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TED2008

Helen Fisher: The brain in love

ヘレン・フィッシャー: 「恋する脳」

February 2, 2008

時には命をも掛けて、なぜ人間はこうも恋を切望するのでしょうか。非常にリアルで、人­間の身体的欲求である恋愛。その謎を解き明かすべく、ヘレン・フィッシャー(Hele­n Fisher) および調査チームは恋愛中の人、失恋したばかりの人を集め、MRIスキャナ(磁気共鳴­画像装置)で脳を検査しました。

Helen Fisher - Anthropologist and expert on love
Anthropologist Helen Fisher studies gender differences and the evolution of human emotions. She’s best known as an expert on romantic love. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I and my colleagues Art Aron and Lucy Brown and others,
同僚のアート アロンとルーシー ブラウンと共に
00:19
have put 37 people who are madly in love
MRIスキャナで
00:22
into a functional MRI brain scanner.
熱愛中の37人を検査しました
00:24
17 who were happily in love, 15 who had just been dumped,
17人はラブラブ
15人は振られたばかり
00:27
and we're just starting our third experiment:
また 3度目の実験を始めたばかりですが
00:30
studying people who report that they're still in love
結婚生活を10年から25年経て
00:33
after 10 to 25 years of marriage.
今も恋をしている人の研究も行っています
00:35
So, this is the short story of that research.
今日は そのリサーチの話をします
00:38
In the jungles of Guatemala, in Tikal, stands a temple.
グァテマラのジャングル
ティカルに寺院があります
00:41
It was built by the grandest Sun King,
建設したのは 偉大な太陽の王
00:47
of the grandest city-state,
壮大な国家都市
00:49
of the grandest civilization of the Americas, the Mayas.
北南米で最も偉大な文明
マヤの王
00:52
His name was Jasaw Chan K'awiil.
王の名はハサウ チャン カウィール
00:55
He stood over six feet tall.
180センチ以上の長身で
00:59
He lived into his 80s,
80代まで生き―
01:01
and he was buried beneath this monument in 720 AD.
紀元720年 この遺跡に葬られました
01:03
And Mayan inscriptions proclaim
マヤ碑文によると
01:08
that he was deeply in love with his wife.
王は妻にベタ惚れで
彼の神殿に面して 妻の神殿を建設
01:10
So, he built a temple in her honor, facing his.
王は妻にベタ惚れで
彼の神殿に面して 妻の神殿を建設
01:11
And every spring and autumn, exactly at the equinox,
毎年 ちょうど春分と秋分の日
01:16
the sun rises behind his temple,
王の神殿側に日が昇ると
01:19
and perfectly bathes her temple with his shadow.
彼の影が
妻の神殿を優しく撫で
01:22
And as the sun sets behind her temple in the afternoon,
妻の神殿側に日が沈むと
01:27
it perfectly bathes his temple with her shadow.
妻の影が
王の神殿を優しく撫でる
01:31
After 1,300 years, these two lovers
1300年の時を越えた今も
2人は石碑越しに
01:34
still touch and kiss from their tomb.
抱擁し くちづけを交わしています
01:38
Around the world, people love.
世界中で 人々は恋をし
01:41
They sing for love, they dance for love,
恋に歌い 恋に踊ります
01:44
they compose poems and stories about love.
愛の詩や物語を書き
01:47
They tell myths and legends about love.
恋の神話や伝説を語る
01:50
They pine for love, they live for love,
恋に恋焦がれ
恋の為に生きます
01:52
they kill for love, and they die for love.
人を殺め 死まで選びます
01:56
As Walt Whitman once said,
ウォルト・ホイットマンの言葉
01:58
he said, "Oh, I would stake all for you."
“君のためなら全てを賭けてもいい”
02:00
Anthropologists have found evidence of romantic love in 170 societies.
人類学者は 170ヶ国にて
恋愛の存在を確認
02:03
They've never found a society that did not have it.
どの社会にも 例外なく存在します
02:08
But love isn't always a happy experience.
でも 恋は常に幸せなものではありません
02:11
In one study of college students,
ある大学生が 研究で
02:14
they asked a lot of questions about love,
恋に関する質問を沢山しました
02:16
but the two that stood out to me the most were,
その中で印象に残った2つが
02:18
"Have you ever been rejected by somebody who you really loved?"
“愛する人に振られた事がありますか”
02:21
And the second question was,
もう1つが
02:26
"Have you ever dumped somebody who really loved you?"
“自分を愛する人を振った事がありますか”
02:27
And almost 95 percent of both men and women said yes to both.
ほぼ95%の男女が両方に Yesと答えています
02:31
Almost nobody gets out of love alive.
つまり 恋はほぼ実らないものだと....
02:36
So, before I start telling you about the brain,
脳について話す前に
02:40
I want to read for you
少し朗読します
02:43
what I think is the most powerful love poem on Earth.
地球上で最もパワフルな愛の詩です
02:45
There's other love poems that are, of course, just as good,
優れた詩は沢山ありますが
02:48
but I don't think this one can be surpassed.
勝る詩はないと思います
02:50
It was told by an anonymous Kwakiutl Indian of southern Alaska
南アラスカの
クワキウトル族インディアンが
02:52
to a missionary in 1896, and here it is.
1896年 伝道者に聞かせました
02:58
I've never had the opportunity to say it before.
公の場で初めて読みます
03:02
"Fire runs through my body with the pain of loving you.
“炎のような愛の痛み
03:06
Pain runs through my body with the fires of my love for you.
愛の炎が痛みとなって体中を駆け巡る
03:09
Pain like a boil about to burst with my love for you,
貴方への愛で 心は張り裂け
03:14
consumed by fire with my love for you.
貴方への愛で 火傷する
03:17
I remember what you said to me.
貴方の言葉を覚えてる
03:21
I am thinking of your love for me.
貴方の愛を思う
03:23
I am torn by your love for me.
貴方の愛が心を裂く
03:25
Pain and more pain --
私の愛を連れて 貴方はどこへ
03:27
where are you going with my love?
さらなる痛み
03:30
I am told you will go from here.
貴方が 旅立つと聞いた
03:31
I am told you will leave me here.
私を置いていくと
03:34
My body is numb with grief.
悲しみで感覚を失う
03:35
Remember what I said, my love.
私の言葉を忘れないで
03:38
Goodbye, my love, goodbye."
さよなら 愛しい人
さようなら ”
03:40
Emily Dickinson once wrote,
エミリー・ディキンソンの言葉
03:44
"Parting is all we need to know of hell."
“別れさえ経験すれば 地獄が分かる”
03:46
How many people have suffered
人類が進化してきた中で
03:50
in all the millions of years of human evolution?
どれだけの人が苦しんだでしょう?
03:52
How many people around the world
どれだけの人々が この地球で
03:56
are dancing with elation at this very minute?
たった今 歓喜に踊っているでしょう?
03:58
Romantic love is one of the most powerful sensations on Earth.
恋愛は 最もパワフルな感覚のひとつ
04:02
So, several years ago, I decided to look into the brain
そこで数年前 研究を始めました
04:05
and study this madness.
脳と恋の狂気についてです
04:09
Our first study of people who were happily in love
幸せな恋愛の研究は公表済みなので
04:13
has been widely publicized,
幸せな恋愛の研究は公表済みなので
04:15
so I'm only going to say a very little about it.
詳細は省いてお話します
04:16
We found activity in a tiny, little factory near the base of the brain
脳底付近にある
腹側被蓋野と呼ばれる領域で
04:19
called the ventral tegmental area.
A10細胞群が
04:23
We found activity in some cells called the A10 cells,
活発になっていることを発見しました
04:25
cells that actually make dopamine, a natural stimulant,
天然興奮剤 ドーパミンを作る細胞で
04:28
and spray it to many brain regions.
ドーパミンを脳に放出します
04:31
Indeed, this part, the VTA, is part of the brain's reward system.
腹側被蓋野は脳の報酬系の一部で
04:33
It's way below your cognitive thinking process.
認知思考処理のずっと深部
04:37
It's below your emotions.
感情よりも下部にあります
04:40
It's part of what we call the reptilian core of the brain,
爬虫類脳と呼ばれる一部で
04:42
associated with wanting, with motivation,
欲望 やる気 集中力 切望に―
04:45
with focus and with craving.
関係する領域です
04:48
In fact, the same brain region where we found activity
コカインでハイになると
04:50
becomes active also when you feel the rush of cocaine.
同じ領域が活発になります
04:53
But romantic love is much more than a cocaine high --
恋愛はコカインのハイ状態を勝ります
04:57
at least you come down from cocaine.
コカインだと恍惚感は一時的ですからね
05:00
Romantic love is an obsession. It possesses you.
恋愛は執着で 人を支配します
05:03
You lose your sense of self.
自分を失い
05:06
You can't stop thinking about another human being.
相手の事を考えずにいられない
05:07
Somebody is camping in your head.
頭の中に誰かが居座ってます
05:11
As an eighth-century Japanese poet said,
8世紀 日本の歌人が言いました
05:13
"My longing had no time when it ceases."
”我が恋やまめ命死なずは”
05:16
Wild is love.
恋は狂気
05:19
And the obsession can get worse when you've been rejected.
振られると執着心は悪化します
05:22
So, right now, Lucy Brown and I, the neuroscientist on our project,
現在 神経科学者の
ルーシー ブラウンと共に
05:25
are looking at the data of the people
振られて間もない人の
05:30
who were put into the machine after they had just been dumped.
検査結果を 研究しています
05:32
It was very difficult actually,
この人達を スキャンにかけるのは
05:36
putting these people in the machine,
大変でした
05:38
because they were in such bad shape.
大変でした
05:39
(Laughter)
みなさんボロボロですから(笑)
05:40
So anyway, we found activity in three brain regions.
とにかく 脳の3領域に
05:45
We found activity in the brain region,
活動が見られました
05:47
in exactly the same brain region
激しい恋愛と関連のある―
05:50
associated with intense romantic love.
脳の領域です
05:52
What a bad deal.
ひどい仕打ちです
05:54
You know, when you've been dumped,
失恋したときは
05:56
the one thing you love to do is just forget about this human being,
相手のことを忘れて
05:58
and then go on with your life --
暮らしていきたいもの
06:00
but no, you just love them harder.
なのに いっそう愛してしまう
06:01
As the poet Terence, the Roman poet once said,
ローマの詩人 テレンスの言葉
06:04
he said, "The less my hope, the hotter my love."
“望みが低いほど燃える”
06:09
And indeed, we now know why.
その理由は解明されました
06:11
Two thousand years later, we can explain this in the brain.
2千年経った今 説明がつきます
06:14
That brain system -- the reward system
欲望 やる気 切望 集中力などの
06:17
for wanting, for motivation, for craving, for focus --
脳の報酬系は 手に入らないと
06:20
becomes more active when you can't get what you want.
さらに活動的になるのです
06:24
In this case, life's greatest prize:
この場合 人生最大のプライズとは―
06:27
an appropriate mating partner.
最適な交配相手です
06:29
We found activity in other brain regions also --
他の領域でも活動を発見
06:32
in a brain region associated with calculating gains and losses.
損得計算に関連する脳領域です
06:34
You know, you're lying there, you're looking at the picture,
脳スキャナの中で
06:39
and you're in this machine,
絵を眺めながら
06:41
and you're calculating, you know, what went wrong.
何が悪かったのか 何を失ったのかと
06:42
How, you know, what have I lost?
あれこれ計算する
06:46
As a matter of fact, Lucy and I have a little joke about this.
ルーシーと笑い話をすることがあります
06:48
It comes from a David Mamet play,
デビット・マメットの演劇の中で
06:51
and there's two con artists in the play,
2人のえせ芸術家がおり
06:55
and the woman is conning the man,
女性が一人をたぶらかします
06:56
and the man looks at the woman and says,
男は女性に言う
06:59
"Oh, you're a bad pony, I'm not going to bet on you."
”お前は悪い子馬だ お前には賭けないね”
07:00
And indeed, it's this part of the brain,
損得勘定をするとき
07:06
the core of the nucleus accumbens, actually, that is becoming active
脳の坐核側と呼ばれる部分が
07:08
as you're measuring your gains and losses.
活動し始めます
07:11
It's also the brain region that becomes active
大きな損得を賭けて
07:13
when you're willing to take enormous risks
危険を冒すときも
07:16
for huge gains and huge losses.
同じ脳領域が活動します
07:18
Last but not least, we found activity in a brain region
他人への深い愛着と関連する―
07:21
associated with deep attachment to another individual.
脳の領域にも活動を確認しました
07:24
No wonder people suffer around the world,
世界中で人が苦しむのも
不思議でありません
07:29
and we have so many crimes of passion.
情熱からくる犯罪も多いわけです
07:33
When you've been rejected in love,
失恋すると
07:36
not only are you engulfed with feelings of romantic love,
恋愛感情に苛まれるだけでなく
07:37
but you're feeling deep attachment to this individual.
深い愛着心を感じます
07:41
Moreover, this brain circuit for reward is working,
脳回路は報酬のために活動し
07:44
and you're feeling intense energy, intense focus,
強い活力 集中力 動機
07:47
intense motivation and the willingness to risk it all
危険を冒す気力まで込み上げてきます
07:51
to win life's greatest prize.
人生最大のプライズを得るためです
07:55
So, what have I learned from this experiment
この実験から学んだこと
07:59
that I would like to tell the world?
世界に伝えたいことはですね
08:02
Foremost, I have come to think
まず思いました
08:04
that romantic love is a drive, a basic mating drive.
恋愛は欲動であり
交配欲望だと
08:06
Not the sex drive -- the sex drive gets you out there,
性欲ではない
08:09
looking for a whole range of partners.
性交相手の標的は広いが
08:11
Romantic love enables you to focus your mating energy
恋愛だと 標的は一度に一人
08:13
on just one at a time, conserve your mating energy,
交配精力を他者に浪費せず
08:16
and start the mating process with this single individual.
一人の相手と交配行為を始めます
08:19
I think of all the poetry that I've read about romantic love,
今まで読んだ愛の詩で
08:22
what sums it up best is something that is said by Plato,
最もうまく要約してるのが2千年前の
08:26
over 2,000 years ago.
プラトンの言葉だと思います
08:30
He said, "The god of love lives in a state of need.
“愛の神は必要性があり存在する
08:32
It is a need. It is an urge.
要求であり 本能的
08:36
It is a homeostatic imbalance.
恒久性なアンバランスであり
08:39
Like hunger and thirst, it's almost impossible to stamp out."
空腹と口渇のように
根絶は不可能に近い”
08:42
I've also come to believe that romantic love is an addiction:
また 恋愛は中毒性を伴うと思います
08:46
a perfectly wonderful addiction when it's going well,
順調なときは素敵な中毒
08:50
and a perfectly horrible addiction when it's going poorly.
悪くなると 悪夢のような中毒
08:52
And indeed, it has all of the characteristics of addiction.
事実 中毒のあらゆる症状が確認できます
08:56
You focus on the person, you obsessively think about them,
一人に神経を集中し 執拗にその人を思います
08:59
you crave them, you distort reality,
切望し 現実を歪め
09:02
your willingness to take enormous risks to win this person.
獲得には危険をも負う
09:05
And it's got the three main characteristics of addiction:
中毒の主症状が3つ見られます
09:08
tolerance, you need to see them more, and more, and more;
忍耐-
もっと会いたい 会わずにはいられない
09:10
withdrawals; and last, relapse.
離脱 そして 再発
09:14
I've got a girlfriend who's just getting over a terrible love affair.
失恋から立ち直ろうとしてる女友達がいます
09:16
It's been about eight months, she's beginning to feel better.
かれこれ8ヶ月になります
09:20
And she was driving along in her car the other day,
先日 彼女は車を運転中
09:22
and suddenly she heard a song on the car radio
ある歌をラジオで 聴いて
09:25
that reminded her of this man.
突然 彼のことを思い出しました
09:27
And she -- not only did the instant craving come back,
彼への切望が戻ってきただけでなく
09:29
but she had to pull over
車を路肩に止め
09:32
from the side of the road and cry.
泣き崩れずにはいれませんでした
09:34
So, one thing I would like the medical community,
ですから 医学界や
09:36
and the legal community, and even the college community,
法曹界や 大学の教育界に
09:38
to see if they can understand, that indeed,
恋愛が極めて中毒的な物質だと―
09:41
romantic love is one of the most addictive substances on Earth.
理解してほしい
09:44
I would also like to tell the world that animals love.
また 動物にだって愛情はあるのです
09:48
There's not an animal on this planet
地球上の動物で
09:52
that will copulate with anything that comes along.
見境なく交配を行う種はいません
09:53
Too old, too young, too scruffy, too stupid, and they won't do it.
相手に魅力を感じなければ 交尾はしません
09:56
Unless you're stuck in a laboratory cage --
実験室に隔離されるなら話は別です
10:01
and you know, if you spend your entire life in a little box,
仮に 窮屈な檻の中で一生過ごせば
10:04
you're not going to be as picky about who you have sex with --
それほど性交相手を選り好みしないでしょう
10:07
but I've looked in a hundred species,
百種以上の生物を観察しましたが
10:11
and everywhere in the wild, animals have favorites.
どの動物にも好みがあります
10:13
As a matter of fact ethologists know this.
動物行動学者は知っています
10:17
There are over eight words for what they call "animal favoritism:"
“動物の偏愛”には
8項目以上の趣向があり
10:19
selective proceptivity, mate choice, female choice, sexual choice.
求愛相手趣向や交尾相手選択
雌選択や性選択
10:23
And indeed, there are now three academic articles
事実 この引力に注目した―
10:28
in which they've looked at this attraction,
3つの学術論があります
10:31
which may only last for a second,
引力は数秒で消えますが 確実に
10:34
but it's a definite attraction,
恋の引力です
10:36
and either this same brain region, this reward system,
恐らく 報酬系脳領域に関係するか―
10:37
or the chemicals of that reward system are involved.
報酬系物質に関わるのでしょう
10:41
In fact, I think animal attraction can be instant --
動物の引力は瞬間的だと思います
10:44
you can see an elephant instantly go for another elephant.
象が一瞬で別の象に求愛する例もある
10:47
And I think that this is really the origin
これが まさに
10:50
of what you and I call "love at first sight."
“一目惚れ”の原型だと思うのです
10:52
People have often asked me whether
恋愛の研究をしていて
10:54
what I know about love has spoiled it for me.
私生活でマイナスがあったかと
よく聞かれます
10:59
And I just simply say, "Hardly."
ないと答えます
11:02
You can know every single ingredient in a piece of chocolate cake,
チョコレートケーキの材料は全部分かります
11:04
and then when you sit down and eat that cake,
それでも 座って食べてみると
11:07
you can still feel that joy.
ケーキはやっぱり美味しいものです
11:10
And certainly, I make all the same mistakes
それに 私も他の人と
11:12
that everybody else does too,
同じように失敗をします
11:14
but it's really deepened my understanding
ただ 人に対する理解と
11:16
and compassion, really, for all human life.
思いやりが深まりました
11:20
As a matter of fact, in New York, I often catch myself
脳システムの奮闘を考えると
11:24
looking in baby carriages and feeling a little sorry for the tot.
ベビーカーの中の幼児を眺め
11:27
And in fact, sometimes I feel a little sorry
ときどき 同情を感じます
11:31
for the chicken on my dinner plate,
夕食のチキンが 不憫に思えたりもします
11:34
when I think of how intense this brain system is.
夕食のチキンが 不憫に思えたりもします
11:35
Our newest experiment has been hatched
同僚のアート・アーロンのアイデアで始まった―
11:41
by my colleague, Art Aron --
新しい実験も進行中です
11:46
putting people who are reporting that they are still in love,
長い付き合いで 今も恋心があると言う人を
11:48
in a long-term relationship, into the functional MRI.
MRIスキャナで検査する実験です
11:51
We've put five people in so far,
すでに 5名検査しましたが
11:55
and indeed, we found exactly the same thing. They're not lying.
結果は同じ
彼らの恋心は偽りではありません
11:57
The brain areas
激しい恋愛と関連する―
12:02
associated with intense romantic love
脳の領域に
12:06
still become active, 25 years later.
25年経った今も 活動がありました
12:08
There are still many questions to be answered
恋愛に関しては まだまだ
12:12
and asked about romantic love.
明かされていない答えや問いはあります
12:15
The question that I'm working on right this minute --
進行中の研究は
12:18
and I'm only going to say it for a second, and then end --
簡単に述べるに留めますが
12:19
is, why do you fall in love with one person, rather than another?
なぜ 多数の中から
"その人"に恋するか です
12:22
I never would have even thought to think of this,
考えたことがなかったのですが
12:26
but Match.com, the Internet-dating site,
3年前 ある出会いサイトが
12:29
came to me three years ago and asked me that question.
私に この質問をしてきました
12:31
And I said, I don't know.
分からないと答えました
12:33
I know what happens in the brain, when you do become in love,
恋に落ちたときの脳の活動は分かりますが
12:35
but I don't know why you fall in love with one person
なぜ "その人" なのか―
12:38
rather than another.
理由は分かりません
12:40
And so, I've spent the last three years on this.
この3年間それについて研究してきました
12:41
And there are many reasons that you fall in love with one person
1人に恋する理由は無数です
12:45
rather than another, that psychologists can tell you.
心理学者も同意
12:47
And we tend to fall in love with somebody
傾向としては
12:49
from the same socioeconomic background,
同じ社会経済的背景
12:50
the same general level of intelligence,
同レベルの知性
12:53
the same general level of good looks,
同レベルの外見や
12:54
the same religious values.
宗教的価値などの一致が挙げられます
12:56
Your childhood certainly plays a role, but nobody knows how.
子供時代も何らかの形で影響します
12:58
And that's about it, that's all they know.
でも分かるのは その程度
13:01
No, they've never found the way two personalities
相性が合う性格パターンなどの
13:03
fit together to make a good relationship.
確定には辿り着いていません
13:06
So, it began to occur to me
そこで思い始めました
13:09
that maybe your biology pulls you
恐らく 生物学的に
13:11
towards some people rather than another.
ある種の人に惹かれるのではないかと
13:13
And I have concocted a questionnaire to see to what degree
そこでアンケートを作り 物質の発生度を観察
13:16
you express dopamine, serotonin, estrogen and testosterone.
ドーパミン セロトニン エストロゲン テストステロンです
13:20
I think we've evolved four very broad personality types
脳内の4物質の比率と関連する
13:25
associated with the ratios of these four chemicals in the brain.
4種のおおまかな性格を考案しました
13:28
And on this dating site that I have created,
私の作った出会いサイト
13:32
called Chemistry.com, I ask you first a series of questions
Chemistry.comで まずアンケートを取り
13:34
to see to what degree you express these chemicals,
この4物質の発生度合いや
13:40
and I'm watching who chooses who to love.
恋愛相手の選択傾向を観察してます
13:43
And 3.7 million people have taken the questionnaire in America.
米国で370万人がアンケートに回答
13:47
About 600,000 people have taken it in 33 other countries.
33カ国で60万人に回答いただきました
13:50
I'm putting the data together now,
現在 データ集計中
13:56
and at some point -- there will always be magic to love,
恋には常に魔法があるでしょうが
13:57
but I think I will come closer to understanding
確信に近づいてきています
14:00
why it is you can walk into a room
ある会場を訪れるとします
14:03
and everybody is from your background,
誰もが 同じ社会背景を持ち
14:06
your same general level of intelligence,
同じ知性レベル
14:08
your same general level of good looks,
外見レベル
14:10
and you don't feel pulled towards all of them.
なのに全員に魅了されるわけではない
14:11
I think there's biology to that.
生物学的なものがあるでしょう
14:14
I think we're going to end up, in the next few years,
なぜ特定の人に魅了されるのか―
14:16
to understand all kinds of brain mechanisms
あと数年で あらゆる脳の仕組みが
14:19
that pull us to one person rather than another.
理解できると思います
14:21
So, I will close with this. These are my older people.
そろそろ締めくくります
この写真は年配の協力者
14:24
Faulkner once said, "The past is not dead,
フォークナーの言葉 “過去は死んでない
14:30
it's not even the past."
過去ですらない”
14:33
Indeed, we carry a lot of luggage
事実 人間は脳内に長年の
14:34
from our yesteryear in the human brain.
荷物を背負って生きています
14:37
And so, there's one thing
人間の本質を
14:40
that makes me pursue my understanding of human nature,
理解したいと
私を突き動かす理由は
14:41
and this reminds me of it.
この写真が表しています
14:48
These are two women.
2人の女性
14:50
Women tend to get intimacy differently than men do.
女性の親密さは男性とは異なり
14:51
Women get intimacy from face-to-face talking.
対面での会話
14:54
We swivel towards each other,
向かい合わせで親近感を感じます
14:56
we do what we call the "anchoring gaze" and we talk.
目を離さず注視して話します それが
14:58
This is intimacy to women.
女性にとっての親近感
15:02
I think it comes from millions of years
何百万年も前から
15:04
of holding that baby in front of your face,
顔の傍で幼児をあやし
15:05
cajoling it, reprimanding it, educating it with words.
なだめ 叱り 言葉で教育してきたせいでしょう
15:07
Men tend to get intimacy from side-by-side doing.
男性は 横並びで親近感を感じます
15:10
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:14
As soon as one guy looks up, the other guy will look away.
1人がそっちを向くと
もう1人は別方向を見る
15:15
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:18
I think it comes from millions of years
何百万年も前から
15:20
of standing behind that -- sitting behind the bush,
木の茂みで立ったり座ったり
15:22
looking straight ahead,
まっすぐ前を向き
15:25
trying to hit that buffalo on the head with a rock.
石を片手に
水牛を追ってきたからでしょう
15:27
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:29
I think, for millions of years, men faced their enemies,
古代から 男性は敵と直面し
15:30
they sat side by side with friends.
友人とは横並びで座ってきた
15:32
So my final statement is: love is in us.
最後に 愛は人の中に息づいてます
15:35
It's deeply embedded in the brain.
脳内に深く組み込まれてます
15:39
Our challenge is to understand each other. Thank you.
私たちの課題は お互いを理解することです
ありがとう
15:42
(Applause)
(拍手)
15:45
Translator:Aiko McLean
Reviewer:Takako Sato

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Helen Fisher - Anthropologist and expert on love
Anthropologist Helen Fisher studies gender differences and the evolution of human emotions. She’s best known as an expert on romantic love.

Why you should listen

Fisher's several books lay bare the mysteries of our most treasured emotion: its evolution, its biochemical foundations and its vital importance to human society. Fisher describes love as a universal human drive (stronger than the sex drive; stronger than thirst or hunger; stronger perhaps than the will to live), and her many areas of inquiry shed light on timeless human mysteries like why we choose one partner over another. Her classic study Anatomy of Love, first published in 1992, has just been re-issued in a fully updated edition, including her recent neuroimaging research on lust, romantic love and attachment as well as discussions of sexting, hooking up, friends with benefits, other contemporary trends in courtship and marriage, and a dramatic current trend she calls “slow love.”

The original video is available on TED.com
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