13:23
TEDxMidAtlantic

Elise Roy: When we design for disability, we all benefit

エリーズ・ロイ: 障がい者のためのデザインは全ての人の役に立つ

Filmed:

「聴覚を失ったことは、私が恵まれた最も素晴らしい才能のひとつだと思います」と、エリーズ・ロイは言います。障がい者の権利を専門とする弁護士であり、デザイン思考の実践者でもある彼女は、耳が聞こえないことによって、世界を独自の方法で経験し、理解しているのだと言います。そしてこの視点こそが、私たちが抱える大きな問題のいくつかを解決に導きうるものなのだと。「まず障がい者のためにデザインすれば、健常者のためにデザインする場合よりも、より良い解決策に行き当たることが多いのです」と、彼女は語っています。

- Lawyer, artist, human rights advocate
Elise Roy thinks that designers have the capacity and responsibility to address and resolve human problems on micro and macro scales and contribute to social well-being. Full bio

I'll never forget the sound
私は決して忘れないでしょう
00:13
of laughing with my friends.
友達と笑いあった笑い声を
00:15
I'll never forget the sound
私は決して忘れないでしょう
00:19
of my mother's voice
right before I fell asleep.
私が眠りにおちる直前の
母の声を
00:20
And I'll never forget
the comforting sound of water
そして決して忘れないでしょう
小川に沿って水が流れる―
00:26
trickling down a stream.
心地よい音を
00:30
Imagine my fear, pure fear,
私の純粋な恐怖を
想像してみてください
00:34
when, at the age of 10,
10歳の時に
00:38
I was told I was going to lose my hearing.
私は聴覚を失うだろうと言われました
00:40
And over the next five years,
それから5年間
00:45
it progressed until I was classified
as profoundly deaf.
失聴したと診断されるまで
聴力の低下は続きました
00:47
But I believe that losing my hearing
しかし 聴覚を失ったことは
00:54
was one of the greatest gifts
I've ever received.
私が恵まれた最も素晴らしい才能の
ひとつだと思います
00:57
You see, I get to experience
the world in a unique way.
私は世界を独自の方法で
経験することができます
01:02
And I believe that
these unique experiences
障がいを持つ人々の
01:06
that people with disabilities have
こうした独自の経験は
01:10
is what's going to help us
make and design a better world
障がいの有無を問わず
すべての人々にとって
01:13
for everyone -- both for people
with and without disabilities.
より良い世界を生み出し
デザインするのに役立つと考えています
01:18
I used to be a disability rights lawyer,
私は以前 障がい者の権利を
専門とする弁護士でした
01:25
and I spent a lot of my time
focused on enforcing the law,
法律が守られるよう
多くの時間を費やし
01:27
ensuring that accommodations were made.
調停が行われるよう
尽力しました
01:31
And then I had to quickly
learn international policy,
それから 私は国際法を
急いで勉強しなければなりませんでした
01:33
because I was asked to work
on the UN Convention
なぜなら 国連会議で
障がいを持つ人々を守るための
01:38
that protects people with disabilities.
仕事をするよう依頼されたからです
01:42
As the leader of the NGO there,
非政府組織の代表として
01:45
I spent most of my energy
trying to convince people
私は障がいを持つ人々の
能力について
01:48
about the capabilities
of people with disabilities.
人々を説得するのに
エネルギーを傾けました
01:53
But somewhere along the way,
しかし そうする中で
01:57
and after many career transitions
そして何度もキャリアを
転換する中で―
02:00
that my parents weren't so happy about --
両親はあまり
気に入らなかったようですが―
02:03
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:05
I stumbled upon a solution
ある解決策に行き当たりました
02:06
that I believe may be
an even more powerful tool
これは障がいの有無にかかわらず
02:09
to solve some of the world's
greatest problems,
世界の最も大きな問題の
いくつかを解決しうる
02:15
disability or not.
とても強力なツールと
なり得るでしょう
02:18
And that tool is called design thinking.
そのツールとは
デザイン思考です
02:22
Design thinking is a process
for innovation and problem solving.
デザイン思考は
革新と問題解決のプロセスです
02:27
There are five steps.
それには5つの段階があります
02:33
The first is defining the problem
第1段階は問題を定義し
02:35
and understanding its constraints.
その制約を理解することです
02:38
The second is observing people
in real-life situations
第2段階は実生活の中で
人々を観察し
02:41
and empathizing with them.
人々に共感することです
02:46
Third, throwing out hundreds of ideas --
the more the better,
第3段階はたくさんアイデアを出すこと
多ければ多いほど
02:48
the wilder the better.
大胆であればあるほど
いいのです
02:52
Fourth, prototyping:
gathering whatever you can,
第4段階は試作です
できる限り
02:55
whatever you can find,
見つかるものを全て集めて
02:59
to mimic your solution, to test it
解決法を模倣し 試験して
03:01
and to refine it.
改善します
03:03
And finally, implementation:
最後に 実行です
03:05
ensuring that the solution
you came up with is sustainable.
考えた解決法が
持続可能であるようにします
03:08
Warren Berger says that design thinking
teaches us to look sideways,
ウォーレン・バーガーは
デザイン思考が様々な方面に目を向け
03:15
to reframe, to refine, to experiment
再構成したり 洗練したり
実験したり
03:21
and, probably most importantly,
そして おそらくもっとも重要なことに
03:25
ask those stupid questions.
突飛な問いを立てることを
可能にすると言いました
03:27
Design thinkers believe
that everyone is creative.
デザイン思考の実践者は
誰もが創造的だと考え
03:31
They believe in bringing people
from multiple disciplines together,
複数の分野から人々を集めることが
有用だと信じます
03:36
because they want to share
multiple perspectives
なぜなら複数の視点を
共有して組み合わせ
03:41
and bring them together
and ultimately merge them
究極的には統合し
03:44
to form something new.
何か新しいものを生み出すのです
03:47
Design thinking is such a successful
and versatile tool
デザイン思考は非常に役立ち
用途が広いツールであるため
03:51
that it has been applied
in almost every industry.
ほぼすべての産業で
応用されてきました
03:55
I saw the potential that it had
for the issues I faced,
私は自分が直面する問題にも
応用できそうだと考え
04:00
so I decided to go back to school
大学に戻って
04:04
and get my master's in social design.
ソーシャルデザインの修士号を
取得しました
04:08
This looks at how to use design
to create positive change in the world.
これは世界に前向きな変化をもたらすために
デザインを使う方法を追究する学問です
04:11
While I was there,
大学院在学中に
04:18
I fell in love with woodworking.
私は木工に心惹かれました
04:19
But what I quickly realized
でも すぐに気づいたのは
04:22
was that I was missing out on something.
私には知覚できない現象があったことです
04:24
As you're working with a tool,
工具を使っていると
04:28
right before it's about
to kick back at you --
工具がキックバックを起こす前に―
04:31
which means the piece or the tool
jumps back at you --
つまり工具が自分に
跳ね返ってくる前に―
04:33
it makes a sound.
音がするのです
04:36
And I couldn't hear this sound.
でも私には聞こえません
04:38
So I decided,
そこで決めました
04:41
why not try and solve it?
この問題を解決してみようと
04:43
My solution was a pair of safety glasses
私の解決策は安全メガネでした
04:46
that were engineered
to visually alert the user
工具から鳴る音の高さが
変化すると
04:49
to pitch changes in the tool,
人間の耳に聞こえる前に
04:53
before the human ear could pick it up.
視覚的に警告してくれます
04:56
Why hadn't tool designers
thought of this before?
どうして工具のデザイナーは
もっと前に考えつかなかったんでしょう?
05:00
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:04
Two reasons: one, I was a beginner.
2つ理由があります
まず 私が初心者だったから
05:06
I wasn't weighed down by expertise
or conventional wisdom.
私は専門技術や慣習的な知恵に
囚われませんでした
05:10
The second is: I was Deaf.
2つ目に 耳が不自由だったから
05:16
My unique experience of the world
helped inform my solution.
私独自の経験が
解決策を教えてくれたのです
05:20
And as I went on, I kept running into
more and more solutions
続ける内に もっと多くの
解決策に出会いました
05:25
that were originally made
for people with disabilities,
元は障がいを持つ人のために作られ
05:29
and that ended up being picked up,
最終的に多くの人々に選ばれ
05:33
embraced and loved by the mainstream,
受け入れられ 愛されたものたちです
05:36
disability or not.
障がいの有無にかかわらずです
05:39
This is an OXO potato peeler.
これは OXO(オクソ)の
ジャガイモ用皮むき器です
05:41
It was originally designed
for people with arthritis,
元々は関節炎を患っている人々のために
デザインされましたが
05:43
but it was so comfortable,
everybody loved it.
とても使いやすいので
皆に愛されました
05:47
Text messaging: that was originally
designed for people who are Deaf.
携帯のテキストメッセージ
これはろう者のために作られたものです
05:51
And as you know,
everybody loves that, too.
ご存知の通り
皆大好きですね
05:56
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:59
I started thinking:
私はこう考え始めました
06:01
What if we changed our mindset?
考え方を変えたらどうだろうかと
06:03
What if we started designing
for disability first --
まず障がいを持つ人々のために
デザインをし始めたらどうか?
06:07
not the norm?
健常者ではなく
06:12
As you see, when we design
for disability first,
ご覧のとおり まず障がいを持つ人々の
ためにデザインすれば
06:14
we often stumble upon
solutions that are not only inclusive,
あらゆる人のためであるだけでなく
健常者のためだけのデザインよりも
06:18
but also are often better
than when we design for the norm.
更に良い解決法に行き会うことが
しばしばあるのです
06:24
And this excites me,
この発見にわくわくしました
06:30
because this means that the energy
it takes to accommodate someone
なぜなら 「障がい」を持つ人々が
使えるようにする調整に
06:31
with a disability
費やされるエネルギーを
06:38
can be leveraged, molded and played with
創造性と革新のための力として
利用したり 形を変えたり
06:39
as a force for creativity and innovation.
遊び心を持って試したりできるからです
06:44
This moves us from the mindset
of trying to change the hearts
これによって 私たちは
感じ方を変えようとする考え方や
06:49
and the deficiency mindset of tolerance,
寛容という
欠陥のある考え方から脱却して
06:55
to becoming an alchemist,
錬金術師になれる―
06:58
the type of magician that this world
so desperately needs
つまり大きな問題のいくつかを
解決に導いてくれるような
07:01
to solve some of its greatest problems.
世界が切望している
魔術師になれるのです
07:05
Now, I also believe
私はまた―
07:08
that people with disabilities
have great potential to be designers
障がいを持つ人々は
デザイン思考のプロセスでデザイナーになる
07:10
within this design-thinking process.
大きな可能性を秘めていると思います
07:15
Without knowing it, from a very early age,
意識しないうちに
ごく幼い頃から
07:18
I've been a design thinker,
fine-tuning my skills.
私は自分のスキルを調整し
デザイン思考を実践していました
07:21
Design thinkers are, by nature,
problem solvers.
デザイン思考の実践者とは
その性質ゆえに問題解決者でもあります
07:25
So imagine listening to a conversation
会話を耳にしていて
07:31
and only understanding
50 percent of what is said.
その50%しかわからないのを
想像してください
07:35
You can't ask them to repeat
every single word.
一語一句を繰り返してもらう
わけにはいきません
07:41
They would just get frustrated with you.
相手は苛立ってしまいます
07:44
So without even realizing it,
そこで 自分でも気づかないうちに
07:47
my solution was to take
the muffled sound I heard,
私は耳に入ってきた
不明瞭な音を
07:50
that was the beat,
ビートとして捉え
07:55
and turn it into a rhythm
and place it with the lips I read.
リズムに置き換えて
唇の動きと組み合わせていました
07:56
Years later, someone commented
that my writing had a rhythm to it.
何年も経ってから 私の文章には
リズムがあると言われました
08:01
Well, this is because I experience
conversations as rhythms.
これは私が会話をリズムとして
経験しているからなのです
08:08
I also became really,
really good at failing.
また 私は失敗するのが
非常に上手くなりました
08:14
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:19
Quite literally.
文字通りそのままです
08:20
My first semester in Spanish, I got a D.
スペイン語を学んだ
最初の学期の成績はDでした
08:22
But what I learned
was that when I picked myself up
でも わかったのは
やる気を出して
08:26
and changed a few things around,
いくつかの事柄を修正すると
08:30
eventually, I succeeded.
最終的に成功できるということです
08:32
Similarly, design thinking
encourages people to fail
デザイン思考もまた
人々に失敗することを促します
08:37
and fail often,
それも頻繁にです
08:41
because eventually, you will succeed.
なぜなら そうすれば
最終的に成功できるからです
08:43
Very few great innovations in this world
この世界で起きた革新の中で
08:47
have come from someone succeeding
on the first try.
最初から上手く行ったものは
ほとんどありません
08:51
I also experienced this lesson in sports.
この学びはスポーツでも
経験しました
08:56
I'll never forget my coach
saying to my mom,
コーチが母にこう言ったのを
私は忘れないでしょう
09:01
"If she just didn't have her hearing loss,
「娘さんは失聴さえしていなければ
09:05
she would be on the national team."
米国代表チームに入れたでしょうね」
09:08
But what my coach, and what I
didn't even know at the time,
私のコーチが―
そして私さえ当時知らなかったのは
09:12
was that my hearing loss
actually helped me excel at sports.
失聴したことでスポーツに
秀でることができたことです
09:17
You see, when you lose your hearing,
not only do you adapt your behavior,
聴覚を失うと
自分の行動を適応させるだけでなく
09:22
but you also adapt your physical senses.
身体的感覚も適応させることになります
09:28
One example of this
一例として挙げられるのは
09:32
is that my visual
attention span increased.
私の視野が広がったということです
09:34
Imagine a soccer player,
coming down the left flank.
左側からゴールに近づいてくる
サッカー選手を考えてみてください
09:39
Imagine being goalkeeper, like I was,
私はゴールキーパーでした
09:44
and the ball is coming
down the left flank.
ボールは左側から近づいてきます
09:46
A person with normal hearing
would have the visual perspective of this.
健聴者の視野はこれくらいです
09:49
I had the benefit of a spectrum this wide.
私はこれくらい広い範囲を
見ることができます
09:54
So I picked up the players over here,
ですから ここにいる選手が
09:58
that were moving about
and coming down the field.
動きまわって
ゴールに近づいてくるのが見えました
10:01
And I picked them up quicker,
so that if the ball was passed,
しかも速く気づけるので
パスがその選手に回れば
10:03
I could reposition myself
and be ready for that shot.
私は体勢を整えて
シュートに備えられるのです
10:07
So as you can see,
このように
10:12
I've been a design thinker
for nearly all my life.
私はこれまでの人生でほぼずっと
デザイン思考を実践してきました
10:14
My observation skills have been honed
so that I pick up on things
観察力に磨きがかかり
他の人なら気づかないようなことに
10:18
that others would never pick up on.
気づくことができます
10:23
My constant need to adapt
has made me a great ideator
適応する必要が常にあるために
私は優れたアイデアの発案者
10:27
and problem solver.
かつ問題解決者になれたのです
10:31
And I've often had to do this
within limitations and constraints.
私はこれを制約や制限の中で
行わねばなりませんでした
10:33
This is something that designers
also have to deal with frequently.
これもまたデザイナーが
頻繁に対処しなければならない事柄です
10:38
My work most recently took me to Haiti.
私は最近仕事で
ハイチに行きました
10:44
Design thinkers often seek out
extreme situations,
デザイン思考の実践者は
極端な環境に行くことが多いのですが
10:48
because that often informs
some of their best designs.
それは良いデザインに
つながることが多いからです
10:52
And Haiti -- it was like a perfect storm.
そしてハイチは―
最悪の状態にある場所でした
10:56
I lived and worked
with 300 Deaf individuals
私は300人のろう者と
生活を共にして仕事をしました
11:00
that were relocated
after the 2010 earthquake.
彼らは2010年の地震以降
移住を余儀なくされたのでした
11:05
But five and a half years later,
5年半経った今でも
11:09
there still was no electricity;
まだ電気が通っておらず
11:13
there still was no safe drinking water;
安全な飲料水もなく
11:15
there were still no job opportunities;
職を得る機会もなければ
11:18
there was still rampant crime,
and it went unpunished.
犯罪がはびこり
罰せられることもありませんでした
11:21
International aid organizations
came one by one.
国際支援機関が
次々にやってきました
11:25
But they came
しかし そういった機関は
11:29
with pre-determined solutions.
事前に決定した解決策を
持ってくるのです
11:30
They didn't come ready
to observe and to adapt
そういった機関は
観察したり
11:33
based on the community's needs.
コミュニティの需要に
適応しようとはしませんでした
11:38
One organization gave them
goats and chickens.
ある機関はヤギとニワトリを
寄贈しましたが
11:42
But they didn't realize
彼らは見落としていたのです
11:47
that there was so much hunger
in that community,
コミュニティ内で食料が
非常に不足していたため
11:48
that when the Deaf went to sleep
at night and couldn't hear,
音が聞こえないのをいいことに
ろう者が夜に眠っている間に
11:52
people broke into their yards
and their homes
人々が彼らの庭や家屋に侵入し
11:56
and stole these chickens and goats,
ニワトリやヤギを盗んでいき
11:59
and eventually they were all gone.
最終的には
家畜は全て盗まれるということを
12:02
Now, if that organization
had taken the time
もしこの機関が時間をかけて
12:06
to observe Deaf people,
to observe the community,
ろう者の人々や
コミュニティを観察すれば
12:11
they would have realized their problem
彼らの問題が分かったでしょうし
12:17
and perhaps they would have
come up with a solution,
解決策もわかったかもしれません
12:19
something like a solar light,
例えば 太陽光を使って
12:23
lighting up a secure pen
to put them in at night
鍵のかかった小屋を
夜間に照らし
12:26
to ensure their safety.
安全を確保するなどです
12:31
You don't have to be a design thinker
今日お話ししたようなアイデアを
実行するのに
12:34
to insert the ideas
I've shared with you today.
デザイン思考の
実践者である必要はありません
12:38
You are creative.
皆さんには創造力があります
12:43
You are a designer --
皆さんはデザイナーなのです
12:46
everyone is.
誰もがそうです
12:49
Let people like me help you.
私のような者に
お手伝いをさせてください
12:52
Let people with disabilities
help you look sideways,
様々な方面に目を向け
12:56
and in the process,
大きな問題を解決する過程で
13:00
solve some of the greatest problems.
障がいを持つ人々の力を
借りてください
13:02
That's it. Thank you.
以上です
ありがとうございました
13:05
(Applause)
(拍手)
13:06
Translated by Moe Shoji
Reviewed by Eriko T.

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About the Speaker:

Elise Roy - Lawyer, artist, human rights advocate
Elise Roy thinks that designers have the capacity and responsibility to address and resolve human problems on micro and macro scales and contribute to social well-being.

Why you should listen
Deaf from the age of ten, Elise Roy has been a design thinker from early on, constantly adapting her environment and its tools to serve her extraordinary abilities.
 
A Division I athlete in both soccer and lacrosse, Roy participated in the Olympic Development Program for soccer. In the classroom, she learned how to teach herself from books. At Brown University, Roy was recognized as one of the nation's elite soccer goalkeepers. She also began to see herself as an advocate for people with non-normative abilities. During her freshman year, the University tried to take away real time captioning, a cross between closed captions that you see on television and a courtroom stenographer, enabling her to hear and participate in the classroom for the first time. After organizing the other Deaf students at the University and meeting with several deans, Roy was able to secure the real time captioning for the remainder of her time at Brown.

Following Brown, Roy turned down an invitation to play professional soccer and instead opted for law school at Northeastern University. While in law school, Roy became actively involved in gay and lesbian rights, acting as a fellow for the human rights campaign in Washington D.C. Upon graduation, Roy received the highly prestigious Georgetown University Women's Law and Public Policy Fellowship, with alumni and board members that included Supreme Court Justice Ruth Ginsburg as well as D.C. Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton.

Roy was in law school when she began working on the International Disability Rights Treaty at the United Nations, the first such human rights treaty to be passed in the 21st century. She quickly found herself thrust from a mere observer to the leader of her Article on culture, sport, recreation and leisure. The treaty, the first human rights treaty at the United Nations to be passed in the 21st century, was ratified in 2007. Over 155 countries have become signatories. After the treaty was signed in 2007, she traveled the world to see it put into action. Her work took her to Southeast Asia and the Gulf region as well as Africa. 

Roy's deafness has always given her a heightened awareness of how profoundly design shapes the social, emotional and physical environment and this led her to study human-centered design in Maryland Institute College of Art's (MICA) Social Design program. Premised on the foundational notion that complex social problems require creative problem solving through design, she completed a master's degree with a thesis that investigated the barriers that exist for individuals with hearing loss in the fabrication technology and design realm. She researched various tools to identify possible adaptations for the Deaf user based on the auditory information emitted. 

Roy promotes design thinking as fundamental to progressive social change and is a passionate proponent of applying social impact and human-centered design research to international aid and development work.
More profile about the speaker
Elise Roy | Speaker | TED.com