑なもの 分析的なものから
02:36
to the simple and aesthetic.
単純なもの 美的なものまであります
02:38
Here are just a few examples
shared from the TED stage.
TEDのステージから例として
いくつか見てみましょう
02:40
Sir Ken Robinson -- creativity
is key to our kids' future.
ケン・ロビンソン
“創造性は子どもの未来を握る鍵”
02:43
(Video) Sir Ken Robinson:
My contention is that creativity now
(ケン・ロビンソン) 私の主張は
今や創造性は
02:47
is as important in education as literacy,
教育において
読み書き同様に重要であり
02:50
and we should treat it
with the same status.
同等に扱われるべきだ
ということです
02:53
Chris Anderson: Elora Hardy --
building from bamboo is beautiful.
(クリス) エローラ・ハーディー
“竹で作られた建物は美しい”
02:56
(Video) Elora Hardy:
It is growing all around us,
(エローラ・ハーディー)
竹はそこらじゅうに生えていて
02:59
it's strong, it's elegant,
it's earthquake-resistant.
強度があり 優雅で
地震にも耐えます
03:01
CA: Chimamanda Adichie --
people are more than a single identity.
(クリス) チママンダ・アディーチェ
“人は単一の概念でくくれるものではない”
03:05
(Video) Chimamanda Adichie:
The single story creates stereotypes,
(チママンダ・アディーチェ) 単一の話は
固定観念を作り出します
03:09
and the problem with stereotypes
is not that they are untrue,
固定観念に問題があるのは
間違っているからではなく
03:12
but that they are incomplete.
不完全だからです
03:17
CA: Your mind is teeming with ideas,
(クリス) 頭の中は
アイデアで満ちていますが
03:19
and not just randomly.
ランダムに
入っているのではなく
03:21
They're carefully linked together.
巧妙に繋がり合っていて
03:23
Collectively they form
an amazingly complex structure
全体として驚くほど
複雑な構造を形成し
03:25
that is your personal worldview.
それが その人の
世界観となります
03:28
It's your brain's operating system.
いわば脳のオペレーティング
システムです
03:30
It's how you navigate the world.
それで世の中を
舵取りしていくのです
03:32
And it is built up out of millions
of individual ideas.
世界観というのは何百万という
個々のアイデアから形成されています
03:34
So, for example, if one little
component of your worldview
そのため 例えば世界観の
小さな要素の1つに
03:38
is the idea that kittens are adorable,
「子猫は可愛い」という
アイデアがあったとすると
03:42
then when you see this,
これを見たとき
03:44
you'll react like this.
こんな風に反応するでしょう
03:47
But if another component of your worldview
でも世界観の別の要素に
03:48
is the idea that leopards are dangerous,
「ヒョウは危険だ」という
アイデアがあったなら
03:51
then when you see this,
これを見たとき
03:53
you'll react a little bit differently.
反応は少し違ったものに
なるでしょう
03:54
So, it's pretty obvious
だから世界観を構成するアイデアが
重要だというのは
03:57
why the ideas that make up
your worldview are crucial.
当然のことでしょう
03:59
You need them to be as reliable
as possible -- a guide,
それをできる限り
確かなものにする必要があります
04:03
to the scary but wonderful
real world out there.
恐ろしくも素晴らしい現実世界への
案内役なんですから
04:06
Now, different people's worldviews
can be dramatically different.
別の人たちの世界観は
ものすごく違っているかもしれません
04:09
For example,
たとえば あなたの世界観は
04:14
how does your worldview react
when you see this image:
この写真を見て
どう反応するでしょう?
04:15
(Video) Dalia Mogahed:
What do you think when you look at me?
(ダリア・モガヘッド)
私を見て どう思いますか?
04:19
"A woman of faith,"
"an expert," maybe even "a sister"?
「信仰心の強い女性」「専門家」
それとも「尼僧」でしょうか?
04:22
Or "oppressed," "brainwashed,"
あるいは「抑圧された」「洗脳された」
04:28
"a terrorist"?
「テロリスト」でしょうか?
04:32
CA: Whatever your answer,
(クリス) あなた自身の答えが
何であれ
04:33
there are millions of people out there
who would react very differently.
何百万という 非常に異なった
反応をする人々がいます
04:35
So that's why ideas really matter.
アイデアが重要な理由は
そこにあります
04:38
If communicated properly,
they're capable of changing, forever,
適切に伝達されたなら
アイデアには
04:40
how someone thinks about the world,
人が世界のことをどう思うか
永遠に変える力があり
04:44
and shaping their actions both now
and well into the future.
それによって現在と未来の行動を
方向付けることになります
04:46
Ideas are the most powerful force
shaping human culture.
アイデアは人間の文化を形作る
最も強い力なんです
04:51
So if you accept
講演者の何よりの仕事は
04:55
that your number one task
as a speaker is to build an idea
聴衆の頭の中に
アイデアを構築することだと
04:56
inside the minds of your audience,
もし認めてもらえるなら
04:59
here are four guidelines
for how you should go about that task:
それに取り組む上で従うべき
4つの指針を お教えします
05:01
One, limit your talk
to just one major idea.
【1】スピーチの主要なアイデアは
1つに絞ること
05:04
Ideas are complex things;
アイデアは複雑なものです
05:09
you need to slash back your content
so that you can focus
自分が最も強い想いを抱く
アイデア1つに集中し
05:11
on the single idea
you're most passionate about,
その1つをきちんと
説明できるよう
05:14
and give yourself a chance
to explain that one thing properly.
内容を切り詰める
必要があります
05:17
You have to give context,
share examples, make it vivid.
背景が分かるようにし 例を挙げ
アイデアを鮮明に描き出す
05:20
So pick one idea,
選んだ1つのアイデアが
05:24
and make it the through-line
running through your entire talk,
スピーチ全体を貫く根幹となり
05:25
so that everything you say
links back to it in some way.
話すことのすべてが
そこに繋がるようにしましょう
05:29
Two, give your listeners a reason to care.
【2】聞く人に関心を持つべき
理由を与えること
05:33
Before you can start building things
inside the minds of your audience,
聴衆の頭の中に
何かを作り始める前に
05:37
you have to get their permission
to welcome you in.
まず中に入れてもらう
必要があります
05:41
And the main tool to achieve that?
そのための道具は
何でしょう?
05:44
Curiosity.
好奇心です
05:46
Stir your audience's curiosity.
聴衆の好奇心を
掻き立てましょう
05:47
Use intriguing, provocative questions
惹き付けられる
挑発的な問いを使い
05:49
to identify why something
doesn't make sense and needs explaining.
あるものが なぜ道理に合わず
説明がいるのかを 明らかにしましょう
05:52
If you can reveal a disconnection
in someone's worldview,
世界観の中にある穴に
気付かせてやれば
05:56
they'll feel the need
to bridge that knowledge gap.
相手はその穴を
埋めたいと感じます
06:00
And once you've sparked that desire,
その欲求が
引き起こされたなら
06:04
it will be so much easier
to start building your idea.
こちらのアイデアを組み上げてやるのは
ずっと楽になります
06:06
Three, build your idea, piece by piece,
【3】聴衆が既に
理解している概念を使って
06:10
out of concepts that your audience
already understands.
1歩1歩アイデアを
築いていくこと
06:13
You use the power of language
聴衆の頭の中に既にある
06:17
to weave together
concepts that already exist
概念を関連づけるために
06:18
in your listeners' minds --
言葉の力を使いましょう
06:21
but not your language, their language.
ただし自分のではなく
相手の言葉を使います
06:23
You start where they are.
聴衆のいる地点から
始めるのです
06:25
The speakers often forget that many
of the terms and concepts they live with
講演者は自分が日々使っている
用語や概念の多くが
06:27
are completely unfamiliar
to their audiences.
聴衆には全然馴染みがないことを
忘れがちです
06:30
Now, metaphors can play a crucial role
in showing how the pieces fit together,
パーツがどう組み上がるか示す上で
比喩が重要な役割を果たします
06:33
because they reveal
the desired shape of the pattern,
望むパターンの形を
06:38
based on an idea that the listener
already understands.
聞き手が理解しているアイデアを使って
示すことができるからです
06:42
For example, when Jennifer Kahn
たとえばジェニファー・カーンは
こんな風に
06:46
wanted to explain the incredible
new biotechnology called CRISPR,
CRISPRというバイオテクノロジーの
ものすごい新技術を説明しました
06:48
she said, "It's as if, for the first time,
「DNAのためのワープロが
06:51
you had a word processor to edit DNA.
初めてできたようなものです
06:54
CRISPR allows you to cut and paste
genetic information really easily."
CRISPRを使うと すごく簡単に
遺伝情報のカット&ペーストができるんです」
06:57
Now, a vivid explanation like that
delivers a satisfying aha moment
このような鮮やかな説明は
頭の中へ はまり込んだときに
07:02
as it snaps into place in our minds.
満足感を伴う
ひらめきの瞬間をもたらします
07:06
It's important, therefore,
to test your talk on trusted friends,
だから自分のスピーチを
信頼できる友人に聞いてもらい
07:08
and find out which parts
they get confused by.
分かりにくい部分を見つける
ことが大事です
07:12
Four, here's the final tip:
【4】最後の指針は
07:15
Make your idea worth sharing.
自分のアイデアを みんなに知らせる
価値のあるものにすること
07:17
By that I mean, ask yourself the question:
そのためには
07:21
"Who does this idea benefit?"
「そのアイデアで恩恵を受けるのは誰か?」
と自問することです
07:23
And I need you to be honest
with the answer.
この問いには 正直に
答える必要があります
07:26
If the idea only serves you
or your organization,
そのアイデアが 自分や自分の組織にしか
役立たないなら
07:29
then, I'm sorry to say,
it's probably not worth sharing.
悪いですが みんなに知らせる価値は
多分ないでしょう
07:32
The audience will see right through you.
聴衆はすぐ見抜きます
07:35
But if you believe that the idea
has the potential
でも もしそのアイデアに
07:37
to brighten up someone else's day
誰かの心を明るくするとか
07:40
or change someone else's
perspective for the better
誰かの考え方を
良い方に変えるとか
07:42
or inspire someone to do
something differently,
物事のやり方を変えるよう促す
力があると思うなら
07:45
then you have the core ingredient
to a truly great talk,
その人たちや その他すべての人への
贈り物となる
07:48
one that can be a gift to them
and to all of us.
素晴らしいスピーチの
素材を手にしているのです
07:51
Translated by Yasushi Aoki
Reviewed by Maki Sugimoto

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About the Speaker:

Chris Anderson - TED Curator
After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in 2002 and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading.

Why you should listen

Chris Anderson is the Curator of TED, a nonprofit devoted to sharing valuable ideas, primarily through the medium of 'TED Talks' -- short talks that are offered free online to a global audience.

Chris was born in a remote village in Pakistan in 1957. He spent his early years in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, where his parents worked as medical missionaries, and he attended an American school in the Himalayas for his early education. After boarding school in Bath, England, he went on to Oxford University, graduating in 1978 with a degree in philosophy, politics and economics.

Chris then trained as a journalist, working in newspapers and radio, including two years producing a world news service in the Seychelles Islands.

Back in the UK in 1984, Chris was captivated by the personal computer revolution and became an editor at one of the UK's early computer magazines. A year later he founded Future Publishing with a $25,000 bank loan. The new company initially focused on specialist computer publications but eventually expanded into other areas such as cycling, music, video games, technology and design, doubling in size every year for seven years. In 1994, Chris moved to the United States where he built Imagine Media, publisher of Business 2.0 magazine and creator of the popular video game users website IGN. Chris eventually merged Imagine and Future, taking the combined entity public in London in 1999, under the Future name. At its peak, it published 150 magazines and websites and employed 2,000 people.

This success allowed Chris to create a private nonprofit organization, the Sapling Foundation, with the hope of finding new ways to tackle tough global issues through media, technology, entrepreneurship and, most of all, ideas. In 2001, the foundation acquired the TED Conference, then an annual meeting of luminaries in the fields of Technology, Entertainment and Design held in Monterey, California, and Chris left Future to work full time on TED.

He expanded the conference's remit to cover all topics, including science, business and key global issues, while adding a Fellows program, which now has some 300 alumni, and the TED Prize, which grants its recipients "one wish to change the world." The TED stage has become a place for thinkers and doers from all fields to share their ideas and their work, capturing imaginations, sparking conversation and encouraging discovery along the way.

In 2006, TED experimented with posting some of its talks on the Internet. Their viral success encouraged Chris to begin positioning the organization as a global media initiative devoted to 'ideas worth spreading,' part of a new era of information dissemination using the power of online video. In June 2015, the organization posted its 2,000th talk online. The talks are free to view, and they have been translated into more than 100 languages with the help of volunteers from around the world. Viewership has grown to approximately one billion views per year.

Continuing a strategy of 'radical openness,' in 2009 Chris introduced the TEDx initiative, allowing free licenses to local organizers who wished to organize their own TED-like events. More than 8,000 such events have been held, generating an archive of 60,000 TEDx talks. And three years later, the TED-Ed program was launched, offering free educational videos and tools to students and teachers.

More profile about the speaker
Chris Anderson | Speaker | TED.com