06:05
TED2016

ShaoLan: The Chinese zodiac, explained

シャオラン・シュエ: 十二支入門

Filmed:

世界人口の4分の1は十二支をとても気にかけています。自分では信じていなくとも、どんな仕組みか知っておいた方が賢明だとシャオラン・シュエは言います。この楽しくて勉強になる講演で、シャオランはこの古くからの伝統を理解するコツと、人の性格から仕事、結婚、一年の運勢まで、それがどう影響すると信じられているのか教えてくれます。あなたの十二支は何ですか?

- Technologist, entrepreneur
ShaoLan want to help people understand China's culture and language, and to bridge the gap between East and West. Full bio

Have you ever been asked
by your Chinese friend,
中国人の友達に
00:12
"What is your zodiac sign?"
「十二支は何?」と
聞かれたことはありませんか?
00:15
Don't think they are making small talk.
当たり障りのない話をしているとは
思わないことです
00:17
If you say, "I'm a Monkey,"
「猿ですよ」なんて答えようものなら
00:20
they immediately know
年齢が 24か 36か 48か 60の
どれかだって
00:22
you are either 24, 36, 48 or 60 years old.
分かってしまいます
00:23
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:27
Asking a zodiac sign is a polite way
of asking your age.
十二支を尋ねるというのは
失礼にならずに年を聞く方法なんです
00:28
By revealing your zodiac sign,
you are also being evaluated.
十二支を教えることでまた
値踏みされることにもなります
00:32
Judgments are being made
about your fortune or misfortune,
運・不運や 性格
00:36
your personality, career prospects
出世の見込み
00:40
and how you will do in a given year.
その年が良い年になるかまで
判断されます
00:42
If you share you and your
partner's animal signs,
連れ合いの十二支も教えたなら
00:45
they will paint a picture in their mind
about your private life.
私生活の様子を
想像されることになります
00:48
Maybe you don't believe
in the Chinese zodiac.
十二支なんて信じていない
かもしれませんが
00:52
As a quarter of the world population
is influenced by it,
世界人口の4分の1が
それに影響されているんですから
00:55
you'd be wise to do something about that.
頭の片隅に
入れておいた方が賢明です
00:59
So what is the Chinese zodiac, exactly?
十二支とは正確には何でしょう?
01:02
Most Westerners think
of Greco-Roman zodiac,
西洋人に馴染みがあるのは
01:05
the signs divided into 12 months.
1年を12の月に分ける
ギリシア・ローマ式の十二宮です
01:09
The Chinese zodiac is different.
十二支は違います
01:11
It's a 12-year cycle labeled with animals,
それぞれ動物の名のついた
12年の周期で
01:13
starting with a Rat and ending with a Pig,
「鼠」から始まり
「猪」で終わります
01:17
and has no association
with constellations.
星座とは関係ありません
01:19
For example, if you were born
in 1975, you are a Rabbit.
たとえば 1975年生まれなら
「兎」です
01:23
Can you see your zodiac sign there?
自分の十二支が
どれか分かりますか?
01:29
Our Chinese ancestors constructed
a very complicated theoretical framework
私たち中国人の祖先は
とても複雑な理論体系を作り出しましたが
01:32
based on yin and yang, the five elements
and the 12 zodiac animals.
その基礎にあるのが
陰陽・五行・十二支です
01:37
Over thousands of years,
多くの人が親しんでいるこの文化は
01:42
this popular culture has affected
people's major decisions,
何千年にも渡って 人々の重要な決断に
影響を及ぼしてきました
01:44
such as naming, marriage, giving birth
and attitude towards each other.
命名 結婚 出産
お互いに対する態度
01:48
And some of the implications
are quite amazing.
中には驚くような話もあります
01:54
The Chinese believe certain animals
get on better than the others.
中国人は動物ごとに
相性があると信じています
01:58
So parents choose specific years
to give birth to babies,
そして親は子供を産む年を
選ぼうとします
02:03
because they believe the team effort
by the right combination of animals
適切な動物の組み合わせによる
協同作業が
02:07
can give prosperity to families.
家族に繁栄をもたらすと
信じているからです
02:12
We even refer to the zodiac
when entering into romantic relations.
恋愛関係においてさえ
十二支を参考にします
02:15
I'm a Pig; I should have perfect romance
with Tigers, Goats and Rabbits.
私は「猪」なので いい恋ができる相手は
「虎」か「羊」か「兎」です
02:20
Chinese people believe some animals
are natural enemies.
中国人は天敵同士の動物がいると
思っています
02:27
As a Pig, I need
to be careful with a Snake.
「猪」の私は「蛇」の人に
気を付けなければなりません
02:31
Raise your hand if you are a Snake.
「蛇」の人いますか?
02:35
Let's have a chat later.
後でちょっと
話を付けましょうか
02:37
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:39
We believe some animals
are luckier than the others,
ある動物は他の動物より
幸運だと思われています
02:40
such as the Dragon.
「龍」なんかがそうです
02:43
Unlike the Western tradition,
西洋の伝統とは違って
02:45
the Chinese Dragon is a symbol
for power, strength and wealth.
中国の「龍」は
権力 強さ 富の象徴です
02:47
It's everyone's dream
to have a Dragon baby.
「龍」の子を持つことは
みんなの夢です
02:52
Jack Ma's parents
must have been very proud.
ジャック・マーの両親は
鼻が高いに違いありません
02:55
And they are not the only ones.
でも彼らだけではありません
02:58
In 2012, the Year of the Dragon,
「龍」の年だった2012年に
03:00
the birthrate in China,
Hong Kong and Taiwan
中国 香港 台湾では
03:03
increased by five percent.
出生率が5パーセント
上昇しました
03:05
That means another
one million more babies.
例年よりも100万人余計に
子供が生まれたということです
03:07
With a traditional
preference to baby boys,
男の子が好まれる伝統のため
03:12
the boy-girl ratio that year
was 120 to 100.
この年の男女比は
120対100でした
03:15
When those Dragon boys grow up,
この「龍」の男の子たちは
大人になったとき
03:20
they will face much more severe
competition in love and job markets.
恋愛や仕事において
より厳しい競争に晒されることになります
03:22
According to the BBC and the Chinese
government's press release,
BBCと中国政府の発表によると
03:27
January 2015 saw a peak
of Cesarean sections.
帝王切開の実施数は
2015年1月にピークがありました
03:31
Why?
どうしてでしょう?
03:36
That was the last month
for the Year of the Horse.
「馬」の年の最後の月だからです
03:38
It's not because they like horses so much,
「馬」がそんなに好まれているから
というわけではなく
03:42
it's because they try to avoid
having unlucky Goat babies.
子供が不運な「羊」にならないように
するためです
03:44
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:48
If you are a Goat, please don't feel bad.
「羊」の人は どうか
がっかりしないで
03:49
Those are Goat babies.
この人たちも
「羊」の生まれです
03:52
They don't look like losers to me.
負け犬ってことは
ないと思いますよ
03:53
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:56
Tiger is another undesirable animal,
「虎」というのも
その激しやすい性格のため
03:57
due to its volatile temperament.
好まれていない動物です
04:00
Many Chinese regions
saw a sharp decline of birthrate
これらの年に出生率が
大きく下がる地域が
04:02
during those years.
中国にはたくさんあります
04:06
Perhaps one should consider
zodiac in reverse,
でも 十二支は 逆に考えたほうが
いいのかもしれません
04:08
as those Tiger and Goat babies
will face much less competition.
競争の少ないところで生きられる
「虎」や「羊」の子供達は
04:11
Maybe they are the lucky ones.
むしろ幸運なのかも
04:16
I went through the Forbes
top 300 richest people in the world,
フォーブズ誌の世界長者番付
上位300人のリストを調べてみましたが
04:20
and it's interesting to see
興味深いことに
04:24
the most undesirable two animals,
the Goat and Tiger,
最も望ましくない動物のはずの
04:26
are at the top of the chart,
「羊」と「虎」が最も多く
04:30
even higher than the Dragon.
「龍」よりも多かったのです
04:32
So maybe we should consider,
競争が少ないというのは
04:34
maybe it's much better
to have less competition.
それだけ好ましいこと
なのかもしれません
04:36
One last but interesting point:
興味深い最後の点として
04:40
many Chinese people make
their investment decisions
中国人の多くは
投資の決断を
04:42
based on the zodiac sign index.
十二支の指標に基づいて行う
というのがあります
04:45
Although the belief and tradition
of the zodiac sign
十二支の考えや伝統は
04:48
has been over thousands of years,
何千年も前からありましたが
04:52
the trend of using it
in making major decisions
それが重要な決断に
使われるようになったのは
04:55
did not really happen
until the past few decades.
この何十年かのことです
04:58
Our ancestors were very busy
surviving poverty, drought,
ご先祖たちは
貧困や干ばつや飢饉や暴動や
05:01
famine, riot, disease and civil war.
疫病や内戦の中を生き抜くので
手一杯でした
05:06
And finally, Chinese people
have the time, wealth and technology
中国の人々はようやく
ずっと望んでいた理想の生活をするための
05:10
to create an ideal life
they've always wanted.
時間と富とテクノロジーを
手にしたのです
05:15
The collective decision
made by 1.3 billion people
13億の人々が
集団的に下す決断は
05:19
has caused the fluctuation in economics
and demand on everything,
医療や教育から
不動産や消費財に到るまで
05:23
from health care and education
to property and consumer goods.
あらゆるものの需要や経済に
変動を引き起こします
05:27
As China plays such an important role
in the global economy and geopolitics,
世界経済や地政学的問題において
中国が大きな役割を果たす今
05:33
the decisions made based on the zodiac
and other Chinese traditions
十二支やその他の中国の伝統に
基づいてなされる決断が
05:38
end up impacting everyone
around the world.
世界のあらゆる人に
影響を及ぼしています
05:42
Are there any Monkeys here?
この中に「猿」の人はいますか?
05:47
2016 is the Year of the Monkey.
今年2016年は「猿」の年です
05:50
Monkeys are clever, curious,
creative and mischievous.
「猿」は賢くて 好奇心が強く
創造的で いたずら好きなんですよ
05:53
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
05:58
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:00
Translated by Yasushi Aoki
Reviewed by Mieko Yabiku

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About the Speaker:

ShaoLan Hsueh - Technologist, entrepreneur
ShaoLan want to help people understand China's culture and language, and to bridge the gap between East and West.

Why you should listen

ShaoLan is an entrepreneur, angel investor, geek, writer, traveller and dreamer. She is the founder and creator of Chineasy, which she launched after her TED Talk in Long Beach, California in 2013.

In just over three years, she has built Chineasy into one of the most popular methods of learning Chinese across the Internet with several hundred thousand fellow learners. Her first book, Chineasy, The New Way to Read Chinese, was launched in March 2014 and has been translated into 18 languages. Her next book, Chineasy Everyday, was launched in March 2016.

ShaoLan is a tech entrepreneur with extensive business experience. At the age of 22, while studying for her MBA, she wrote four best-selling books on software in Taiwan, and her books were bundled by Microsoft. She co-founded pAsia, one of the major players on Internet in Asia in 1990’s. After a second masters degree at the University of Cambridge, she began Caravel Capital in 2005 to advise young tech companies.

Chineasy represents a return for ShaoLan to her artistic upbringing and in many ways a design project. This project is the culmination of her life’s journey through the East and West. Her aim is to help people to understand China, Chinese culture, its language and to bridge the gap between East and West. Her next step is to help Chinese children to enjoy and appreciate the beauty of their own language. 

 

More profile about the speaker
ShaoLan Hsueh | Speaker | TED.com