06:45
TED Residency

Zubaida Bai: A simple birth kit for mothers in the developing world

ズバイダ・バイ: 開発途上国の母親のためのシンプルな出産用キット

Filmed:

TEDフェローのズバイダ・バイは医療従事者や助産師等と共に、女性の公衆衛生に尊厳や、低コストな対策をもたらす努力をしています。この短く、示唆に富むトークでは、ポーチに入った清潔でコンパクトな出産用キットを紹介します。このキットは、妊産婦が世界中どこにいようとも、どんなに医療機関から離れた所にいたとしても、衛生的で安全な出産をする為に必要な全ての物を備えています。

- Women's health advocate
Zubaida Bai innovates health and livelihood solutions for underserved women and girls around the world. Full bio

私が皆さんにお話しする
この6分の間に
00:12
In the next six minutes
that you will listen to me,
世界では子供を産む際
3人の母親が
00:16
the world will have lost three mothers
亡くなります
00:19
while delivering their babies:
1人目は 深刻な合併症の為
00:22
one, because of a severe complication;
2人目は 10代で
00:26
second, because she will be a teenager
出産の準備が出来ていない
未熟な母体である為
00:29
and her body will not
be prepared for birth;
しかし3人目は 出産時に清潔で基本的な
医療器具が手に入らなかったというだけで
00:32
but the third, only because of lack
of access to basic clean tools
亡くなっています
00:38
at the time of childbirth.
それは珍しい事ではありません
00:41
She will not be alone.
途上国では
出産時の衛生状態が
00:43
Over one million mothers and babies
die every single year
十分でないというだけで
00:47
in the developing world,
毎年100万人以上の
母親や赤ん坊が
00:49
only because of lack of access
to basic cleanliness
亡くなっているのです
00:53
while giving birth to their babies.
私の道のりは ある暑い夏の午後に
始まりました
00:56
My journey began on a hot summer afternoon
2008年 インドでの事です
00:59
in India in 2008,
まる1日使って 現地の女性達に会い
要望に耳を傾けた後
01:01
when after a day of meeting women
and listening to their needs,
1人の助産師と
藁葺き屋根の家に入りました
01:05
I landed in a thatched hut with a midwife.
どうやって自宅で分娩を行うのか
一人の母親として非常に興味がありました
01:09
As a mother, I was very curious
on how she delivered babies in her house.
なぜ この仕事を自分の天職だと
強く信じているのかという
01:13
After a deep and engaging
conversation with her
奥深く引き付けられる話を
助産師から聞き
01:16
on how she considered it a profound
calling to do what she was doing,
最後に こう質問をしました
01:20
I asked her a parting question:
「分娩の時 必要な器具はあるの?」
01:23
Do you have the tools that you need
to deliver the babies?
器具を見せてもらいました
01:27
I got to see her tool.
「これで 赤ん坊のへその緒を切るのよ」
彼女は言いました
01:30
"This is what I use to separate
the mother and the baby," she said.
私はどう反応すべきか分からず
この農具を持ったま唖然としていました
01:35
Unsure of how to react, I held this
agricultural tool in my hand in shock.
そしてこの写真を撮り
彼女とハグをして帰りました
01:41
I took a picture of this,
hugged her and walked away.
頭の中に 自分が罹患した感染症の
記憶が次々と蘇りました
01:45
My mind was flooded with reflections
of my own infection
妊婦として
最高の医療に恵まれながらも
01:48
that I had to struggle with
for a year past childbirth
その病の為に 産後1年間に渡り
苦しみ続けた事や
01:51
despite having access
to the best medical care,
出産時に 母親を亡くしたという
父との会話
01:55
and memories of my conversation
with my father,
01:57
who had lost his mom to childbirth,
父は もしも母親の許で
育っていたら
01:59
on how he thought his life
would be so different
人生が如何に違うものになったか
と話してくれました
02:02
if she would have been
just next to him growing up.
製品開発者として まず
リサーチすることから始めました
02:05
As a product developer,
I started my process of research.
Clean Birth Kitという
製品があるのだと知り
02:09
I was very excited to find
that there was a product out there
とてもワクワクしましたが
02:12
called the Clean Birth Kit.
数か月間 それを
買う事もできませんでした
02:14
But I just couldn't buy one for months.
資金が確保できて始めて
製作されるものだったのです
02:18
They were only assembled
based on availability of funding.
ようやく手に入れた時
私は再びショックを覚えました
02:22
Finally, when I got my hands on one,
I was in shock again.
自分なら出産の時 絶対に
使わないだろうという代物でした
02:26
I would never use these tools
to deliver my baby, I thought.
しかし自分の直観を確かめる為に
私は女性達―
02:30
But to confirm my instincts,
I went back to the women,
この製品を使った経験のある
人達に話を聞きました
02:33
some of whom had the experience
of using this product.
驚いた事に 彼女達の反応は
同じか それ以上でした
02:37
Lo and behold, they had
the same reaction and more.
血まみれの
ビニールシートの上より
02:41
The women said they would rather
deliver on a floor
床の上で産んだ方が
ましだと言うのです
02:43
than on a plastic sheet
that smeared blood all over.
全くその通りで それが感染症の
罹患率を上げる可能性もあるのです
02:46
They were absolutely right --
it would cause more infection.
キットの中に入っていた糸は
赤ん坊のへその緒を通して
02:49
The thread provided was a highway
to bacterial infection
バクテリアの感染源となり
02:52
through the baby's umbilical cord,
剃刀は男性が髭剃りに
使うような種類のもので
02:54
and the blade used was the kind
that men used for shaving,
身近に置くなんてまっぴらだと
女性達は言っていました
02:57
and they did not want it
anywhere close to them.
誰もこの製品を
改善する気にならなかったのは
03:00
There was no incentive for anybody
to redesign this product,
製品作成が
慈善事業だったからです
03:03
because it was based on charity.
女性の意見が求められる事は
一度もありませんでした
03:05
The women were never
consulted in this process.
驚いた事に キットの需要は
家庭だけでなく
03:08
And to my surprise, the need
was not only in homes
大規模な授産施設でも
あったのです
03:11
but also in institutional settings
with high-volume births.
遠隔地に於いては
より困難な状況でした
03:14
Situations in remote areas
were even more daunting.
これを変える必要がありました
03:18
This had to change.
私はこの問題を
自らの課題と定めました
03:20
I made this my area of focus.
意見を集め 試作品を開発し
世界標準の分娩介助法を
03:22
I started the design process
by collecting feedback,
リサーチしている
03:26
developing prototypes
様々な関係者と関わりながら
設計を進めていきました
03:28
and engaging with various stakeholders
researching global protocols.
どの試作品についても
女性達の意見を聞きました
03:32
With every single prototype,
we went back to the women
確実に女性に役立つ製品を
開発する為です
03:34
to ensure that we had a product for them.
この過程を通して
この女性達は
03:38
What I learned through this process
was that these women,
極度の貧困にも拘らず
03:40
despite their extreme poverty,
健康や幸福に大きな価値を
見出している事を学びました
03:42
placed great value
on their health and well-being.
彼女達の心は
少しも貧しくはなかったのです
03:44
They were absolutely not poor in mind.
自分達の要望に沿って
開発され 適切に設計された製品を
03:47
As with all of us, they would appreciate
a well-designed product
有難いと考えるのは私達と同じでした
03:50
developed for their needs.
専門家、医療従事者
03:52
After many iterations
working with experts,
そして女性達と共に
03:54
medical health professionals
何度も改良を重ねた結果
03:56
and the women themselves,
それは容易い作業と言えるものでは
全くありませんでしたが―
03:58
I should say it was not
an easy process at all,
シンプルで 素晴らしい
設計が出来上がったのです
04:01
but we had a simple and beautiful design.
今まで提供されていた製品より
1ドル高い3ドルという価格で
04:05
For a dollar more than what
the existing product was offered for,
「janma」という
清潔でコンパクトな
04:10
at three dollars, we were able
to deliver "janma,"
出産キットが実現しました
04:13
a clean birth kit in a purse.
「誕生」を意味するjanmaには
女性が出産する際に敷く
04:16
Janma, meaning "birth," contained
a blood-absorbing sheet
血液を吸収するシートをはじめ
04:18
for the woman to give birth on,
外科解剖用メス、へその緒の留め金
石鹸1個、手袋
04:20
a surgical scalpel, a cord clamp,
a bar of soap, a pair of gloves
産まれてすぐ赤ん坊を拭く布が
入っています
04:24
and the first cloth
to wipe the baby clean.
これら全てが入った
綺麗なポーチが
04:27
All this came packaged
in a beautiful purse
出産という大仕事を労う為に
母親に贈られ
04:29
that was given to the mother
as a gift after all her hard work,
母親はそれを繁栄の象徴として
誇りをもって家に持ち帰ります
04:32
that she carried home with pride
as a symbol of prosperity.
1人の女性は この贈り物に
こう反応しました
04:37
One woman reacted to this gift.
「これ本当に私の物?
持ってていいの?」
04:40
She said, "Is this really mine?
Can I keep it?"
別の女性はこう言いました
「次の子の時は
04:44
The other one said,
"Will you give me a different color
色違いを貰えるかしら?」
04:46
when I have my next baby?"
(笑)
04:48
(Laughter)
さらに素晴らしい事に
こう言った女性もいます
04:50
Better yet, a woman expressed
that this was the first purse
これは生涯で
初めて手にしたポーチだと
04:52
that she had ever owned in her life.
その象徴的意味や簡素さは別として
このキットは
04:55
The kit, aside from its symbolism
and its simplicity,
世界的に推奨される分娩介助法に
基づいて設計されたもので
04:57
is designed to follow
globally recommended medical protocol
手順に着実に従うだけで 人々の行動を
変えていく道具として役立っています
05:01
and serves as a behavior-change tool
to follow steps one after the other.
これは家庭だけでなく授産施設でも
使用が可能なのです
05:06
It can not only be used in homes,
but also in institutional settings.
このキットは 世界で
60万人以上の母親と赤ん坊に
05:10
To date, our kit has impacted
over 600,000 mothers and babies
役立ってきました
05:14
around the world.
数字が伸びていくのを見て
身の引き締まる思いがしますが
05:16
It's a humbling experience
to watch these numbers grow,
1億人に達する日が
待ち遠しいです
05:19
and I cannot wait until
we reach a hundred million.
しかし女性の健康問題は
ここで終わりではありません
05:24
But women's health issues do not end here.
低コストの処置を必要とする
単純な問題が数多くあるのです
05:27
There are thousands of simple issues
that require low-cost interventions.
私達が証明すべき真実とは
女性達の為に資金を投入し
05:31
We have facts to prove
that if we invest in women and girls
より多くの 健康と幸福を与えれば
05:34
and provide them with better
health and well-being,
地域社会をより健康、幸福で、豊かに
してくれるのだという事です
05:37
they will deliver healthier and wealthier
and prosperous communities.
女性の健康問題に 簡素な解決策と尊厳を
もたらす事から始めなければなりません
05:42
We have to start by bringing simplicity
and dignity to women's health issues:
母体死亡率を下げる事
タブーを破る事
05:46
from reducing maternal mortality,
to breaking taboos,
自分の人生を自ら決定する力を
女性に与える事です
05:49
to empowering women
to take control of their own lives.
それが 私の夢です
05:52
This is my dream.
しかし世界中の男女が等しく問題解決に
関わる事なく それを達成するのは
05:55
But it is not possible to achieve it
without engaging men and women alike
不可能なのです
05:59
from around the world --
そう 皆さんの力が必要です
06:01
yes, all of you.
最近レナード・コーエンの
この詩を耳にしました
06:04
I recently heard this lyric
by Leonard Cohen:
「絶えず鳴り響き得る鐘を鳴らせ
06:08
"Ring the bells that still can ring.
非の打ち所のない提案を
しようと夢中になるな
06:12
Forget your perfect offering.
万事に裂け目がある
06:15
There is a crack in everything.
だから光が入り込む」
(訳:成田悦子)
06:18
That's how the light gets in."
これは私の照らす僅かな光ですが
06:21
This is my bit of light.
もっと光が必要です
06:23
But we need more light.
実際 より良い明日を求めるのならば
女性の健康の分野に
06:25
In fact, we need huge spotlights
placed in the world of women's health
巨大なスポットライトが必要なのです
06:28
if we need a better tomorrow.
女性は未来に続く世界の中心であり
女性がいなければ私達は存在しない事を
06:30
We should never forget that women
are at the center of a sustainable world,
決して忘れるべきではないのです
06:35
and we do not exist without them.
ありがとうございました
06:38
Thank you.
(拍手)
06:39
(Applause)
Translated by Shoko Takaki
Reviewed by Tomoyuki Suzuki

▲Back to top

About the Speaker:

Zubaida Bai - Women's health advocate
Zubaida Bai innovates health and livelihood solutions for underserved women and girls around the world.

Why you should listen

Building on her expertise as a mechanical engineer, a social worker and her public speaking skills, Zubaida Bai put her unique passion to work. In the process, she built a brand and a product line, and she set in motion a movement that addresses market failures, breaks taboos and gives voice to the oft-ignored matter that is women’s health.

Bai is the founder and CEO of ayzh (pronounced "eyes"), a social enterprise based in India that designs vital healthcare products to improve the health and happiness of women and girls across their reproductive lives. Bai launched her company with janma, a $3 clean birth kit in a purse, but her story goes further back to when she stood by her mother to face head-on the challenge of survival facing her family when she had just entered her teens.

janma was conceived after traveling to one of the poorest communities in India and confronting the reality that more than one million mothers and babies lose their lives in the developing world each year due to uncleanliness at the time of childbirth. Packaged in a pink biodegradable jute bag, a design that mothers can reuse as a purse, the kit provides both cleanliness and dignity. Since beginning sales in 2012, Bai's company has sold more than 250,000 kits to more than 300 health institutions in 20 countries, touching the lives of more than 500,000 women and newborns. Bai is now expanding her product line to include kits for newborn, postpartum and menstrual health, while scaling her proven model across India and into Africa.

Bai was selected as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum, a Maternal Health Champion by Ashoka, a TED speaker (Fellow and Resident) and the United Nations SDG Pioneer by the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). ayzh's strategic partners from around the world who have written about Zubaida's work: TOMS shared her safe birth story; USAID blogged about how she's empowering women through a simple purse; and Grand Challenges Canada recognizes her lead role in scaling life-changing kits for mothers and newborns.

Bai believes that building a sustainable company takes a great team, stamina and a sturdy suitcase. She is fluent in eight languages and travels the world forging new partnerships and advocating for women's health. She has spoken at events for Women in the World, Pfizer Foundation and Women Deliver. She holds a master's degree in mechanical engineering specializing in development of modular products, and an MBA in social and sustainable enterprises.

More profile about the speaker
Zubaida Bai | Speaker | TED.com