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TED2007

Adam Grosser: A mobile fridge for vaccines

Adam Grosserの持続型冷蔵庫

February 2, 2007

Adam Grosserが世界の村落や医療機関で活気的な役割を果たすであろう、電力いらずの冷却器の製作プロジェクトについて話します。過去の実績のある技術を応用して、機能するシステムを実現しました。

Adam Grosser - Venture capitalist
Adam Grosser is a general partner at Foundation Capital -- and a refrigeration visionary. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
これは現在進行中のプロジェクトで
00:13
This is a work in process,
2年前にTEDで取り上げられた
00:16
based on some comments that were made
ワクチンの保管場所
00:19
at TED two years ago
の必要性に基づくものです。
00:20
about the need for the storage of vaccine.
(♪音楽♪)
00:24
(Music)
29年前、ある先生が熱吸収と冷却について
00:25
(Video) Narrator: On this planet,
話してくれたんですが、
00:26
1.6 billion people
それがずっと頭からはなれなくて。そう!
00:28
don't have access to electricity,
スターリングエンジンみたいな
00:30
refrigeration
すごいけど、だからどうしろ?ってかんじで。
00:34
or stored fuels.
さて、熱吸収型冷蔵庫というのは1858年にFerdinand Carreが
00:38
This is a problem.
発明しましたが、当時の技術では
00:40
It impacts:
実際に形にはできなかったんです。
00:44
the spread of disease,
その後カナダ人のPowell Crosleyが
00:46
the storage of food and medicine
Icyballという物を1982年に発売しました。
00:49
and the quality of life.
斬新なアイディアだったんですが、
00:52
So here's the plan: inexpensive refrigeration that doesn't use electricity,
失敗談は後で説明するとして、
00:55
propane, gas, kerosene or consumables.
仕組みはこうです。
01:00
Time for some thermodynamics.
2つのパイプでつながれた球体の中の
01:02
And the story of the Intermittent Absorption Refrigerator.
1つには冷媒吸収液のアンモニア水溶液、
01:05
Adam Grosser: So 29 years ago, I had this thermo teacher
片方には放熱器が入っています。
01:09
who talked about absorption and refrigeration.
アンモニア水溶液を加熱すると、
01:10
It's one of those things that stuck in my head.
アンモニアが蒸発して、
01:12
It was a lot like the Stirling engine:
もう片方に液体で濃縮されます。
01:13
it was cool, but you didn't know what to do with it.
熱を下げてやるにつれて、
01:16
And it was invented in 1858, by this guy Ferdinand Carre,
アンモニアが再度蒸発し、暖かかった片方の水に
01:19
but he couldn't actually build anything with it
再び吸収され、
01:20
because of the tools of the time.
冷却効果が起こります。
01:23
This crazy Canadian named Powel Crosley
良いアイディアでしたが、うまくいきませんでした。爆発したんです。
01:27
commercialized this thing called the IcyBall in 1928,
アンモニアの熱し方を間違えると、
01:29
and it was a really neat idea,
大変な気圧が発生し
01:31
and I'll get to why it didn't work,
400psiまで達します。有毒性のアンモニアが飛び散ったという訳です。
01:32
but here's how it works.
でも、理にかなったアイディアでした。
01:34
There's two spheres and they're separated in distance.
さて、2006年に
01:36
One has a working fluid, water and ammonia,
本当にすぐれたコンピュータが使えるようになって、
01:39
and the other is a condenser.
スタンフォード大学の
01:40
You heat up one side, the hot side.
熱力学科と
01:42
The ammonia evaporates
数値流体力学者とが協力して
01:43
and it re-condenses in the other side.
アンモニアを用いた冷却器の数値は誤りであることを証明しました。
01:46
You let it cool to room temperature,
そして、低蒸気圧で働く、毒性のない冷媒も
01:47
and then, as the ammonia re-evaporates and combines with the water
発見しました。
01:51
back on the erstwhile hot side,
UKからチームを引き連れて
01:52
it creates a powerful cooling effect.
熱冷却について
01:55
So, it was a great idea that didn't work at all: it blew up.
すぐれた方々と試験装置を作りました。
01:58
Because using ammonia you get hugely high pressures
そして、低圧力で毒性のない
02:03
if you heated them wrong.
冷却器が可能な事を証明しました。
02:04
It topped 400 psi. The ammonia was toxic. It sprayed everywhere.
仕組みはこうです。
02:08
But it was kind of an interesting thought.
まず加熱します。
02:10
So, the great thing about 2006 is
世界中みんな火をつかいますよね、
02:13
there's a lot of really great computational work you can do.
らくだの糞にしろ、薪にしろ。
02:16
So, we got the whole thermodynamics department
30分加熱して、1時間冷ました後、
02:19
at Stanford involved --
容器に入れると、
02:20
a lot of computational fluid dynamics.
24時間保冷効果が得られます。
02:22
We proved that most of the ammonia refrigeration tables are wrong.
完璧ではありませんが、これが5代目の原型です。
02:25
We found some non-toxic refrigerants
重さは約8パウンドで、効果はというと、
02:28
that worked at very low vapor pressures.
15リットルの容器に入れて
02:29
Brought in a team from the U.K. --
氷点の少し上くらいまでに冷却します
02:32
there's a lot of great refrigeration people,
30度の環境で
02:33
it turned out, in the U.K. --
24時間冷却効果が持続します。とても安く、
02:35
and built a test rig, and proved that, in fact,
大量ですと$25で、少量でも、
02:37
we could make a low pressure, non-toxic refrigerator.
$40で生産できます。
02:41
So, this is the way it works.
冷蔵庫を誰もが手にできる物に
02:42
You put it on a cooking fire.
できると思っています。
02:43
Most people have cooking fires in the world,
ありがとうございました。
02:45
whether it's camel dung or wood.
(拍手)
02:47
It heats up for about 30 minutes, cools for an hour.
02:50
Put it into a container
02:53
and it will refrigerate for 24 hours.
02:55
It looks like this. This is the fifth prototype. It's not quite done.
02:59
Weighs about eight pounds, and this is the way it works.
03:02
You put it into a 15-liter vessel, about three gallons,
03:06
and it'll cool it down to just above freezing --
03:08
three degrees above freezing --
03:10
for 24 hours in a 30 degree C environment. It's really cheap.
03:13
We think we can build these in high volumes for about 25 dollars,
03:16
in low volumes for about 40 dollars.
03:18
And we think we can make refrigeration
03:21
something that everybody can have.
03:22
Thank you.
03:23
(Applause)
Translator:Akari Takenishi
Reviewer:yutaka usui

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Adam Grosser - Venture capitalist
Adam Grosser is a general partner at Foundation Capital -- and a refrigeration visionary.

Why you should listen

Adam Grosser is a venture capitalist, working with startups that are exploring new ideas in data communications, electronics and energy management. With a background in engineering and entertainment, he enjoys looking for opportunities that map over a few of his passions -- which also include greentech.

His passion for a sustainable solution to refrigeration -- for storing food and medicines -- led to the project he describes in his 2007 TEDTalk. 

 

The original video is available on TED.com
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