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TEDGlobal 2005

Robert Neuwirth: The hidden world of shadow cities

ロバート・ニューワース「影の街」

July 14, 2005

何百万もの人々が暮らす不法占拠地帯が、発明と革新の中心地であると指摘するのは、『Shadow Cities(影の街)』の著者であるロバート・ニューワースです。世界各地の不法占拠地帯をご紹介します。

Robert Neuwirth - Author
To research his new book, "Stealth of Nations," Robert Neuwirth spent four years among street vendors, smugglers and “informal” import/export firms. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Let me show you some images
未来の街の
00:24
of what I consider to be the cities of tomorrow.
写真をいくつかお見せしましょう
00:25
So, that's Kibera, the largest squatter community in Nairobi.
ここはナイロビ最大の
不法占拠地区のキベラです
00:28
This is the squatter community in Sanjay Gandhi National Park
現在はムンバイと呼ばれる
インドのボンベイにある
00:38
in Bombay, India, what's called Mumbai these days.
サンジャイ・ガーンディー国立公園の
不法占拠地区です
00:43
This is Hosinia, the largest and most urbanized favela
ここはホシーニャ
リオデジャネイロ最大にして
00:47
in Rio de Janeiro.
最も都市化の進んだスラムです
00:51
And this is Sultanbelyi,
ここはスルタンベリです
00:53
which is one of the largest squatter communities in Istanbul.
イスタンブール最大の
スラムの一角です
00:55
They are what I consider to be the cities of tomorrow,
これが私の考える将来の街のあり方
01:02
the new urban world.
つまり新たな都市世界です
01:04
Now, why do I say that?
なぜそうなるのでしょう?
01:06
To tell you about that I have to talk about this fellow here,
この話には彼を
紹介しなくてはいけません
01:08
his name is Julius.
彼の名はジュリアス
01:11
And I met Julius the last week that I was living in Kibera.
先週キベラに滞在していた時
彼と知り合いました
01:13
So, I had been there almost three months,
キベラには3ヶ月滞在しましたが
01:18
and I was touring around the city going to different squatter areas
スラム内のいろいろな
場所の調査に行きました
01:21
and Julius was tagging along, and he was bug eyed
一緒についてくる彼が
目を丸くして驚き
01:25
and at certain points we were walking around,
私の手を握り助けを
求める場面もありました
01:28
he grabbed my hand for support,
こんなことを進んでする方は
01:31
which is something most Kenyans would never consider doing.
ケニアにほとんどいないでしょうね
01:33
They're very polite and they don't get so forward so quickly.
ケニア人はとても礼儀正しく
慎み深い民族ですから
01:36
And I found out later that it was Julius' first day in Nairobi,
その日はジュリアスが初めて
ナイロビに来た日だと後ほど判明しました
01:41
and he's one of many.
農村部から都市部へと
移り住む人の数は
01:47
So, close to 200,000 people a day
1日で20万人に
上ることもありますが
01:51
migrate from the rural to the urban areas.
彼もその1人だったんです
01:55
That's, and I'm going to be fair to the statisticians
今朝 話をされた統計学者の方には
01:59
who talked this morning, not almost 1.5 million people a week,
断っておきますが1 週間当たりの
数値は約150万ではなく
02:02
but almost 1.4 million people a week but I'm a journalist,
140万です 私は記者ですから
誇張もします
02:05
and we exaggerate, so almost 1.5 million people a week,
1 週間150万人と
しておきましょうか
02:08
close to 70 million people a year.
この数値は年間では
約7千万になります
02:12
And if you do the math, that's 130 people every minute.
ざっと計算すると1 分間当たりは
130人となりますので
02:16
So, that'll be -- in the 18 minutes that I'm given to talk here,
私がここで18分間話をしている間に
02:20
between two and three thousand people will have journeyed to the cities.
2千から3千の人が
都市部へ移動することになります
02:23
And here are the statistics.
それでは別の統計を見てみましょう
02:27
Today -- a billion squatters,
不法占拠者の数は今日では10億人
02:30
one in six people on the planet.
地球上の6 人に1 人の割合です
02:32
2030 -- two billion squatters,
2030年には数値は20億人となり
02:34
one in four people on the planet.
割合は4 人に1 人になります
02:37
And the estimate is that in 2050, there'll be three billion squatters,
2050年の予測では
30億人 つまり
02:39
better than one in three people on earth.
地球上の3人に1人が
不法占拠者ということになります
02:42
So, these are the cities of the future, and we have to engage them.
つまりこれは未来の都市であり
無視することはできません
02:46
And I was thinking this morning of the good life,
「よい暮らしとはなんだろう」と
今朝 考えていたんですが
02:55
and before I show you the rest of my presentation,
残りのプレゼンをお見せする前に
03:01
I'm going to violate TED rules here,
TEDのルールを破って私の著書の
03:03
and I'm going to read you something from my book as quickly as I can.
一部を読みあげたいと思います
なるべく手短にね
03:05
Because I think it says something about reversing our perception
この本の一節は私たちの持つ
「よい暮らし」に関する
03:11
of what we think the good life is.
認識を大きく
変えてくれると信じています
03:16
So -- "The hut was made of corrugated metal, set on a concrete pad.
" ここではコンクリートの上に
掘っ立て小屋を建てます
03:23
It was a 10 by 10 cell.
部屋は縦 横それぞれ10個あります
03:28
Armstrong O'Brian, Jr. shared it with three other men.
アームストロング・オブライアンは
3人の男性と暮らしています
03:31
Armstrong and his friends had no water --
ここには水道が通っていないので
03:35
they bought it from a nearby tap owner --
彼らは近くで水道水を買っています
03:38
no toilet -- the families in this compound shared a single pit-latrine --
水洗トイレはありません
汲み取り式便所1つのみです
03:40
and no sewers or sanitation.
下水道もなく不衛生です
03:45
They did have electricity,
電気は他の人の家から
03:47
but it was illegal service tapped from someone else's wires,
非合法的に引いてきたものが
ありましたが
03:49
and could only power one feeble bulb.
小さな電球を
点灯させるので精一杯です
03:52
This was Southland, a small shanty community
ここはケニア ナイロビの
西部にあるスラム街の
03:55
on the western side of Nairobi, Kenya.
サウスランドです
03:58
But it could've been anywhere in the city,
どこでも変わりありません
04:00
because more than half the city of Nairobi lives like this.
ナイロビの人口の過半数は
こんな暮らしをしています
04:03
1.5 million people stuffed into mud or metal huts
150万の人がガス 水
電気 トイレ 人権もない
04:06
with no services, no toilets, no rights.
鉄の小屋に詰め込まれています
04:10
"Armstrong explained the brutal reality of their situation:
アームストロングは
残酷な状況を語りました
04:13
they paid 1,500 shillings in rent, about 20 bucks a month,
毎月の家賃は約20ドルですがケニアの
04:17
a relatively high price for a Kenyan shantytown,
スラム街ではこれはなかなかの額です
04:20
and they could not afford to be late with the money.
支払いが遅れることは
絶対に許されないそうで
04:23
'In case you owe one month, the landlord will come with his henchmen
「1 ヶ月滞納すると
ギャングと大家に
04:26
and bundle you out. He will confiscate your things,' Armstrong said.
追い出され 持ち物を取られる」と
語っていました
04:28
'Not one month, one day,' his roommate Hilary Kibagendi Onsomu,
「1 ヶ月じゃなくて1 日だ」と
遮ったのはルームメイトのヒラリーです
04:32
who was cooking ugali, the spongy white cornmeal concoction
彼はケニアではよく見る
トウモロコシ粉の
04:37
that is the staple food in the country, cut into the conversation.
白い泡状の料理
ウガリというのを作っていた
04:40
They called their landlord a Wabenzi, meaning that he is a person
大家はワベンジーと呼ばれ
これはベンツに
04:44
who has enough money to drive a Mercedes-Benz.
乗るだけの金があるやつ
という意味なんです
04:47
Hilary served the ugali with a fry of meat and tomatoes;
ヒラリーの作った夕食が
食卓に並ぶ頃には
04:53
the sun slammed down on the thin steel roof;
薄い鉄板の屋根に太陽が照りつけ
04:56
and we perspired as we ate.
食事中は汗が止まらない
04:59
"After we finished, Armstrong straightened his tie,
食後 アームストロングは
ネクタイをして
05:01
put on a wool sports jacket, and we headed out into the glare.
ウールのスポーツジャケットを
羽織って街へ繰り出しました
05:04
Outside a mound of garbage formed the border
外にはサウスランドと
不法占拠地帯でない
05:08
between Southland and the adjacent legal neighborhood of Langata.
隣のランガータを隔てる
ゴミの山がありました
05:11
It was perhaps eight feet tall, 40 feet long, and 10 feet wide.
高さ2.4 m 幅12 m
奥行き3 m程はあったでしょうか
05:14
And it was set in a wider watery ooze.
周囲には汚水が散乱していました
05:19
As we passed, two boys were climbing the mount Kenya of trash.
近くを通るとこのゴミ山を
登る少年が二人いました
05:23
They couldn't have been more than five or six years old.
せいぜい5、6歳くらいでしょう
05:27
They were barefoot, and with each step their toes sank into the muck
裸足の彼らが踏み込むたびに
足がゴミに沈み何百という
05:29
sending hundreds of flies scattering from the rancid pile.
ハエがゴミの山を飛び回りました
05:33
I thought they might be playing King of the Hill, but I was wrong.
お山の大将ごっこでも
しているのかと思いましたが
05:37
Once atop the pile, one of the boys lowered his shorts,
違いました 頂上に着くや否や
1人がズボンを下ろし
05:41
squatted, and defecated.
かがみ込んで排便したのです
05:45
The flies buzzed hungrily around his legs.
旺盛なハエが足の周りを飛び回る
05:47
When 20 families -- 100 people or so -- share a single latrine,
100人といった数が1 つの
汲み取り式便所を共有するところでは
05:51
a boy pooping on a garbage pile is perhaps no big thing.
ゴミの山で用をたすのも
たいしたことではないのでしょう
05:56
But it stood in jarring contrast
しかし アームストロングの
06:00
to something Armstrong had said as we were eating --
「俺はここの暮らしが気に入っているぜ」
06:02
that he treasured the quality of life in his neighborhood.
という話とはかなり食い違っています
06:05
"For Armstrong, Southland wasn't constrained by its material conditions.
アームストロングに言わせれば
サウスランドは資源不足に
06:08
Instead, the human spirit radiated out
縛られているのでなく 鉄の小屋とか
06:13
from the metal walls and garbage heaps to offer something
ゴミの山から人間味が
あふれ出すところであり
06:16
no legal neighborhood could: freedom.
つまり これは自由なのだそうです
06:19
'This place is very addictive,' he had said.
「ここはやみつきになるよ」
と彼は言いました
06:22
'It's a simple life, but nobody is restricting you.
「暮らしは単純 なにごとにも縛られない」
06:25
Nobody is controlling what you do.
誰に縛られることもない
06:28
Once you have stayed here, you cannot go back.'
「ここに一度住んだら戻れなくなるぜ」
06:31
He meant back beyond that mountain of trash,
彼は再びゴミ山の向こう側
06:35
back in the legal city, of legal buildings,
住宅 賃貸 権利といった
法が支配する
06:37
with legal leases and legal rights.
都市に戻るつもりだったそうですが
06:40
'Once you have stayed here,' he said,
「一度ここに住めば死ぬまで
06:43
'you can stay for the rest of your life.'"
暮らせる」と考えを変えたようです "
06:46
So, he has hope, and this is where these communities start.
彼には望みがあります
こうしてコミュニティが始まるんです
06:50
This is perhaps the most primitive shanty that you can find in Kibera,
ここはキベラでも最も
原始的なスラムでしょう
06:55
little more than a stick-and-mud hut next to a garbage heap.
ゴミ山の隣にある
掘っ立て小屋という感じですね
07:00
This is getting ready for the monsoon in Bombay, India.
インドのボンベイでは
モンスーンに備えて
07:05
This is home improvement:
家屋を補強しています
07:08
putting plastic tarps on your roof.
防水にはビニールシートを
使うんですね
07:10
This is in Rio de Janeiro, and it's getting a bit better, right?
ここはリオデジャネイロです
いくらかましですよね?
07:14
We're seeing scavenged terra cotta tile and little pieces of signs,
壁にはあさりだした標識 テラコッタタイルに
レンガや石膏も使われています
07:18
and plaster over the brick, some color,
塗装もされていますね
07:24
and this is Sulay Montakaya's house in Sultanbelyi, and it's getting even better.
これはスルタンベリに住むスレ・モンタカヤの家です
一層発達していますね
07:27
He's got a fence; he scavenged a door;
柵がありますし
ドアも見つけたんですね
07:32
he's got new tile on the roof.
屋根のタイルにいたっては新品です
07:34
And then you get Rocinha
それからホシーニャです
07:37
and you can see that it's getting even better.
更なる進歩が伺えますね
07:39
The buildings here are multi-story.
高層建築が挙げられます
07:43
They develop -- you can see on the far right
右の端っこに見えるように
07:45
one where it seems to just stack on top of each other,
建物をだんだんに積み上げたような
07:48
room, after room, after room.
かたちになっています
07:51
And what people do is they develop their home on one or two stories,
一階建てとか
二階建ての自宅を建てたら
07:53
and they sell their loggia or roof rights,
天井の権利を売り
それを買った誰かが上に
07:57
and someone else builds on top of their building,
また家を建てます
08:00
and then that person sells the roof rights,
またその人が屋根の権利を売り
08:01
and someone else builds on top of their building.
別の家が上に建つのです
08:03
All of these buildings are made out of reinforced concrete and brick.
家は全て強化コンクリートと
レンガでできています
08:05
And then you get Sultanbelyi, in Turkey, where it's even built
次はトルコのスルタンベリです
ここのデザインは更に発達しています
08:09
to a higher level of design.
"次はトルコのスルタンベリです
ここのデザインは更に発達しています"
08:13
The crud in the front is mattress stuffing,
手前に見えるのは
マットの詰め物ですね
08:14
and you see that all over Turkey.
トルコならどこでも見かけます
08:17
People dry out or air out their mattress stuffing on their roofs.
トルコではマットを
屋根の上で乾かすんです
08:19
But the green building, on behind,
後方の緑色の建物を見て下さい
08:23
you can see that the top floor is not occupied,
最上階には誰も住んでいません
08:25
so people are building with the possibility of expansion.
上に家を建てられるよう
空けてあるんです
08:27
And it's built to a pretty high standard of design.
ここらの家のデザインは一級品ですね
08:30
And then you finally get squatter homes like this,
最終的には郊外型の
08:33
which is built on the suburban model.
このような家も
建ってしまいます
08:35
Hey, that's a single family home in the squatter community.
これが不法占拠者の一戸建てですよ
08:37
That's also in Istanbul, Turkey.
これもトルコのイスタンブールです
08:40
They're quite vital places, these communities.
この地域はとても活気あるところです
08:42
This is the main drag of Rocinha, the Estrada da Gavea,
これはホシーニャの
ガービアという大通りです
08:44
and there's a bus route that runs through it,
人もたくさん通りますが
08:48
lots of people out on the street.
ここはバスも通ります
08:50
These communities in these cities are actually more vital
ここら辺のコミュニティは
不法移民地帯よりも
08:52
than the illegal communities.
さらに活気に満ちており
08:55
They have more things going on in them.
いろいろな活動が見られます
08:57
This is a typical pathway in Rocinha called a "beco" --
これはビーコーと
呼ばれるホシーニャには
09:00
these are how you get around the community.
よくある通りです
09:03
It's on very steep ground.
リオのビーチから離れた
09:05
They're built on the hills, inland from the beaches in Rio,
内陸部の丘の上なので
とても急勾配です
09:07
and you can see that the houses are just cantilevered over the natural obstructions.
住宅は自然の片持ち梁に
支えられている
09:10
So, that's just a rock in the hillside.
単なる岩なんですね
09:14
And these becos are normally very crowded,
こういった通りは大抵混み合っており
09:16
and people hump furniture up them, or refrigerators up them,
家具や冷蔵庫を担いだ人など
あらゆるものが
09:20
all sorts of things.
ここを通ります
09:23
Beer is all carried in on your shoulders.
ビールも人力で運びますよ
09:25
Beer is a very important thing in Brazil.
ブラジルにビールは欠かせませんね
09:27
This is commerce in Kenya, right along the train tracks,
これがケニアの商売です
線路のすぐ脇でやっています
09:30
so close to the train tracks that the merchants
線路と距離が近すぎて時々
09:35
sometimes have to pull the merchandise out of the way.
商品の移動をすることもあります
09:37
This is a marketplace, also in Kenya, Toi Market,
こちらはケニアの市場
トイマーケットです
09:40
lots of dealers, in almost everything you want to buy.
売店は豊富で 欲しい物は
大抵手に入ります
09:43
Those green things in the foreground are mangoes.
地面に落ちてる緑色のやつは
マンゴーですね
09:47
This is a shopping street in Kibera,
こちらはキベラの商店街です
09:50
and you can see that there's a soda dealer, a health clinic,
炭酸飲料販売店や
診療所それと美容室が2つ
09:52
two beauty salons, a bar, two grocery stores, and a church, and more.
バーに食糧雑貨店が2つ
それと教会 まだまだあります
09:57
It's a typical downtown street; it just happens to be self-built.
一般的な通りです
彼らが自力で作ったんですよ
10:02
This here, on the right-hand side,
右側を見てみて下さい
10:07
is what's called a -- if you look at the fine print under the awning --
日よけの下の
小さな文字が見えますかね
10:10
it's a hotel.
これはホテルです
10:13
And what hotel means, in Kenya and India, is an eating-place.
ケニアとインドではホテルは
食事をするところを意味します
10:15
So, that's a restaurant.
つまり レストランです
10:21
People steal electrical power -- this is Rio.
リオでは電力泥棒が横行しています
10:23
People tap in and they have thieves who are called "grillos" or "crickets,"
電力泥棒は「こおろぎ」と呼ばれます
電柱に繋いだケーブルから
10:25
and they steal the electrical power
電力を盗みとり これを
10:32
and wire the neighborhood.
近隣で利用します
10:34
People burn trash to get rid of the garbage,
ゴミは焼却処理をして
10:36
and they dig their own sewer channels.
自分たちで下水を掘ったりもします
10:39
Talk about more plastic bags than plankton.
プランクトンよりビニール袋が
注目されますが
10:43
And sometimes they have natural trash-disposal.
自然ゴミ処理法の
お世話になることもあります
10:46
And when they have more money they cement their streets,
お金に余裕があれば通りを舗装したり
10:50
and they put in sewers and good water pipes, and stuff like that.
上下水道管を取り付けます
10:53
This is water going to Rio. People run their water pipes all over the place,
これはリオの簡易水道設備です
独自に送水管を取り付け水を流しています
10:57
and that little hut right there has a pump in it, and that's what people do:
こちらの小屋にはポンプがあり
これで水を確保します
11:03
they steal electricity; they install a pump
電気を盗んだり ポンプを取り付けて
11:06
and they tap into the water main, and pump water up to their houses.
水道本管から取水したりしているのです
11:08
So, the question is how do you go from the mud-hut village,
どうすれば掘っ立て小屋の
段階から抜けだせるでしょう?
11:12
to the more developed city, to the even highly developed Sultanbelyi?
どうすればスルタンベリのような
発展を実現できるでしょう?
11:18
I say there are two things.
大切なことが2つあります
11:23
One is people need a guarantee they won't be evicted.
まず 安全に暮らせる保証が必要です
11:25
That does not necessarily mean property rights,
これは必ずしも所有権の
問題ではないので
11:27
and I would disagree with Hernando de Soto on that question,
この点 エルナンド・デ・ソトには
賛成できません 理由は
11:29
because property rights create a lot of complications.
所有権は頻繁に問題を生むからです
11:33
They're most often sold to people, and people then wind up in debt
誰かが所有権を手にすれば
後に負債を生み出し
11:35
and have to pay back the debt,
これを返済する必要が生じます
11:39
and sometimes have to sell their property
そしてこれを完済するには所有権を
11:41
in order to pay back the debt.
売らなくてはいけない場合もあります
11:43
There's a whole variety of other reasons why property rights
スラムで所有権が機能しない理由は
11:45
sometimes don't work in these cases,
他にも山ほどありますが 彼らには
11:47
but they do need security of tenure.
安心できる住まいが必要なのです
11:49
And they need access to politics, and that can mean two things.
次に政治へのアクセス拡大が必要です
11:51
That can mean community organizing from below,
トップダウン式と
ボトムアップ式の両方の
11:55
but it can also mean possibilities from above.
コミュニティ形成が可能になります
11:59
And I say that because the system in Turkey is notable.
トルコにはスラムを
保護するユニークな法律が
12:02
Turkey has two great laws that protect squatters.
2つ存在します
12:07
One is that -- it's called "gecekondu" in Turkish,
1つ目はトルコ語で
「夜間建設」を意味する
12:09
which means "built overnight," and if you build your house overnight
ゲジェコンドゥです
夜間に人知れずこっそり
12:12
in Turkey, you can't be evicted without due process of law,
家を建ててしまえば法律上立ち退きを
12:16
if they don't catch you during the night.
迫られずに済むのです
12:20
And the second aspect is that once you have 2,000 people
次に 人口が2千人に
達したコミュニティは
12:23
in the community, you can petition the government
政府に基礎自治体としての
12:27
to be recognized as a legal sub-municipality.
登録申請を合法的に
行うことができます
12:29
And when you're a legal sub-municipality, you suddenly have politics.
基礎自治体となれば行政が生まれます
12:33
You're allowed to have an elected government, collect taxes,
自治体を選出したり 税徴収などの
12:36
provide municipal services, and that's exactly what they do.
公共サービスの提供ができます
実際にこういったことは起きています
12:38
So, these are the civic leaders of the future.
つまり彼らは未来の市町村長なんです
12:42
The woman in the center is Geeta Jiwa.
彼女はジータ・ジワです
12:46
She lives in one of those tents on the highway median in Mumbai.
ムンバイの高速道路の中央分離帯に
テントを張って暮らしています
12:47
That's Sureka Gundi; she also lives with her family
こちらはスレーカ・ガンディー
彼女も同じ
12:53
on the tent along the same highway median.
高速の中央分離帯に暮らしています
12:55
They're very outspoken. They're very active.
彼女たちは素直でとても活発です
12:57
They can be community leaders.
コミュニティのリーダーに
なれるでしょう
12:59
This woman is Nine, which means "grandma" in Turkish.
こちらはネイネー
トルコ語で祖母という意味です
13:02
And there were three old ladies who lived in --
後ろの手作りの
家には3人の
13:05
that's her self-built house behind her -- and they've lived there for 30 or 40 years,
老婆が暮らしています
30年とか40年もですよ
13:07
and they are the backbone of the community there.
彼女たちは
このコミュニティの要です
13:12
This is Richard Muthama Peter,
こちらは
リチャード・ムサマ・ピーターです
13:15
and he is an itinerant street photographer in Kibera.
彼はキベラの放浪写真家です
13:17
He makes money taking pictures of the neighborhood,
近所の風景や人々を写真に収めて
13:20
and the people in the neighborhood,
生計を立てている彼は
13:23
and is a great resource in the community.
このコミュニティの重要な人材です
13:25
And finally my choice to run for mayor of Rio is Cezinio,
リオの市長に私が推薦するのは
こちらのシジーニョです
13:27
the fruit merchant with his two kids here,
2人の息子を持つ果物屋ですが
13:31
and a more honest and giving and caring man I don't know.
彼より正直で利他的で
思いやりのある方は見たことがありません
13:33
The future of these communities is in the people
これらのコミュニティの将来は
13:38
and in our ability to work with those people.
住人たちと私たちの
協力にかかっています
13:40
So, I think the message I take, from what I read from the book,
先ほど読んだ本の抜粋や
アームストロング そして
13:44
from what Armstrong said, and from all these people,
その他の人々に学ぶメッセージとは
13:48
is that these are neighborhoods.
これらは全て共同体ということです
13:50
The issue is not urban poverty.
問題は都市部の貧困問題や
13:52
The issue is not the larger, over-arching thing.
うずたかくつもった
ゴミ山でもありません
13:54
The issue is for us to recognize that these are neighborhoods --
不法占拠地帯を共同体と
認めるかどうかということです
13:57
this is a legitimate form of urban development --
既に未来の都市開発が
進められています
14:00
and that cities have to engage these residents,
これは合理的な
都市開発の一形態であり
14:03
because they are building the cities of the future.
私たちもこれを支援していくべきです
14:06
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
14:09
Translator:Takahiro Shimpo
Reviewer:Yusuke Yanagita

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Robert Neuwirth - Author
To research his new book, "Stealth of Nations," Robert Neuwirth spent four years among street vendors, smugglers and “informal” import/export firms.

Why you should listen

In his 2012 book Stealth of Nations, Robert Neuwirth challenges conventional thinking by examining the world's informal economy close up. To do so, he spent four years living and working with street vendors and gray marketers, to capture its scope, its vigor--and its lessons. He calls it “System D” and argues that it is not a hidden economy, but a very visible, growing, effective one, fostering entrepreneurship and representing 1.8 billion jobs worldwide.

Before this, for his previous book Shadow Cities (also a TEDTalk), he spent two years exploring one of the most profound trends of our time: the mass migration of the world's population into urban shantytowns. A billion people live as squatters. Life in a favela, slum, shantytown is hard: no water, no transport, no sewage. But in the squatter cities of Rio, Nairobi, Istanbul and Mumbai, Neuwirth discovered restaurants, markets, clinics and effective forms of self-organization.

Our challenge, Neuwirth says, isn't to end squatter cities or shut down gray markets--but to engage and empower those who live and work in them.

 

The original video is available on TED.com
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