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TED2002

Keith Bellows: The camel's hump

キース・ベローズ: ラクダの背中に乗って

February 2, 2002

キース・ベローズが“砂漠のSUV”と呼ぶ、ラクダの驚くべき優れた生態について語ります。会場にラクダを連れては来られませんでしたが、撮影隊を引き連れて1トン近くある発情期のラクダに迫ります。

Keith Bellows - Traveler
On the heels of a long and bruising camel ride, Keith Bellows became fascinated with the "SUV of the sand," and with the many thorny aspects of their personalities (and mating habits) most of us would rather not dwell upon. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
00:17
[SHIT]
これは間違いなく動物の最終工程のデザインでしょう
00:19
This is arguably the back end of the design of animals.
(笑)
00:22
(Laughter)
この言葉を書いた理由はこうです
00:25
But the reason I put this up here is because
00:28
when I was in Africa last year, my wife and I were driving around,
昨年妻とアフリカでドライブをしました
00:32
we had this wonderful guide,
素晴らしいガイド付きです
00:34
who showed us something that surprised both of us,
私たちが驚いたのは
普段知る事のない魅力的な
00:38
and it was very revealing in terms of the fascination
動物のカタチについてです
00:41
that comes with the design of animals.
1880年頃 宣教師がアフリカにやって来て
00:43
It turns out that in about the 1880s, the missionaries came to Africa
キリスト教の教えと
00:47
to spread the word of Christianity,
英語を現地人に教えました
00:49
to teach English to the natives.
00:51
And they brought blackboards and chalk.
彼らは黒板とチョークを持参しました
00:53
And I'd like you to imagine that that's a blackboard,
例えばこれが黒板だとすると
00:55
and I just used some chalk on there.
このようにチョークで何かを書く
00:58
And they brought quite a bit of this stuff.
彼らは ずいぶんたくさん持って行きました
01:00
But over the years, the blackboards were fine,
数年経ち 黒板には問題ありませんが
01:03
but they ran out of chalk.
チョークがなくなりました
01:05
And this is a real crisis for them.
彼らにとっては重大な事です
ここでハイエナの出番です
01:08
And that's where the hyena comes in.
ハイエナは世界で 最も完璧に設計された
01:11
The hyena is probably the most perfectly designed
01:13
scavenging animal in the world.
腐肉食の動物でしょう
01:15
It strip-mines carcasses, and it has amazing teeth,
死骸をほじくる 頑丈な歯を持ちます
この歯で骨までも食べるのです
01:19
because it enables the hyena to essentially eat bones.
その食べた結果が黒板の上に使われるのです
01:24
Now, the end product of that action is up on the board here.
宣教師は歩き回り ハイエナの
01:30
And what the missionaries would do is, they'd walk around
01:34
and they'd pick up hyena shit.
糞を集めたのです
何とハイエナの糞で良いチョークが作れるからです
01:37
And the incredible thing about hyena shit is, it makes great chalk.
(笑)
01:41
(Laughter)
01:42
Now, that's not what I'm here to talk about,
本題はこの事ではなく
魅力的な動物のカタチです
01:44
but it is a fascinating aspect of animal design.
01:48
What I'm here to talk about is the camel.
今日はラクダの話をします
リチャードと
01:51
When I started talking to Richard
スピーチの題材を相談しました
01:53
about what I was going to speak about,
最近ヨルダンに行ってきたのですが
01:55
I had recently come back from Jordan,
01:57
where I had an amazing experience with a camel.
そこでラクダについての驚くべき経験をしました
(笑)
02:01
(Laughter)
砂漠にいたのですが…
02:04
And we were in the desert --
(リチャード) それで話は終わりだろ
(キース) 分かってる
02:06
Richard Wurman: That's the end of this talk!
02:07
Keith Bellows: Yeah, yeah.
02:08
We were in the desert, in Wadi Rum, in a small Jeep.
ワディ・ラムの砂漠をジープで走っていました
02:11
There were four of us -- two Bedouin drivers --
遊牧民の運転手2名と計4人で
広大な砂の海を走る所を想像してください
02:14
and you can just imagine, this expanse is an ocean of sand,
気温40度 水のボトルは一本
02:18
105 degrees, one water bottle.
ドライブ中に彼らは言いました
02:21
And we were driving in what they told us
02:24
was their very, very best Jeep. Didn't look like it to me.
このジープは頑丈だと
私にはそう見えませんでしたが
02:28
And as we started to go through the desert, the Jeep broke down.
砂漠を走り始めると
ジープが故障したんです
ガイドが降りてボンネットを開け
02:34
The guys got out, they put the hood up,
修理をして直しました
02:36
they started working under the hood,
02:38
got it going again. About a hundred yards, it broke down.
しかし90メートル走った所でまた故障
02:40
This went on about six or seven times,
これを6、7回繰り返しました
どんどん不安になる中
02:42
and we were getting more and more alarmed,
砂漠の奥へと進んで行ったのです
02:44
and we were also getting deeper and deeper into the desert.
02:46
And eventually, our worst nightmare happened:
そして ついに最悪の事態になりました
オーバーフローです
02:49
they flooded the engine.
彼らは「問題ない歩いて行ける」と
02:51
And they said, "Ah, no problem! We just get out and walk."
02:55
And we said, "We get out and walk?"
驚きました
02:57
One water bottle -- remember, guys -- four people.
4人で水はたったの一本です
02:59
And they said, "Yeah, yeah, we'll walk. We'll find some camels."
彼らは「大丈夫ラクダを見つけるよ」と
我々は車を降りて歩きました
03:03
So we got out and walked, and sure enough,
800メートル歩き 丘の頂上に着くと
03:05
about half a mile, we came over the crest of this hill,
03:07
and there was a huge gathering of Bedouin with their camels.
大勢の遊牧民とラクダがいました
03:10
The guy went up and started dickering,
ガイドが彼らと取引をし
03:12
and 10 dollars later, we had four camels.
10ドルで4頭のラクダを手に入れました
エレベーターのように体をかがめたラクダに乗りました
03:15
They went down like elevators; we got on them. They went back up,
4人の遊牧民はそれぞれ
03:18
and the Bedouin -- each Bedouin, four of them --
ラクダの後ろでムチを打ちました
03:21
got behind each of the camels with a little whip.
背中にムチを打つ事でラクダを出発させるのです
03:24
And they started slashing away at the back of the camels,
ラクダは全速力で走り始めました
03:27
and they started galloping.
03:28
And if you've ever been on a camel,
ラクダの背中に乗った事ありますか?
とても 乗り心地が悪いものです
03:29
it is a very, very uncomfortable ride.
このラクダには特徴がありまして
03:32
There's also one other aspect about these camels.
10歩 歩くごとに後ろを振り返って
03:35
About every 10 steps, they lean back
乗り手の足を噛もうとするんです
03:37
and try to take a chunk out of your leg.
(笑)
03:39
(Laughter)
03:40
So we kept on going,
進めば進むほど
足を噛もうとするんです
03:42
and this camel kept on trying to take a chunk out of my leg.
5キロ進んだ所で目的地に着き
03:45
And eventually, three miles later, we arrived at our destination,
03:48
where a Jeep was supposed to meet us.
そこにジープがある予定でした
ラクダはエレベーターのように体をかがめて
03:50
And the camels come down again like elevators,
03:52
we sort of clumsily get off,
私たちはぎこちなく降りました
また足を噛もうとするんです
03:54
and they -- obviously -- try to take another chunk out of my leg.
私はラクダとこの時までに素晴らしい関係を
03:57
And I've developed a very wonderful relationship
築く事ができました
04:00
with this creature by this point,
気付きました
この生き物はイジワルだと
04:02
and I've realized that this is a mean son of a bitch.
私を歓迎するや
自分の26人の娘の
04:06
And much meaner, by the way, than the Bedouin who greeted me
1人をアメリカに連れて行けと
押し付けようとした
04:09
and tried to sell me one of his 26 daughters
遊牧民よりずっとイジワルです
04:12
to take back to the States.
リチャードに言いました
04:14
So as we talked, Richard and I,
「ラクダを連れてこよう
04:16
I said, "You know, maybe I should bring a camel.
04:18
I think the camel is the best designed animal in the world."
世界的にも優れた特徴を持つ動物だよ」と
04:20
And he kind of went, "Nah. I don't think we want to be bringing a camel."
彼は「ラクダを連れてくるのはどんなもんか」と
04:23
And you should be really glad we decided not to bring the camel.
連れて来なくて本当に良かったと思っています
04:26
So I did the next best thing.
折衷案として
ワシントン動物園に行きました
04:29
I went to the Washington Zoo. Richard said,
リチャードは「ラクダの近くに行って
仲良くなって
04:32
"I want you to get up close and personal with this camel.
04:35
I want you to inspect its mouth, look at its teeth.
口の中や歯の様子を観察し
04:38
Go underneath it. Go above it. Go around it.
下にもぐったり 上に乗って
ラクダの全体を見て
シッポを持ち上げて そこを見て
04:41
Pull its tail up; take a look in there.
出来る限りラクダの近くに行って欲しい」と
04:44
I want you to get as close to that camel as you possibly can."
ナショナル・ジオグラフィックのスタッフを引き連れ
04:47
So, I got a National Geographic film crew. We went down there,
動物園に行きました
04:52
and I took one look at this camel.
04:56
It is a 2,000 pound creature who is in rut.
900キロもある発情期のラクダです
(笑)
05:01
(Laughter)
900キロの発情期のラクダを見たことあります?
05:04
Now, if you've ever seen a 2,000 pound camel in a rut,
05:06
it is a scary, scary thing to behold.
眺めるだけで恐ろしいですよ
リチャードは私がラクダの柵の中に入ると思ったでしょうが
05:10
And if Richard thought I was getting in the ring with that camel,
正気の沙汰ではありませんよ
05:14
someone was smoking Bedouin high grade.
(笑)
05:16
(Laughter)
05:17
So we got as close to it as possible,
とにかく出来るだけ接近しました
一緒にビデオを見てみましょう
05:21
and I'm going to share this -- Chris, if you want to roll this film --
クリス流してくれるかい?
05:24
and then I'm going to show you a little bit more
その後でさらに
ラクダの特徴をお話します
05:26
about the design of camels.
05:27
Do you want to roll the film?
準備はいいですか?
(音楽)
(ビデオ) こちらキース・ベローズ
TED の ナショナル・ジオグラフィック ラクダ調査部
06:07
(Video) Hello. This is Keith Bellows with the National Geographic Camel Investigation Unit.
究極の砂漠動物を調査します
06:10
I'm here to look at the ultimate desert machine.
(音楽)
ガムを噛んでいるのは
一日中ラクダの周りに居たからです
06:23
And you'll note I started chewing gum
(ビデオ)よし それだ だめ
06:25
because I was around this camel all day.
06:27
Senior Keeper: That's it, that's it, OK. No! See, now he's getting a little overexcited.
(飼育員)ずいぶん興奮している
注意が必要です 襲われないように
06:30
So we'll need to be very careful around him. Don't let him get you.
大量のツバが見えるでしょう
06:56
Now, you can see copious amounts of saliva in there. [Unclear]
私の事は 不安定な馬小屋ボーイと呼んでくれ
07:03
I call myself the unstable stable boy.
07:05
Their nose -- you can see his nose is flared right now.
今鼻が広がっているでしょう?
07:08
When they're in rut -- they're similar to seals
発情期には鼻がオットセイのようになって
07:11
in the way, like, a seal has to open its nose to breathe.
息をする時には鼻が開くんです
意識的に鼻を開けて呼吸する仕組みです
07:17
And they're similar. They have to kind of consciously open their nose.
(キース) 耳は?
07:21
Ears? They are small. But they have excellent hearing.
(飼育係) 耳は小さいですが 聴力に優れています
例えばシマウマの耳は大きくて
07:26
But not a big -- for instance, in zebras, they have a huge ear
07:31
that's very mobile, so they can actually turn them both around.
動くので後ろにまで回す事ができるのです
双眼鏡のような働きで
07:36
And they use them in the same way we use our binocular vision.
正確に音の方向をつかみます
07:39
They use them to pinpoint sound.
砂漠は風が強いだけでなくとても寒いです
07:42
The desert's extremely windy as well as being very cold.
07:45
So not only do they have the very long eyelashes,
長い睫毛があるだけでなく
07:49
but there's the secondary -- I guess you'd call it the [unclear] or whatever.
第二の睫毛の様なものがあって
・・みたいな
目の上下にある長い毛がある
07:56
It's this hair that's above the eyes, and below it it's longer.
コブには水が入っていると思われがちですが
08:01
Most people think that the humps store water.
実は脂肪です
08:04
They don't. They store fat.
私は化学者ではないけど 説明すると
08:09
But -- now, I'm not a chemist, but basically what happens is
08:13
the fat is oxidized by their breathing.
呼吸が脂肪を酸化させるので
08:18
And that will turn it into actually usable water.
体に役立つ水になるんです
08:24
Like a lot of predators, they walk on their toes.
多くの補食動物のようにつま先で歩きます
08:27
But there's a big, fat pad in there that squishes out.
大きな脂肪のパッドがあって 押しつぶすのです
サンダルの役目をしているのです
08:32
They're like sun shoes, but, you know, with sand.
08:37
Hooves? They don't have traditional hooves,
典型的な蹄(ひづめ)はありませんが
大きな爪の様なものがあります
08:42
but they do have one, like, big nail.
(笑)
08:45
You can't really see too clear. The fur's kind of grown over.
毛に覆われていて よく見えませんね
08:48
But they use their tails a lot, especially in rut.
発情期にはシッポをよく使います
08:51
He will urinate and spin his tail
シッポを回しながら尿をします
尿を飛び散らすのです
08:55
to spread the urine around
魅力的に見せるそうです
08:58
and make him more attractive.
何故かは分かりませんがラクダの習性です
09:01
I don't know why that would be, but it works for them. (Laughter)
09:04
So, what the hell.
何なんですかね
(笑)
あとは特定の場所で排便をします
09:07
Now, they will also defecate in certain areas.
09:10
Generally, they poop wherever they want to,
通常はどこでもしますが
09:13
but during their rut, they will defecate in perimeter areas.
発情期には排便の場所があるのです
09:20
I don't know if you've read or heard about the sub-sonic sounds from elephants --
ゾウの可聴音以下の声を聞いた事ありますか?
ブルルっと鳴く音です
09:26
you know what I mean, like, "Br-r-r!"
ラクダもゴロゴロと大きい音を出します
09:29
These big, big rumbling sounds. He will do the same thing.
振動をおこすくらいです
09:32
You can actually see, right here, it will vibrate.
09:35
We weigh our animals.
動物の体重を計ります
このラクダは非常に攻撃的で
09:38
Unfortunately, he's a very aggressive animal,
体重計をいくつか壊しました
09:42
so he's actually destroyed some of the scales.
バイソンなどの大きな動物を計った事もあります
09:45
We had these big things that I weigh the bison on, for instance.
09:48
I'm guessing that he -- well, he's at least 1,600 pounds.
バイソンは少なくとも720キロくらいでしょう
09:51
But I would put him closer to 2,000.
でもこのラクダは900キロはあると思う
ラクダは基本的に歩く「おがくずの山」です
09:54
He's basically a walking mulch pile.
俺たちは友達でもあり男同士でもあります
09:57
We're kind of like buds, but I'm also a male as well and he's -- KB: He sees you as competition? Senior Keeper: Yeah, exactly.
(キース) ライバル視される? 
(飼育係) そうなんだ
10:02
And it makes him very dangerous at this time of year.
この時期は危険になる
おとなしくしろよ
おとなしく!
10:05
Don't even think about it. Don't think about it!
10:08
But now, we're going to meet -- out! Out!
別のラクダを… こら! 出なさい!
出るんだ!
10:15
Out!
10:18
No.
こら
出ろ!
10:21
Out!
(音楽)
(拍手)
10:47
(Applause)
ある部分をビデオではカットしてあるんです
10:48
KB: What I didn't show you was -- you got that swinging thing going?
10:53
Well -- and you're glad I didn't show you this.
見せなくて良かったのかも知れませんが
10:56
One of the other things about the camel's beautiful design
ラクダの面白い特徴として
10:59
is that its penis points backwards.
ペニスが後ろを向いているんです
11:01
That way the camel can dip its tail in the stream,
排尿時 尿をしっぽに垂らして
11:05
and just whacker the entire area around him.
広範囲に散らすのです
こうして自分の縄張りを広めるんです
11:09
And that's how he really marks his territory.
そしてもう一つお見せしなかったのですが
11:12
Now, what you also didn't see was that --
隣にラクダがもう一頭いました
11:14
and you may have noticed in the pen beside him
これまで紹介したラクダがスキで
11:17
and, by the way, the camel's name is Suki.
隣にいたのがジャスミンです
11:20
In the pen beside him is Jasmine.
ジャスミンはスキのお相手を時々します
11:22
Jasmine has been his mate for some time.
11:24
But on this particular occasion, it was very, very clear
ですが この時は明らかに
スキが求めてもジャスミンは応じませんでした
11:28
that as horny as Suki was, Jasmine was having none of it.
私たちは考えました
11:33
And so we started thinking.
かわいそうなスキは
11:35
Well, if poor old Suki is in search of a mate,
文句なしの相手をどうやって見つけるのかと
11:39
what would Suki do to find the perfect mate?
別のビデオをお見せします
11:42
So I'm going to show you another film.
11:43
But before I do, I just want to mention that
その前に 言いたいのは
ラクダはまるで砂丘のSUVです
11:46
this animal truly is a sort of the SUV of the sand,
砂漠の船のようで
11:50
the ship of the desert. It's so vital to the inhabitants of the areas
ラクダの暮らす地域の住人にとって
大事な存在です
主にモンゴルやサハラです
11:58
in which the camel is found -- largely Mongolia and Sahara --
アラビア語ではラクダを表現する言葉が
160もあるんです
12:01
that there are 160 words in Arabic to describe the camel.
ラクダが人間の手で設計されたとしたら
12:07
And if this is a creature that was designed by committee,
尊敬に値しますね
12:09
it's certainly been like no committee I've ever been on.
それではスキのお相手探しを見てみましょう
12:12
So here's what Suki would do in search of a mate.
12:18
Can you roll it, please?
準備はいいですか?
12:20
(Video) Camel seeking camel.
恋人探しのラクダ
たくましい動物は魅力的で誠実な相手を求めます
12:22
Lusty beast desires attractive & sincere mate.
身長2メートル 体重900キロ 毛と目は茶色 長い脚
12:25
I'm seven ft., 2,000 lbs., with brown hair/eyes, long legs ...
12:27
and I'm very well ... hung.
モノも立派
12:34
I'm TED Camel.
僕はテッド・ラクダだ
12:36
The perfect desert machine.
完全なる砂漠のマシーン
12:40
I'm smartly designed.
優れた特徴
12:42
Eyelashes that keep out sand and a third eyelash that works like a
睫毛は砂が目に入らないように 第3の睫毛は
ワイパーの役目
12:45
windshield wiper.
大きな鼻
12:49
A distinguished nose,
鼻孔が砂やホコリを入れないようにして
12:52
with nostrils lined to filter out sand and dust,
12:56
and a groove that catches moisture.
更に湿度を保つ
厚い唇で
13:00
Amazingly full lips
生えているものを何でも食べられる
13:04
that allow me to eat practically anything that grows.
膝のコブは かがむ時にクッションになる
13:09
Callouses on my knees that let me kneel comfortably.
胸のパッドが熱から守る
13:15
Leathery chest pads that beat the heat.
短い毛は肌が熱くなるのを避ける
13:18
Short fur that keeps my skin cool.
長い脚で熱を逃がす
13:22
Long legs that allow heat to escape.
コブ?
13:27
And my hump?
詩人オグデン・ナッシュは言った
13:30
Ogden Nash once wrote:
ラクダのコブは一つ ヒトコブラクダは二つ
13:32
"the camel has a single hump; the dromedary two,
13:34
or else the other way around. I'm never sure. Are you?"
もしくは逆かも知れない 確信を持った事はない あなたは?
13:37
Here's a hint:
ヒント
フタコブラクダは B
13:39
Bactarian,
ヒトコブラクダは D
13:41
Dromedary.
僕のコブは36キロの脂肪を蓄えるけど水は蓄えない
13:46
My hump contains up to 80 lbs. of fat -- but doesn't store H2O.
持久力がある
13:50
I'm built to last.
13:55
I'm the go-to animal when the oasis is dry.
僕はオアシスが乾いてる時に頼りになる
体温が40.5度になるまで 汗をかかない
13:59
I usually won't sweat until my body reaches 105 degrees F --
14:01
enough to fry an egg.
体重の40%を
死なずに落とせる
14:04
I'm able to lose 40 percent
14:06
of my weight without dying.
14:09
(Most animals would if they lost half that much.)
(ほとんどの動物は20%で死ぬ)
一日に19〜26リットルの水を飲む
14:13
I'll drink five to seven gallons of water a day.
でも一ヵ月水なしでも生きていられる
14:19
But go without for more than a month.
14:21
I'm powerful.
パワフルなんだ
14:23
Able to pack up to 400 lbs.
180キロの荷物を運べて
14:25
of cargo,
馬より速い
14:28
outrun a horse
一日に42キロも移動する
14:32
and cover 26 miles on a good day.
14:34
Camelot.
ケネディ時代に
ジャクリーン・ケネディはラクダと比べたら
14:38
Jackie O. once said that traveling by camel
14:40
made riding an elephant seem like taking a jet plane.
ゾウの旅は
ジェット機みたいだと言った
でも僕の大きくてソフトな脚は砂を歩くのにピッタリ
14:47
Yet my large, soft feet allow me to navigate sand.
(これだから 遊牧民は僕がダンスできるって言うの?)
14:52
(Is that why the Bedouin claim I can dance?)
僕はとっても役に立つ
14:57
I'm a good provider, too.
遊牧民はラクダを「神からの贈り物」と
14:59
Bedouins call the camel the Gift of God.
15:01
No surprise.
その通りだ
15:03
Tents and rugs are made of my hair.
テントと絨毯は僕の毛で作られている
乾燥した骨は象牙のように貴重品
15:05
My dried bones are prized as a sort of ivory.
15:07
My dung is burned as fuel. My milk is used for cheese.
糞は燃料に 乳はチーズに
15:09
"Camels are like angels," a Bedouin once said.
遊牧民は言った「ラクダは天使だ」
(拍手)
15:14
(Applause)
15:16
Thank you. I just want to leave you with one last thought,
ありがとう 最後に一つ
終わりを結ぶのに重要な事を言わせてください
15:20
which is probably the most important thing to take away.
絶えず環境に順応しているのです
15:25
Humans -- the animal -- are pretty lucky creatures because, by and large,
動物の世界を垣間みれば
15:31
we really don't have to adapt to our environment;
概して人間という動物はとても恵まれています
何故なら
15:35
we adapt our environment to us.
環境に順応する必要がないからです
15:37
And we've seen that repeatedly through this conference --
その素晴らしさが分かります
15:40
not just this year, but in past years.
我々は環境を順応させるのです
15:42
But this creature that you've just seen
彼らには順応させる環境があるのではなく
15:45
ultimately adapts, and keeps adapting and adapting.
私たちはテッドを通して それを学んできました
15:48
And I think when you look at the animal kingdom,
彼らが順応せねばなりません
15:50
that is one of the most remarkable things.
15:52
It doesn't have an environment that adapts to it;
何年もかけて
15:54
it has to adapt to the environment.
リチャード 呼んでくれてありがとう
15:56
Ricky, thank you very much for having me.
私が紹介したこの動物は
15:58
RW: That's terrific. Thank you.
素晴らしかったよ
ありがとう
Translator:Ritsuko Maruta
Reviewer:Masaki Yanagishita

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Keith Bellows - Traveler
On the heels of a long and bruising camel ride, Keith Bellows became fascinated with the "SUV of the sand," and with the many thorny aspects of their personalities (and mating habits) most of us would rather not dwell upon.

Why you should listen

As the former editor of National Geographic Traveler, Keith Bellows stepped away from the human aspects of travel for a moment to present one of his other fascinations: animal design. And not just the beautiful, photogenic aspects of that design either. After a harrowing breakdown in the Sahara with one water bottle to share among four people, Bellows was forced to make a rendezvous via camel ride, and became certain that this animal was, in addition to being a "mean son-of-a-bitch," the most perfectly designed creature on Earth.

Convinced by the organizers that bringing a live camel to the TED Conference was not a wise idea, Bellows did the next best thing, and drafted a National Geographic film crew to go to the Washington Zoo. They returned with a film of Suki, a 2,000-pound creature in the midst of rut, with shocking capabilities lurking in his spinning tail and rear-facing genitalia, all gleefully outlined in the film. But though this creature may seem unsavory, he's perfectly adapted to survival in the harshest environments around, and critical to the survival of the nomads that call the desert home.

 

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