04:20
TED2016

Sanford Biggers: An artist's unflinching look at racial violence

サンフォード・ビガーズ: 人種間暴力を正視するアーティストの眼

Filmed:

コンセプチュアル・アーティストでTEDフェローのサンフォード・ビガーズは、絵画、彫刻、ビデオ、パフォーマンスを通して「黒人のアメリカ」の歴史とトラウマについて、やりがいのある対話を生み出します。魅力的な2つの作品に関する彼の解説と、その背後にある動機に耳を傾けましょう。「歴史と人種に関する深い対話を通してはじめて、私たちは個人や社会として進歩できる」とビガーズは語ります。

- Conceptual artist
Sanford Biggers creates art that upends traditional narratives about topics ranging from hip hop to Buddhism to American history. Full bio

As a conceptual artist,
私はコンセプチュアル・アーティストなので
00:12
I'm constantly looking for creative ways
to spark challenging conversations.
やりがいのある対話を生む
独創的な方法を いつも探しています
00:14
I do this though painting, sculpture,
video and performance.
使うのは 絵画や彫刻
ビデオやパフォーマンスです
00:18
But regardless of the format,
ただ 形式に関わらず
00:22
two of my favorite materials
are history and dialogue.
好きな題材は
「歴史」と「対話」です
00:23
In 2007, I created "Lotus,"
2007年に制作したのが『蓮』です
00:27
a seven-and-a-half-foot diameter,
直径2.3メートル
00:30
600-pound glass depiction
of a lotus blossom.
270kgのガラスに
蓮の花を描きました
00:32
In Buddhism, the lotus is a symbol
for transcendence
仏教では
蓮は 悟りと
00:35
and for purity of mind and spirit.
心や魂の純粋さを
象徴します
00:39
But a closer look at this lotus
でも この蓮をよく見ると
00:41
reveals each petal
to be the cross-section of a slave ship.
花びら1つ1つが
奴隷船の断面図になっています
00:44
This iconic diagram was taken
from a British slaving manual
この象徴的な図は イギリスの
奴隷輸送マニュアルのもので
00:47
and later used by abolitionists to show
the atrocities of slavery.
後に奴隷制の残酷さを示すために
廃止論者に利用されました
00:51
In America, we don't like
to talk about slavery,
アメリカでは
奴隷制について語ることも
00:56
nor do we look at it as a global industry.
世界規模の産業と捉えることも
避けがちです
00:58
But by using this Buddhist symbol,
ですが
仏教のシンボルを通し
01:01
I hope to universalize and transcend
「黒人のアメリカ」にまつわる
01:03
the history and trauma of black America
歴史とトラウマを普遍化し 昇華して
01:05
and encourage discussions
about our shared past.
我々が共有する過去に関する
議論を盛り上げたいのです
01:08
To create "Lotus,"
we carved over 6,000 figures.
『蓮』を制作するために
6千以上の人間を彫りました
01:12
And this later led to a commission
by the City of New York
その後 ニューヨーク市の依頼で
01:16
to create a 28-foot version in steel
スチール製の8.5mのバージョンを
01:19
as a permanent installation
at the Eagle Academy for Young Men,
常設インスタレーションとして
イーグルアカデミーに作ることになりました
01:21
a school for black and latino students,
この学校は
アフリカ系とラテン系向けですが
01:24
the two groups most affected
by this history.
どちらも この歴史から
大きな影響を受けています
01:27
The same two groups are very affected
by a more recent phenomenon,
彼らは 昨今の状況からも
深刻な影響を受けているのですが
01:30
but let me digress.
少し話題を変えましょう
01:33
I've been collecting
wooden African figures
私は世界中の土産屋や
フリーマーケットで
01:35
from tourist shops and flea markets
around the world.
アフリカの木像を収集しています
01:38
The authenticity and origin
of them is completely debatable,
出処も真贋も定かでありませんが
01:40
but people believe these
to be imbued with power,
みんな そこにパワーや魔力が
01:43
or even magic.
備わっていると信じています
01:46
Only recently have I figured out
how to use this in my own work.
最近 これを作品化する方法を
思いつきました
01:47
(Gun shots)
(銃声)
01:51
Since 2012, the world has witnessed
the killings of Trayvon Martin,
2012年以降 トレイボン・マーティン、
マイケル・ブラウン、
02:05
Michael Brown, Eric Garner,
Sandra Bland, Tamir Rice
エリック・ガーナー、サンドラ・ブランド、
タミル・ライスをはじめ
02:09
and literally countless other
unarmed black citizens
まさに無数の
丸腰のアフリカ系市民が
02:13
at the hands of the police,
警官の手で殺害されました
02:16
who frequently walk away
with no punishment at all.
でも警官は
しばしば無罪放免になります
02:17
In consideration of these victims
彼ら犠牲者のことを考えながら
02:20
and the several times that even I,
また 法律を順守している
02:22
a law-abiding, Ivy League professor,
名門大学の教授の
私でさえ何度か遭遇した
02:24
have been targeted and harassed
at gunpoint by the police.
警官に銃を突きつけられ
脅された経験を元に
02:27
I created this body of work
simply entitled "BAM."
一連の作品を制作しました
タイトルは一言 『BAM』です
02:30
It was important to erase
the identity of each of these figures,
大事にしたのは
人形の個性を消し
02:36
to make them all look the same
and easier to disregard.
見た目をどれも同じにして
関心を引かないようにすることでした
02:39
To do this, I dip them in a thick,
brown wax
そこで 人形を
濃い茶色のロウに浸し
02:43
before taking them to a shooting range
射撃場へ持って行き
02:45
where I re-sculpted them using bullets.
銃弾を使って
彫刻し直したのです
02:47
And it was fun,
大きな銃と
02:51
playing with big guns and
high-speed video cameras.
高速度ビデオカメラを使うのは
楽しかったですが
02:52
But my reverence for these figures
kept me from actually pulling the trigger,
人形を尊敬する気持ちが起きて
引き金を引くのを ためらいました
02:55
somehow feeling as if I would
be shooting myself.
なぜか自分を撃つような
気がしたのです
02:58
Finally, my cameraman, Raul,
fired the shots.
結局カメラマンのラウールが
撃ってくれました
03:01
I then took the fragments of these
私は破片を拾い集めて
03:06
and created molds,
and cast them first in wax,
鋳型を作り
まずロウで型を作ってから
03:08
and finally in bronze
like the image you see here,
ブロンズで鋳造しました
この画像の通りです
03:12
which bears the marks
of its violent creation
暴力的な制作の跡が残っていて
03:15
like battle wounds or scars.
まるで戦闘で受けた傷痕のようです
03:18
When I showed this work recently in Miami,
最近 この作品をマイアミで展示した時
03:20
a woman told me she felt
every gun shot to her soul.
ある女性は 一発一発の銃弾を
感じるようだと訴えてきました
03:22
But she also felt that these artworks
一方 彼女はこの作品が
03:25
memorialized the victims of these killings
一連の殺人事件の被害者だけでなく
03:28
as well as other victims of
racial violence throughout US history.
米国史全体に及ぶ人種間暴力の
被害者への追悼だと感じていました
03:30
But "Lotus" and "BAM" are larger
than just US history.
ただし 『蓮』も『BAM』も
米国史だけに留まりません
03:33
While showing in Berlin last year,
去年ベルリンで展覧会をしていると
03:36
a philosophy student asked me
what prompted these recent killings.
ある哲学専攻の学生が
一連の殺人の原因を尋ねてきました
03:38
I showed him a photo
of a lynching postcard
私は彼に
リンチの様子を写した
03:42
from the early 1900s
1900年代初頭の絵葉書を見せ
03:44
and reminded him that these killings
have been going on for over 500 years.
500年以上 こんな殺人が
続いていることを指摘しました
03:46
But it's only through questions like his
彼が抱いたような疑問や
03:51
and more thoughtful dialogue
about history and race
歴史と人種に関する
深い対話を通して はじめて
03:53
can we evolve as individuals and society.
私たちは個人や社会として
進歩できます
03:56
I hope my artwork creates a safe space
私の望みは 自分の作品が
03:59
for this type of honest exchange
率直なやり取りができる
安全地帯と
04:02
and an opportunity for people
to engage one another
人々が 本当に必要な
対話に参加する機会を
04:05
in real and necessary conversation.
生み出すことなのです
04:07
Thank you.
ありがとう
04:10
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:11
Translated by Kazunori Akashi
Reviewed by Takafusa Kitazume

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About the Speaker:

Sanford Biggers - Conceptual artist
Sanford Biggers creates art that upends traditional narratives about topics ranging from hip hop to Buddhism to American history.

Why you should listen

An LA native working in NYC, Sanford Biggers creates artworks that integrate film, video, installation, sculpture, drawing, original music and performance. He intentionally complicates issues such as hip hop, Buddhism, politics, identity and art history in order to offer new perspectives and associations for established symbols. Through a multi-disciplinary formal process and a syncretic creative approach, he makes works that are as aesthetically pleasing as they are conceptual.

The significance of Biggers' work within contemporary society has been celebrated through solo exhibitions both nationally and internationally, most recently at the Brooklyn Museum, Sculpture Center and Mass MoCA. He has participated in prestigious residencies and fellowships including: Akademie Schloss Solitude, Stuttgart, Germany; Ujazdowski Castle, Warsaw, Poland; Headlands Center for the Arts, Sausalito, California; ARCUS Project Foundation, Ibaraki, Japan; and the Art in General/ Trafo Gallery Eastern European Exchange in Budapest, Hungary. He has been a fellow of the Creative Time Global Residency, the Socrates Sculpture Park Residency, the Lower Manhattan Cultural Council World Views AIR Program, the Eyebeam Atelier Teaching Residency, the Studio Museum AIR Program, the P.S. 1 International Studio Program and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture residency.

Biggers' installations, videos and performances have appeared in venues worldwide including Tate Britain and Tate Modern in London, the Whitney Museum and Studio Museum in Harlem, New York and the Yerba Bue a Center for the Arts in San Francisco, as well as institutions in China, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Poland and Russia. The artist's works have been included in notable exhibitions such as: Prospect 1 New Orleans Biennial, Illuminations at the Tate Modern, Performa 07 in NY, the Whitney Biennial and Freestyle at the Studio Museum in Harlem. His works are included in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art, Walker Art Center, Whitney Museum, Brooklyn Museum and Bronx Museum.

Biggers has won awards including: the American Academy in Berlin Prize, Greenfield Prize, New York City Art Teachers Association Artist-of-the-Year, Creative Time Travel Grant, Creative Capital Project Grant, New York Percent for the Arts Commission, Art Matters Grant, New York Foundation for the Arts Award, the Lambent Fellowship in the Arts, the Pennies From Heaven/ New York Community Trust Award, Tanne Foundation Award and Rema Hort Mann Foundation Award Grant.

Biggers is Assistant Professor at Columbia University's Visual Arts program and a board member of Sculpture Center, Soho House and the CUE Foundation. He has also taught at Virginia Commonwealth University’s Sculpture and Expanded Media program and was a visiting scholar at Harvard University's VES Department in 2009.

More profile about the speaker
Sanford Biggers | Speaker | TED.com