TEDGlobal 2005

Jimmy Wales: The birth of Wikipedia

ジミー・ウェールズ: ウィキペディアの誕生

Filmed:

「寄り合い所帯のボランティア」を集め、ウィキペディアを共同制作するためのツールを提供し、ウィキペディアを作成した過程を、ジミー・ウェールズが振り返ります。 ウィキペディアは自己組織型、自己修正型で、常に未完のオンライン百科事典です。

- Founder of Wikipedia
With a vision for a free online encyclopedia, Wales assembled legions of volunteer contributors, gave them tools for collaborating, and created the self-organizing, self-correcting, ever-expanding, multilingual encyclopedia of the future. Full bio

In 1962, Charles Van Doren, who was later a senior editor of Britannica,
1962年 後にブリタニカの編集長となるヴァンドーレンは
00:25
said the ideal encyclopedia should be radical -- it should stop being safe.
理想的な百科事典は急進的であるべきだと言いました
00:29
But if you know anything about the history of Britannica since 1962,
でも 62年以降のブリタニカの歴史は
00:33
it was anything but radical:
全然 急進的ではなく
00:36
still a very completely safe, stodgy type of encyclopedia.
月並みな つまらないタイプの百科事典でした
00:38
Wikipedia, on the other hand, begins with a very radical idea,
一方ウィキペディアは 地球上の誰もが
00:43
and that's for all of us to imagine a world
無料で全人類の知識を
00:48
in which every single person on the planet
入手できる世界という
00:50
is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge.
急進的な考えから始まり
00:52
And that's what we're doing. So Wikipedia --
それを進めているところです
00:55
you just saw the little demonstration of it --
そのデモを見たところです
00:58
it's a freely licensed encyclopedia. It's written by thousands of volunteers
ライセンスフリーの百科事典で世界中の何千人ものボランティアが
01:00
all over the world in many, many languages.
多言語で執筆しています
01:04
It's written using Wiki software --
先ほどお見せしたウィキという
01:06
which is the type of software he just demonstrated
ソフトウェアを使っているので
01:08
-- so anyone can quickly edit and save,
誰でも すぐに編集して保存でき
01:11
and it goes live on the Internet immediately.
すぐにネットに反映されます
01:13
And everything about Wikipedia is managed by virtually an all-volunteer staff.
ウィキペディアは実質的に全てボランティアが管理しています
01:16
So when Yochai is talking about new methods of organization,
ヨーカイが言う組織の新しい方法とは
01:21
he's exactly describing Wikipedia. And what I'm going to do today
まさにウィキペディアの事です
01:25
is tell you a little bit more about how it really works on the inside.
今日はウィキペディアの仕組みに関して話します
01:29
So Wikipedia's owned by the Wikimedia Foundation, which I founded,
ウィキペディアは私が創立したウィキメディア財団という
01:33
a nonprofit organization. And our goal, the core aim of the Wikimedia Foundation,
非営利組織で 世界中の誰もが無料で百科事典を
01:38
is to get a free encyclopedia to every single person on the planet.
使えるようにする事が目標です
01:43
And so if you think about what that means,
斬新なサイトを作る以上に
01:46
it means a lot more than just building a cool website.
大きな事を意味しています
01:48
We're really interested in all the issues of the digital divide, poverty worldwide,
世界中の情報格差や貧困に関心があり
01:51
empowering people everywhere to have the information that they need
皆に必要な情報を届けることで 正しい決断を
01:55
to make good decisions.
してほしいのです
01:59
And so we're going to have to do a lot of work that goes beyond just the Internet.
インターネットに留まらない大きな課題があり
02:00
And so that's a big part of why we've chosen the free licensing model,
ライセンスフリーモデルを選んだ大きな理由でもあります
02:04
because that empowers local entrepreneurs --
各地の起業家に力を与え
02:08
or anyone who wants to, can take our content
誰でも好きなように
02:10
and do anything they like with it -- you can copy it, redistribute it
コピーでき 営利的にも
02:12
and you can do it commercially or non-commercially.
非営利的にも再配布できます
02:16
So there's a lot of opportunities that are going to arise around Wikipedia
世界中でウィキペディアを取り巻く 多くの
02:18
all over the world.
機会が生じるわけです
02:22
We're funded by donations from the public,
ウィキペディアは一般からの募金で
02:24
and one of the more interesting things about that
賄われ 実のところ運営費は
02:26
is how little money it actually takes to run Wikipedia.
非常にわずかなのです
02:29
So Yochai showed you the graph of what the cost of a printing press was.
ヨーカイが印刷機の費用に関するグラフを見せましたね
02:32
And I'm going to tell you what the cost of Wikipedia is,
ウィキペディアの費用を見せる前に
02:37
but first I'll show you how big it is.
まず規模を紹介します
02:41
So we've got over 600,000 articles in English.
英文記事は60万本以上あり 合計200万本の
02:43
We've got two million total articles across many, many different languages.
記事が多言語で執筆されています
02:47
The biggest languages are German, Japanese, French --
3大言語は独語 日本語 仏語です
02:51
all the Western European languages are quite big.
西欧言語はどれも大規模ですが
02:54
But only around one-third of all of our traffic to our web
英語のウィキペディアへのアクセスが
02:58
clusters to the English Wikipedia,
全体の3分の1程度でしかない事に
03:01
which is surprising to a lot of people.
多くの人は驚きます
03:03
A lot of people think in a very English-centric way on the Internet,
ネットは英語が中心だと思っている人は多いのですが
03:05
but for us, we're truly global. We're in many, many languages.
我々は世界的で 多言語を扱っています
03:09
How popular we've gotten to be -- we're a top 50 website
ウェブサイトの人気度でトップ50に入り
03:13
and we're more popular than the New York Times.
ニューヨークタイムズより上位にいます
03:16
So this is where we get to Yochai's discussion.
ヨーカイの主張に戻りますが
03:18
This shows the growth of Wikipedia -- we're the blue line there --
この青線はウィキペディアの成長を表していて
03:23
and then this is the New York Times over there.
もう片方はニューヨークタイムズです
03:26
And what's interesting about this is the New York Times website is a huge,
面白いことに大企業ニューヨークタイムズのサイトは
03:29
enormous corporate operation with -- I have no idea how many hundreds of employees.
私には見当もつかない人数の社員が運営していますが
03:32
We have exactly one employee,
ウィキペディアの従業員は一人
03:36
and that employee is our lead software developer.
我々のソフト開発の責任者で
03:39
And he's only been our employee since January 2005,
彼は’05年1月に従業員に
03:42
all the other growth before that.
なったばかりです
03:45
So the servers are managed by a rag-tag band of volunteers;
編集やサーバーの管理は 寄り合い所帯の
03:47
all the editing is done by volunteers.
ボランティアが管理しています
03:50
And the way that we're organized
皆さんが想像するような
03:52
is not like any traditional organization you can imagine.
伝統的な組織のやり方とは違います
03:54
People are always asking, "Well, who's in charge of this?"
責任者や担当に関して
03:57
or "Who does that?" And the answer is: anybody who wants to pitch in.
いつも聞かれますが 参加したい人なら誰でも出来ます
03:59
It's a very unusual and chaotic thing.
とても風変わりで混沌としています
04:04
We've got over 90 servers now in three locations.
サーバーは現在3ヶ所に90以上あり
04:07
These are managed by volunteer system administrators who are online.
オンラインのボランティアシステム管理者がいます
04:10
I can go online any time of the day or night
昼でも夜でも 私がネットにつなぐと
04:14
and see eight to 10 people waiting for me
サーバーに関する質問などと共に
04:17
to ask a question or something, anything about the servers.
10人程度が待ち構えています
04:21
You could never afford to do this in a company.
企業では無理ですね
04:25
You could never afford to have a standby crew of people
ウィキぺディアのように常時 チームを
04:27
24 hours a day and do what we're doing at Wikipedia.
待機させることは絶対出来ないでしょう
04:31
So we're doing around 1.4 billion page views monthly,
毎月 のべ14億ページが閲覧されているので
04:35
so it's really gotten to be a huge thing.
非常に大きくなったわけです
04:38
And everything is managed by the volunteers.
ボランティアが全て管理しています
04:41
And the total monthly cost for our bandwidth is about 5,000 dollars.
バンド幅は月額約5,000ドルで それが我々の
04:43
And that's essentially our main cost.
基本的な経費です
04:48
We could actually do without the employee. We actually --
従業員なしでも運営できますが
04:50
we hired Brian because he was working part-time for two years
始終 ウィキペディアの開発をして
04:53
and full-time at Wikipedia,
2年間アルバイトで生活していたブライアンを
04:56
so we actually hired him so he could get a life and go to the movies sometimes.
雇いました まともに暮らして映画ぐらい行けるようにね
04:58
So the big question when you've got this really chaotic organization is,
こんなに混沌とした組織を持つと
05:03
why isn't it all rubbish? Why is the website as good as it is?
仕上がりに関する疑問は大きくなります
05:06
First of all, how good is it? Well, it's pretty good. It isn't perfect,
完璧ではなくとも かなりの出来です
05:10
but it's much, much better than you would expect,
まったく混沌としたモデルにしては
05:13
given our completely chaotic model.
想像以上の出来です
05:16
So when you saw him make a ridiculous edit to the page about me,
私のページをむちゃくちゃに編集したら
05:18
you think, oh, this is obviously just going to degenerate into rubbish.
クズ同然になると思われるでしょうが
05:21
But when we've seen quality tests -- and there haven't been enough of these yet
品質テストをすると伝統的なものと比べ
05:25
and I'm really encouraging people to do more,
ウィキペディアは楽勝です
05:29
comparing Wikipedia to traditional things -- we win hands down.
これは沢山の人に確かめてほしいものです
05:31
So a German magazine compared German Wikipedia,
ドイツのある雑誌が 英語よりずっと小さい
05:35
which is really much, much smaller than English,
独語のウィキペディアをエンカルタや
05:38
to Microsoft Encarta and to Brockhaus Multimedia,
ブロックハウスと比べたところ
05:41
and we won across the board.
全面的に我々が勝ちました
05:45
They hired experts to come and look at articles and compare the quality,
彼らは専門家を雇い 記事の質の比較をしましたが
05:47
and we were very pleased with that result.
我々の満足する結果が出ました
05:50
So a lot of people have heard about the Wikipedia Bush-Kerry controversy.
ウィキペディアのブッシュ ケリー論争を知っている人は多いと思います
05:53
The media has covered this somewhat extensively.
これはマスコミも大きく取り上げました
05:57
It started out with an article in Red Herring.
レッドヘリング誌の記事が発端です
06:01
The reporters called me up and they -- I mean, I have to say
私に電話してきた記者は
06:04
they spelled my name right, but they really wanted to say,
選挙問題が加熱してコミュニティーを分断させていると
06:07
the Bush-Kerry election is so contentious,
言わせたかったのです
06:12
it's tearing apart the Wikipedia community. And so they quote me as saying,
私が“ウィキペディア史上最大の論争” と言ったとされていますが
06:14
"They're the most contentious in the history of Wikipedia."
実際は“論争にすらなっていない”と
06:18
What I actually said is, they're not contentious at all.
言いました
06:21
So it's a slight misquote. (Laughter) The articles were edited quite heavily.
違うんですよね その項目の編集は頻繁に行われていました
06:23
And it is true that we did have to lock the articles on a couple of occasions.
何度か記事を保護する必要があったのは事実です
06:29
Time magazine recently reported that
“時には極端な処置も必要となり
06:32
"Extreme action sometimes has to be taken,
ウェールズ氏は 2004 年の大半の期間
06:35
and Wales locked the entries on Kerry and Bush for most of 2004."
ケリーとブッシュの記事を保護していた” とタイム誌に書かれました
06:38
This came after I told the reporter that we had to lock it for --
記者に 時々記事を保護することもある と言ったら
06:43
occasionally a little bit here and there.
そのように書かれたわけです
06:47
So the truth in general is that the kinds of controversies
ウィキペディア内で論争になっていると思われている事は
06:49
that you would probably think we have within the Wikipedia community
たいがいは 全く議論にすら
06:52
are not really controversies at all.
なっていないのが実態です
06:56
Articles on controversial topics are edited a lot,
論議を醸し出す記事はたくさん編集されますが
06:58
but they don't cause much controversy within the community.
ウィキペディア内ではそれほど論争になりません
07:01
And the reason for this is that most people understand the need for neutrality.
大半の人が中立性を保つ必要性を理解しているからです
07:04
The real struggle is not between the right and the left --
大半の人が推測するような右や左の
07:11
that's where most people assume --
争いではなくて
07:15
but it's between the party of the thoughtful and the party of the jerks.
思慮深い人とそうでない人の間で争いが起こります
07:17
And no side of the political spectrum has a monopoly on either of those qualities.
そういうタイプの人は政治的スペクトルのどちら側にもいます
07:20
The actual truth about the specific Bush-Kerry incident
ブッシュ ケリー論争について 本当のところ
07:24
is that the Bush-Kerry articles
その記事が保護されていた期間は
07:28
were locked less than one percent of the time in 2004,
2004 年のうち1%未満でした
07:30
and it wasn't because they were contentious;
論争を醸し出す内容だったからではなく
07:33
it was just because there was routine vandalism --
どこでも見られる荒らし行為が
07:35
which happens sometimes even on stage, people --
あったからです
07:38
sometimes even reporters have reported to me that they vandalize Wikipedia
ウィキペディアを荒らしてみたけど
07:42
and were amazed that it was fixed so quickly.
迅速に修正されるので驚いた という記者もいます
07:45
And I said -- you know, I always say, please don't do that; that's not a good thing.
やめて下さい といつもお願いしています
07:48
So how do we do this?
さて どうやってウィキペディアの
07:52
How do we manage the quality control?
品質管理を行い 仕組みは
07:54
How does it work?
どうなっているかと言うと
07:56
So there's a few elements,
要素は幾つかあります
07:59
mostly social policies and some elements of the software.
大半は社会的ポリシーで ソフトウェアに関するものが幾つか
08:02
So the biggest and the most important thing is our neutral point-of-view policy.
一番重要なのは 中立性を保つことです
08:05
This is something that I set down from the very beginning,
これは一番初めに取り決めたことで
08:09
as a core principle of the community that's completely not debatable.
コミュニティの核心となる原則で 議論の余地は一切ありません
08:12
It's a social concept of cooperation,
協力する上での社会的概念なので
08:16
so we don't talk a lot about truth and objectivity.
真実や客観性に関しては あまり語りません
08:19
The reason for this is if we say we're only going to write the "truth" about some topic,
真実だけを書こうと掲げても 何を書くべきか決める上で
08:23
that doesn't do us a damn bit of good of figuring out what to write,
大して役に立ちません
08:27
because I don't agree with you about what's the truth.
真実の見定めは人によって違うからです
08:30
But we have this jargon term of neutrality,
でも中立性という言葉は
08:32
which has its own long history within the community,
コミュニティ内で長い歴史を持っています
08:35
which basically says, any time there's a controversial issue,
論争となる問題について ウィキペディア独自の
08:37
Wikipedia itself should not take a stand on the issue.
見解を示すのではなく 評判の良いグループの
08:41
We should merely report on what reputable parties have said about it.
見解を記載することを基本としています
08:44
So this neutrality policy is really important for us,
非常に多様なコミュニティーが集まって
08:47
because it empowers a community that is very diverse
何かを達成させるためには
08:50
to come together and actually get some work done.
中立性のポリシーが重要なのです
08:54
So we have very diverse contributors in terms of political, religious,
ですから 政治 宗教 文化の面で
08:56
cultural backgrounds.
貢献者は非常に多彩です
08:59
By having this firm neutrality policy,
この中立性ポリシーを最初から
09:01
which is non-negotiable from the beginning,
かたくなに守ることで
09:03
we ensure that people can work together
右と左の果てしない争いへ
09:05
and that the entries don't become simply a war
陥ること無く
09:07
back and forth between the left and the right.
誰もが共同して作業できるのです
09:09
If you engage in that type of behavior,
これに反する行動が見られると
09:12
you'll be asked to leave the community.
コミュニティを退くように言われます
09:14
So real-time peer review.
常にメンバー同士で評価しています
09:17
Every single change on the site goes to the recent changes page.
変更内容は全て「最近の更新」ページに載ります
09:19
So as soon as he made his change, it went to the recent changes page.
変更するや否や そのページに載ります
09:22
That recent changes page was also fed into IRC channel,
最近の更新ページはIRCチャンネルにも流れます
09:25
which is an Internet chat channel
ネット上のチャットチャンネルで
09:29
that people are monitoring with various software tools.
様々なソフトで監視されているのです
09:31
And people can get RSS feeds --
RSSフィードが得られ
09:35
they can get e-mail notifications of changes.
変更の知らせがメールで来るので
09:37
And then users can set up their own personal watch list.
ユーザーは自分の監視リストを作れます
09:40
So my page is on quite a few volunteers' watch lists,
私のページは時々荒らされるので かなり沢山のボランティアの
09:42
because it is sometimes vandalized.
監視リストに載っています
09:45
And therefore, what happens is someone will notice the change very quickly,
変更には誰かがすぐ気づいて
09:49
and then they'll just simply revert the change.
ただ元通りに戻すわけです
09:53
There's a new pages feed, for example,
例えば ウィキペディアの決まったページでは
09:57
so you can go to a certain page of Wikipedia
新しいページが作成されると同時に
09:59
and see every new page as it's created.
そのページが見れます
10:01
This is really important, because a lot of new pages that get created
使い物にならない新規ページの多くを
10:03
are just garbage that have to be deleted, you know, ASDFASDF.
削除するため これは重要な機能です ASDFASDF(でたらめ) とかね
10:05
But also that's some of the most interesting and fun things at Wikipedia,
でも新しい記事はウィキペディアで
10:08
some of the new articles.
一番面白いものでもあります
10:11
People will start an article on some interesting topic,
ある人が興味深い記事を始めると
10:13
other people will find that intriguing
それをきっかけに他の人も
10:15
and jump in and help and make it much better.
参加し出し 記事が向上します
10:17
So we do have edits by anonymous users,
匿名ユーザーが編集する点は
10:19
which is one of the most controversial and intriguing things about Wikipedia.
一番の論点の一つであり ウィキペディアの面白い部分です
10:21
So Chris was able to do his change -- he didn't have to log in or anything;
クリスはログインせず更新することができました
10:25
he just went on the website and made a change.
サイトに行って変更を加えました
10:29
But it turns out that only about 18 percent of all the edits to the website
でも匿名ユーザーが編集するのは
10:32
are done by anonymous users.
全体の18%だけです
10:35
And that's a really important thing to understand,
注目すべき点は
10:37
is that the vast majority of the edits that go on on the website
常に連絡を取り合っている600人から
10:39
are from a very close-knit community of maybe 600 to 1,000 people
1000人の緊密なグループが
10:42
who are in constant communication.
ウェブ上の大部分を編集していることです
10:46
And we have over 40 IRC channels, 40 mailing lists.
IRCチャンネルは40以上 メーリングリストは40あります
10:48
All these people know each other. They communicate; we have offline meetings.
みんな知り合いで連絡を取り合い オフ会もします
10:50
These are the people who are doing the bulk of the site,
彼らはサイトの大半を作成していて
10:54
and they are, in a sense, semi-professionals at what they're doing,
ある意味 その分野に通じたプロに近い人たちです
10:56
that the standards we set for ourselves are equal to or higher than
我々が設定している質はプロレベルか
11:01
professional standards of quality.
それ以上です
11:05
We don't always meet those standards,
常にそのレベルを満たせなくても
11:07
but that's what we're striving for.
それを目標としています
11:09
And so that tight community is who really cares for the site,
サイトを大事に思う人たちが緊密なグループを作り
11:11
and these are some of the smartest people I've ever met.
その中には私の知る一番賢い人もいます
11:14
Of course, it's my job to say that, but it's actually true.
説得力に欠けるかも知れませんが
11:16
The type of people who were drawn to writing an encyclopedia for fun
本当です 楽しみで百科事典を書くタイプの人は
11:18
tend to be pretty smart people. (Laughter)
とても賢い傾向にあります
11:22
The tools and the software: there's lots of tools that allow us --
コミュニティー自体や
11:25
allow us, meaning the community -- to self-monitor and to monitor all the work.
全ての内容を監視できる いろいろなツールがあります
11:27
This is an example of a page history on "flat earth,"
これは平らな地球のページの
11:31
and you can see some changes that were made.
履歴の例で 編集されたのがわかりますね
11:33
What's nice about this page is you can immediately take a look at this
このページの長所は変更が
11:36
and see, oh OK, I understand now.
一目瞭然なところです
11:39
When somebody goes and looks at -- they see that someone,
ある時 私のページを編集した―
11:41
an anonymous IP number, made an edit to my page --
匿名のIP番号を見たとします
11:44
that sounds suspicious -- who is this person? Somebody looks at it --
誰なのか怪しく思って見てみると
11:46
they can immediately see highlighted in red all of the changes that took place,
変更部分が すぐに赤く表示されるので
11:49
to see, OK, well, these words have changed, things like this.
どこが変更されたのかわかるのです
11:53
So that's one tool that we can use to very quickly monitor the history of a page.
これがページの更新履歴を すぐ監視できるツールです
11:57
Another thing that we do within the community
その他にも コミュニティー内では全てを
12:02
is we leave everything very open-ended.
非常に自由にできるようにしています
12:05
Most of the social rules and the methods of work
社会的規則の大半や仕事の方法は
12:08
are left completely open-ended in the software.
全部ウィキページに書いてあるだけで
12:12
All of that stuff is just on Wiki pages.
ソフトの上では制限していません
12:14
And so there's nothing in the software that enforces the rules.
規則を強いるソフトはありません
12:16
The example I've got up here is a Votes For Deletion page.
例として 削除投票のページがあります
12:19
So, I mentioned earlier, people type ASDFASDF --
先程のASDFASDFの件ですが
12:23
it needs to be deleted. Cases like that, the administrators just delete it.
そんなケースは管理者が削除します
12:26
There's no reason to have a big argument about it.
これは論外ですが
12:29
But you can imagine there's a lot of other areas where the question is,
百科事典に載せるまでもないものや
12:31
is this notable enough to go in an encyclopedia?
情報に確信性がないもの―
12:35
Is the information verifiable? Is it a hoax? Is it true? Is it what?
イタズラや本当なのか不明なものも多いのです
12:37
So we needed a social method for figuring out the answer to this.
よって それに答える社会的方法が必要でした
12:41
And so the method that arose organically within the community
それでコミュニティー内で自然と出た方法が
12:44
is the Votes For Deletion page.
削除投票ページです
12:47
And in the particular example we have here, it's a film,
ここにある具体的な例は
12:49
"Twisted Issues," and the first person says,
映画Twisted Issuesで 初めの人が
12:51
"Now this is supposedly a film. It fails the Google test miserably."
“これは映画だろうけど グーグルテストに通らなかった” と言います
12:53
The Google test is, you look in Google and see if it's there,
グーグルテストとはグーグルの検索にかかるかどうかで
12:57
because if something's not even in Google, it probably doesn't exist at all.
グーグルにさえ無ければ おそらく存在しないからです
13:00
It's not a perfect rule, but it's a nice starting point for quick research.
すぐ調査できる点では 良い足がかりです
13:04
So somebody says, "Delete it, please. Delete it -- it's not notable."
ある人が “載せるまでもないので削除してください” と言うと
13:09
And then somebody says, "Wait, wait, wait, wait, I found it.
別の人が “待って!
13:12
I found it in a book, 'Film Threat Video Guide:
アングラ映画必見 20 本に
13:14
the 20 Underground Films You Must See.'"
載ってるよ” と言います
13:16
Oh, OK. So the next persons says, "Clean it up."
そうすると “要編集” と別の人が言い
13:18
Somebody says, "I've found it on IMDB. Keep, keep, keep."
他の人が“映画データベースに出てるからそのままに” と言います
13:20
And what's interesting about this is that the software is --
ここの面白さとは 投票が
13:24
these votes are just -- they're just text typed into a page.
ページに書き込まれる文であること
13:27
This is not really a vote so much as it is a dialogue.
これは投票というより 会話です
13:30
Now it is true that at the end of the day
その日の終わりに
13:35
an administrator can go through here and take a look at this and say,
管理者がここに目を通し
13:37
OK, 18 deletes, two keeps: we'll delete it.
削除18人 保存2人 削除に決定 となります
13:40
But in other cases, this could be 18 deletes and two keeps, and we would keep it,
でも 削除18人 保存2人でも保存することがあります
13:43
because if those last two keeps say, "Wait a minute, wait a minute.
最後に保存に投票した2人が
13:48
Nobody else saw this but I found it in a book,
ある本やリンクに情報を見つけたので
13:50
and I found a link to a page that describes it, and I'm going to clean it up tomorrow,
後で編集し直すからと
13:52
so please don't delete it," then it would survive.
削除しないように頼む場合です
13:56
And it also matters who the people are who are voting.
誰が投票したかということも大事です
13:59
Like I say, it's a tight knit community.
これは緊密なコミュニティなのです
14:01
Down here at the bottom, "Keep, real movie," Rick Kay.
下にリックのコメントが見えますが
14:03
Rick Kay is a very famous Wikipedian
リックは有名なウィキペディア人で
14:05
who does an enormous amount of work with vandalism, hoaxes
荒らし行為やいたずら 削除の投票には
14:08
and votes for deletion.
多大な量の仕事をしています
14:11
His voice carries a lot of weight within the community
管理に関して知り尽くしている彼の発言は
14:13
because he knows what he's doing.
コミュニティー内で影響力があります
14:16
So how's all this governed?
統治の仕方に関してですが
14:18
People really want to know about, OK, administrators, things like that.
管理者に関して知りたがる人はたくさんいます
14:20
So the Wikipedia governance model, the governance of the community,
ウィキペディアのコミュニティによる統治モデルは
14:24
is a very confusing, but a workable mix of consensus --
複雑に見えますが うまく折り合いをつけてきました
14:28
meaning we try not to vote on the content of articles,
大半の意見は必ずしも中立ではないので
14:32
because the majority view is not necessarily neutral.
記事内容に投票しないようにしています
14:34
Some amount of democracy, all of the administrators --
ある意味 民主的なのです
14:38
these are the people who have the ability to delete pages,
管理者は全員 ページを削除できますが
14:40
that doesn't mean that they have the right to delete pages;
ページ削除の権利があるのではありません
14:43
they still have to follow all the rules -- but they're elected;
彼らも規則を守らなくてはいけませんが 彼らは
14:45
they're elected by the community. Sometimes people --
コミュニティに選ばれた人です たまに
14:48
random trolls on the Internet -- like to accuse me of handpicking the administrators
百科事典の内容を偏らせるために管理者を選んでいると
14:50
to bias the content of the encyclopedia.
難癖をつける人がいますが
14:54
I always laugh at this, because I have no idea how they're elected, actually.
どう選ばれたのか私も知らないので いつも笑ってしまいます
14:56
There's a certain amount of aristocracy.
貴族政治がある程度見られます
15:00
And so you've got a hint of that when I mentioned, like,
知らない人よりもリックの声が力強いのは
15:02
Rick Kay's voice would carry a lot more weight than someone we don't know.
なんとなくわかったでしょう
15:05
I give this talk sometimes with Angela, who was just re-elected
時々この話をアンジェラとします
15:08
to the Board from the community -- to the Board of the Foundation,
彼女は財団の理事として
15:12
with more than twice the votes of the person who didn't make it.
次点の倍以上の得票率で再選されました
15:15
And I always embarrass her because I say, well, Angela, for example,
“君はウィキペディアで何をしても大丈夫だ”
15:19
could get away with doing absolutely anything within Wikipedia,
こう言っていつもからかうのは 彼女が
15:23
because she's so admired and so powerful.
認められた実力者だからです
15:26
But the irony is, of course, that Angela can do this because she's the one person
でも皮肉なことにアンジェラにこの役が務まるのは
15:28
who you know would never, ever, ever break any rules of Wikipedia.
ウィキペディアの規則を絶対に破らないと分かっているからで
15:32
And I also like to say she's the only person
彼女はウィキペディアの規則全てを知っている―
15:35
who actually knows all the rules of Wikipedia, so ...
唯一の人間なのです
15:38
And then there's monarchy and that's my role on the community, so ...
コミュニティ内の君主は私の役目です
15:41
I was describing this in Berlin once and the next day in the newspaper
ベルリンでこれを説明したら 翌日の新聞の見出しに
15:46
the headline said, "I am the Queen of England."
“私は英国女王である” と書かれました
15:51
And that's not exactly what I said (Laughter), but --
私はそんな事言ってません
15:54
the point is my role in the community --
要はコミュニティ内の私の役目で
15:59
within the free software world
フリーソフトウェアの世界の中には
16:01
there's been a longstanding tradition of the "benevolent dictator" model.
博愛の独裁者モデルを持つという伝統が長く続いています
16:04
So if you look at most of the major free software projects,
ですから主要なフリーソフトでは
16:09
they have one single person in charge
皆が認める一人の責任者が
16:12
who everyone agrees is the benevolent dictator.
博愛の独裁者を務めます
16:14
Well, I don't like the term "benevolent dictator,"
博愛の独裁者という響きは好きではありませんし
16:17
and I don't think that it's my job or my role in the world of ideas
世界中の人に集められた人知の未来に対して
16:20
to be the dictator of the future of all human knowledge compiled by the world.
独裁者というものは アイデアの世界における私の仕事や役割として
16:23
It just isn't appropriate.
適当ではないと思います
16:28
But there is a need still for a certain amount of monarchy,
でも ある一定の君主制も まだ必要で
16:30
a certain amount of -- sometimes we have to make a decision,
時として決断をしなくてはいけません
16:33
and we don't want to get bogged down too heavily
正式な決断をするような過程で
16:36
in formal decision-making processes.
難航することは避けたいのです
16:39
So as an example of why this has been --
なぜ 又は いかにこれが重要かと
16:41
or how this can be important:
例を示すと
16:45
we recently had a situation where a neo-Nazi website discovered Wikipedia,
最近 ネオナチがウィキペディアを見て言いました
16:47
and they said, "Oh, well, this is horrible, this Jewish conspiracy of a website
“酷いね このサイトのユダヤ人の陰謀は!
16:50
and we're going to get certain articles deleted that we don't like.
気に食わない記事は削除するんだ
16:55
And we see they have a voting process, so we're going to send --
ウィキペディアには投票制度があるから
16:58
we have 40,000 members and we're going to send them over
4万人の会員を送り込んで このページを削除する―
17:00
and they're all going to vote and get these pages deleted."
投票をさせよう”
17:04
Well, they managed to get 18 people to show up.
彼らが集められたのは18人
17:06
That's neo-Nazi math for you.
そんな程度なんです
17:09
They always think they've got 40,000 members when they've got 18.
彼らはそんな状況で常に4万人の会員がいると思っていますが
17:11
But they managed to get 18 people to come and vote in a fairly absurd way
やっと18人を集めて 完全に有効な記事を削除しようという
17:14
to delete a perfectly valid article.
馬鹿げたことを企てました
17:19
Of course, the vote ended up being about 85 to 18,
もちろん投票は85対18程度となり
17:21
so there was no real danger to our democratic processes.
我々の民主的手順に脅威は及びませんでした
17:24
On the other hand, people said, "But what are we going to do?
その反面 心配している人もいて
17:27
I mean, this could happen and what if some group gets really seriously organized
もしも あるグループが本気になって組織されて
17:30
and comes in and wants to vote?"
投票しようとしたら?と言うのですが
17:34
Then I said, "Well fuck it, we'll just change the rules."
私は規則を変更するだけだと答えました
17:36
That's my job in the community: to say we won't allow our openness
開放性や自由のために内容の質を下げることは許さない―
17:39
and freedom to undermine the quality of the content.
と言うのが私の役割です
17:44
And so as long as people trust me in my role,
私の役割を人々が信頼してくれる限り
17:47
then that's a valid place for me.
それが私の適切な立場なのです
17:50
Of course, because of the free licensing, if I do a bad job,
もちろんライセンスフリーの為 もし私がひどいことをすれば
17:52
the volunteers are more than happy to take and leave --
ボランティアは文句なく去るでしょうし
17:56
I can't tell anyone what to do.
私は誰にも指示なんか出来ません
17:58
So the final point here is that to understand how Wikipedia works,
最後にウィキペディアの運営スタイルをつかんでもらおうと思います
18:00
it's important to understand that our Wiki model is the way we work,
ウィキモデルが我々のやり方であることを理解してもらいたいのですが
18:04
but we are not fanatical web anarchists. In fact,
我々はウェブ上の熱狂的な無政府主義者ではなく
18:08
we're very flexible about the social methodology,
社会的な方法論には非常に柔軟性を持っています
18:12
because it's ultimately the passion of the community is for the quality of the work,
コミュニティがもつ情熱は出来上がりの質に向けられていて
18:15
not necessarily for the process that we use to generate it.
必ずしも その過程を問うものではありません
18:19
Thank you.
ありがとう
18:23
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:25
Ben Saunders: Yeah, hi, Ben Saunders.
ベン サンダースです
18:28
Jimmy, you mentioned impartiality being a key to Wikipedia's success.
公平さがウィキペディアの成功の鍵だと言いましたね
18:30
It strikes me that much of the textbooks
子どもの教育に使われている教科書は
18:34
that are used to educate our children are inherently biased.
本質的に偏りがあると思うんです
18:38
Have you found Wikipedia being used by teachers,
ウィキペディアを使用している教師を知っていますか?
18:41
and how do you see Wikipedia changing education?
また ウィキペディアが教育を変えていることについて見解は?
18:45
Jimmy Wales: Yeah, so, a lot of teachers are beginning to use Wikipedia.
ウィキペディアは沢山の教師に使われ始めています
18:47
There's a media storyline about Wikipedia, which I think is false.
ウィキペディアに関するマスコミの筋書きは 間違っていると思います
18:52
It builds on the storyline of bloggers versus newspapers.
“ブログ対新聞” と同じ筋書きです
18:56
And the storyline is, there's this crazy thing, Wikipedia,
ウィキペディアというすごいものがあるけど学者や教師は嫌っていると
18:59
but academics hate it and teachers hate it. And that turns out to not be true.
報道されていますが それは違います
19:03
The last time I got an e-mail from a journalist saying,
ジャーナリストから なぜ学者が
19:09
"Why do academics hate Wikipedia?"
ウィキペディアを嫌うのかを問うメールが来ました
19:11
I sent it from my Harvard email address,
最近フェローに選ばれて貰った
19:13
because I was recently appointed a fellow there.
ハーバードのメールアドレスから返信しました
19:15
And I said, "Well, they don't all hate it." (Laughter)
“皆が嫌っているわけではありません”とね
19:17
But I think there's going to be huge impacts.
でも影響は大きいと思います
19:20
And we actually have a project
個人的にとても楽しみにしている―
19:23
that I'm personally really excited about,
計画があるんです
19:25
which is the Wiki books project,
全言語で教科書を作る―
19:27
which is an effort to create textbooks in all the languages.
ウィキブック計画です
19:29
And that's a much bigger project;
これは ずっと大きな計画で
19:31
it's going to take 20 years or so to come to fruition.
完成するまで20年はかかるでしょう
19:33
But part of that is to fulfill our mission
でも これは地球上の誰にでも
19:37
of giving an encyclopedia to every single person on the planet.
百科事典を与えるという我々の使命を全うすることにもなるのです
19:39
We don't mean we're going to spam them with AOL-style CDs.
AOLのようにCDを無差別にばらまくつもりはありません
19:42
We mean we're going to give them a tool that they can use.
皆が使えるツールを提供するという意味です
19:45
And for a lot of people in the world,
世界の多くの人には
19:48
if I give you an encyclopedia that's written at a university level,
大学レベルで書かれた百科事典を与えても
19:50
it doesn't do you any good
実際に使えるようにするために
19:52
without a whole host of literacy materials
理解を助ける教材がなければ
19:54
to build you up to the point where you can actually use it.
役には立ちません
19:56
And so the Wiki books project is an effort to do that.
ですからウィキブック計画はその努力をしています
19:58
And I think that we're going to really see a huge --
我々が作らなかったとしても
20:01
it may not even come from us;
様々な大きな技術革新が
20:03
there's all kinds of innovation going on.
迫っていると思うのです
20:04
But freely licensed textbooks are the next big thing in education.
でもライセンスフリーの教科書は教育における次の大きなテーマなのです
20:06
Translated by Takako Sato
Reviewed by Natsuhiko Mizutani

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About the Speaker:

Jimmy Wales - Founder of Wikipedia
With a vision for a free online encyclopedia, Wales assembled legions of volunteer contributors, gave them tools for collaborating, and created the self-organizing, self-correcting, ever-expanding, multilingual encyclopedia of the future.

Why you should listen

Jimmy Wales went from betting on interest rates and foreign-currency fluctuations (as an option trader) to betting on the willingness of people to share their knowledge. That's how Wikipedia, imagined in 2001, became one of the most-referenced, most-used repositories of knowledge on the planet, with more than four and a half million articles in English (compared with the Britannica's 80,000) and millions in dozens of other languages, all freely available.

The "wiki" in the name refers to software that allows anyone with Internet access to add, delete or edit entries. This has led to controversies about the reliability of the information, prompting the Wikimedia Foundation to set tighter rules for editors, while still keeping Wikipedia open-source. One thing is certain: Wikipedia will never be finished. In the meantime Wales has started working on Wikiasari, a wiki-style search engine.