19:01
Serious Play 2008

George Smoot: The design of the universe

ジョージ・スムート「宇宙のデザイン」

Filmed:

Serious Play 2008で、宇宙物理学者のジョージ・スムートが深宇宙の探査から得られた驚くべき画像を見せながら、暗黒物質や謎めいた空間に満ちた宇宙がいかにして形作られたのかを考えます。

- Astrophysicist
Astrophysicist, cosmologist and Nobel Prize winner George Smoot studies the cosmic microwave background radiation -- the afterglow of the Big Bang. His pioneering research into deep space and time is uncovering the structure of the universe itself. Full bio

I thought I would think about changing your perspective on the world a bit,
皆さんの世界に対する認識を少しばかり変えて
00:16
and showing you some of the designs that we have in nature.
自然界にあるデザインをお見せしたいと思います
00:20
And so, I have my first slide to talk about
スライドを使って宇宙の夜明けについてお話しします
00:23
the dawning of the universe and what I call
私は宇宙調査と呼んでいますが
00:27
the cosmic scene investigation, that is, looking at
創造の名残りを観測することによって
00:30
the relics of creation and inferring what happened at the beginning,
始めに何が起きたのかを推測し
00:32
and then following it up and trying to understand it.
それを続けることで理解につなげるのです
00:36
And so one of the questions that I asked you is,
辺りを見回して下さい
00:39
when you look around, what do you see?
何が見えますか?
00:41
Well, you see this space that's created by designers
この場は デザイナーや人々が働いて作り上げた空間です
00:43
and by the work of people, but what you actually see
でも実際に見ているのは
00:47
is a lot of material that was already here,
既に存在していた物質が
00:51
being reshaped in a certain form.
ある状態に加工されたものです
00:53
And so the question is: how did that material get here?
ではその物質はどこから来たのでしょうか
00:55
How did it get into the form that it had before it got reshaped, and so forth?
どうやって加工前の状態になったのでしょう?
00:58
It's a question of what's the continuity?
これは 連続性とは何かという問題です
01:01
So one of the things I look at is,
私に言わせれば 宇宙がどのように
01:04
how did the universe begin and shape?
始まり形作られたかという問題につながっています
01:06
What was the whole process in the creation and the evolution of the universe
宇宙創世とその後の進化において
01:08
to getting to the point that we have these kinds of materials?
いかにしてこれらの物質は生まれたのでしょうか?
01:12
So that's sort of the part, and let me move on then and show you
ではここでハッブル超深宇宙探査の写真を
01:14
the Hubble Ultra Deep Field.
お見せしましょう
01:18
If you look at this picture,
この写真は
01:20
what you will see is a lot of dark with some light objects in it.
暗い中に光る物体がいくらか見えます
01:22
And everything but -- four of these light objects are stars,
光る物体のうち4個は恒星です
01:26
and you can see them there -- little pluses.
ここです 小さなプラスの形をしています
01:28
This is a star, this is a star, everything else is a galaxy, OK?
これとこれが恒星で 他は全て銀河です
01:30
So there's a couple of thousand galaxies
眼をここにやれば
01:35
you can see easily with your eye in here.
数千の銀河を簡単に見ることができます
01:37
And when I look out at particularly this galaxy,
特に 私たちの銀河とよく似ている
01:40
which looks a lot like ours, I wonder if there's
この銀河を見ると不思議な気持ちになります
01:42
an art design college conference going on,
そこで芸術大学のデザイン会議が開催されているのではないか
01:44
and intelligent beings there are thinking about, you know,
そして知的生命体がデザインについて考え
01:47
what designs they might do, and there might be a few cosmologists
そこには何人かの宇宙学者がいて
01:50
trying to understand where the universe itself came from,
宇宙がどこからやってきたのかを考え
01:53
and there might even be some in that galaxy looking at ours
中には私たちの銀河系を見て ここで起きている事を
01:55
trying to figure out what's going on over here.
知りたがっている者もいるのではないか と
01:57
But there's a lot of other galaxies, and some are nearby,
でも銀河は他にもたくさんあり 近くのものは
01:59
and they're kind of the color of the Sun,
太陽のような色をしていて
02:02
and some are further away and they're a little bluer, and so forth.
遠くにあるものは青みがかった色になります
02:03
But one of the questions is -- this should be, to you --
でも知りたいのは
02:06
how come there are so many galaxies?
なぜこれほど多くの銀河があるのかということではないでしょうか
02:10
Because this represents a very clean fraction of the sky.
これは宇宙のごく一部をきれいに表したものです
02:12
This is only 1,000 galaxies.
たった千個の銀河しかありません
02:14
We think there's on the order -- visible to the Hubble Space Telescope,
ハッブル宇宙望遠鏡で観測できる銀河は
02:16
if you had the time to scan it around --
精査する時間があれば
02:19
about 100 billion galaxies. Right?
およそ千億個ほどだろうと考えられています
02:21
It's a very large number of galaxies.
非常に多い数です
02:23
And that's roughly how many stars there are in our own galaxy.
私たちの銀河にある恒星の数もそれと大体同じぐらいです
02:25
But when you look at some of these regions like this, you'll see
でもこのような写真を見ると
02:28
more galaxies than stars, which is kind of a conundrum.
恒星よりも銀河の方が沢山あります どうしてかはわかりません
02:30
So the question should come to your mind is, what kind of design, you know,
だから 疑問に思うべきなのは
02:33
what kind of creative process and what kind of design
どんなデザインや創造的なプロセスが
02:39
produced the world like that?
世界をこのように作り上げたのかということです
02:41
And then I'm going to show you it's actually a lot more complicated.
それは非常に複雑なことだということをお示ししていきます
02:43
We're going to try and follow it up.
試行錯誤しながら進んで行きます
02:45
We have a tool that actually helps us out in this study,
これを調べる上で役に立つのは
02:47
and that's the fact that the universe is so incredibly big
宇宙があまりに大きいので ある意味
02:50
that it's a time machine, in a certain sense.
タイムマシンになっているという事実です
02:53
We draw this set of nested spheres cut away so you see it.
ここに多層の球体の断面図を描いています
02:56
Put the Earth at the center of the nested spheres,
地球から観測を行うので
02:59
just because that's where we're making observations.
地球を球体の中心に置いています
03:01
And the moon is only two seconds away, so if you take a picture of the moon
月は光速で2秒の距離にあるので
03:03
using ordinary light, it's the moon two seconds ago, and who cares.
月の写真を撮ると2秒前の月が写ります
03:06
Two seconds is like the present.
2秒というのは現在のようなものです
03:09
The Sun is eight minutes ago. That's not such a big deal, right,
太陽だと8分前です 襲来するフレアから逃げるとき以外は
03:11
unless there's solar flares coming then you want to get out the way.
大きな問題ではありません
03:14
You'd like to have a little advance warning.
襲ってくる場合は多少前もって警告を受け取りたいですね
03:16
But you get out to Jupiter and it's 40 minutes away. It's a problem.
でも木星になると光速で40分かかります これは問題です
03:18
You hear about Mars, it's a problem communicating to Mars
火星とコミュニケーションを取るのも大変です
03:21
because it takes light long enough to go there.
光が行き来する時間がかかりますから
03:23
But if you look out to the nearest set of stars,
一番近い40〜50ほどの恒星までは
03:26
to the nearest 40 or 50 stars, it's about 10 years.
10年ほどかかります
03:29
So if you take a picture of what's going on, it's 10 years ago.
写真を撮って見えるのは10年前の姿です
03:32
But you go and look to the center of the galaxy,
銀河の中心となると
03:35
it's thousands of years ago.
何千年前の姿になります
03:37
If you look at Andromeda, which is the nearest big galaxy,
一番近い銀河であるアンドロメダは
03:38
and it's two million years ago.
200万年前の姿です
03:41
If you took a picture of the Earth two million years ago,
地球で200万年前といえば
03:42
there'd be no evidence of humans at all,
人間の痕跡は皆無でしょう
03:44
because we don't think there were humans yet.
まだ人間が現れる前だったでしょうから
03:46
I mean, it just gives you the scale.
これでスケールがおわかりいただけたでしょう
03:48
With the Hubble Space Telescope, we're looking at
ハッブル宇宙望遠鏡を使って
03:50
hundreds of millions of years to a billion years.
私たちは数億から10億年という時間を見ています
03:52
But if we were capable to come up with an idea of how to look even further --
より遠くを見る方法を思いつけば
03:54
there's some things even further,
- 私はそれを大いに
03:59
and that was what I did in a lot of my work,
研究してきました -
04:00
was to develop the techniques -- we could look out back to even earlier
恒星や銀河が生まれるよりも前の時代を
04:02
epochs before there were stars and before there were galaxies,
見ることができます
04:06
back to when the universe was hot and dense and very different.
今と違って熱くて高密度の宇宙の時代です
04:08
And so that's the sort of sequence,
そんな順番に並んでいるのです
04:12
and so I have a more artistic impression of this.
これを別のイメージ図で示します
04:14
There's the galaxy in the middle, which is the Milky Way,
真ん中に銀河系があります 天の川銀河です
04:16
and around that are the Hubble -- you know, nearby kind of galaxies,
周りをハッブルで見たような銀河が囲んでいます
04:19
and there's a sphere that marks the different times.
球体は異なる時間スケールを表しています
04:22
And behind that are some more modern galaxies.
その後ろにあるのはより新しい銀河です
04:24
You see the whole big picture?
全体像がわかりましたか?
04:26
The beginning of time is funny -- it's on the outside, right?
時の始まりというのは奇妙なことに 外側になるのです
04:28
And then there's a part of the universe we can't see
それに宇宙には我々には見えない部分があります
04:31
because it's so dense and so hot, light can't escape.
あまりに高密度で熱すぎるので光が出られないのです
04:33
It's like you can't see to the center of the Sun;
太陽の中心を見ることができないのと同じです
04:36
you have to use other techniques to know what's going on inside the Sun.
太陽の内部で起きている事を知るには別の方法が必要です
04:38
But you can see the edge of the Sun,
でも太陽の外縁は見ることができます
04:41
and the universe gets that way, and you can see that.
宇宙もそのようにして見ることができるのです
04:42
And then you see this sort of model area around the outside,
外部ぎりぎりのところがモデル領域です
04:44
and that is the radiation coming from the Big Bang,
ビッグバンから生まれた放射です
04:48
which is actually incredibly uniform.
信じられないほど一様なのです
04:51
The universe is almost a perfect sphere,
宇宙はほぼ完全に球体です
04:53
but there are these very tiny variations
ただごくわずかの変動があり
04:55
which we show here in great exaggeration.
この絵では極端に拡大して描いています
04:57
And from them in the time sequence we're going to have to go
時の経過に伴いこれらの小さな相違が
05:00
from these tiny variations to these irregular galaxies and first stars
不規則な銀河や最初の恒星になり
05:04
to these more advanced galaxies, and eventually the solar system, and so forth.
より発展した銀河を経て最終的には太陽系が生まれるのです
05:08
So it's a big design job,
壮大なデザインです
05:12
but we'll see about how things are going on.
どのようにして行われてきたのかを見ていきましょう
05:15
So the way these measurements were done,
これらの計測は
05:17
there's been a set of satellites, and this is where you get to see.
いくつかの人工衛星で行われました
05:19
So there was the COBE satellite, which was launched in 1989,
1989年に打ち上げられたCOBE衛星を使って
05:22
and we discovered these variations.
この相違を発見したのです
05:26
And then in 2000, the MAP satellite was launched -- the WMAP --
2000年にはWMAP衛星が打ち上げられ
05:28
and it made somewhat better pictures.
より鮮明な写真が撮れるようになりました
05:31
And later this year -- this is the cool stealth version,
今年後半には - これは格好良くて静かな衛星です
05:33
the one that actually has some beautiful design features to it,
美しいデザインを持っています -
05:37
and you should look -- the Planck satellite will be launched,
Planck衛星が打ち上げられ
05:41
and it will make very high-resolution maps.
非常に高精細な地図を作るでしょう
05:43
And that will be the sequence of understanding
このようにして宇宙の始まりに向かって
05:45
the very beginning of the universe.
理解を進めて行くのです
05:48
And what we saw was, we saw these variations, and then they told us
宇宙にある相違から
05:49
the secrets, both about the structure of space-time,
時空の構造と宇宙の構成要素
05:53
and about the contents of the universe,
そして宇宙の始まりに関する
05:56
and about how the universe started in its original motions.
秘密を知ることができます
05:58
So we have this picture, which is quite a spectacular picture,
この壮麗な絵を用意しました
06:01
and I'll come back to the beginning, where we're going to have
宇宙の始まりに戻りましょう
06:04
some mysterious process that kicks the universe off at the beginning.
何らかのきっかけで宇宙が生まれ
06:06
And we go through a period of accelerating expansion, and the universe
膨張期を経て宇宙が冷え
06:10
expands and cools until it gets to the point where it becomes transparent,
透明になります
06:14
then to the Dark Ages, and then the first stars turn on,
そして暗黒時代の後 最初の恒星が光を放ちます
06:18
and they evolve into galaxies, and then later they get to the more expansive galaxies.
そこから銀河、やがて銀河団が形成されます
06:20
And somewhere around this period is when our solar system started forming.
この間どこかで太陽系が形成され
06:25
And it's maturing up to the present time.
今の形に成長してきました
06:28
And there's some spectacular things.
驚異的なこともありました
06:31
And this wastebasket part, that's to represent
このゴミ箱の底みたいな部分は
06:33
what the structure of space-time itself is doing during this period.
膨張期の時空の構造自体の変化を示しています
06:36
And so this is a pretty weird model, right?
本当に奇妙なモデルですね
06:38
What kind of evidence do we have for that?
どんな証拠があるというのでしょう?
06:42
So let me show you some of nature's patterns
この結果生まれた自然界のパターンを
06:44
that are the result of this.
いくつかお見せしましょう
06:47
I always think of space-time as being the real substance of space,
私は 時空こそが宇宙の本質であり
06:48
and the galaxies and the stars just like the foam on the ocean.
銀河や星は海の泡のようなものだと考えています
06:52
It's a marker of where the interesting waves are and whatever went on.
面白い波がどこにあり 何が起きたかを示すものなのです
06:57
So here is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey showing the location of a million galaxies.
これはスローン デジタル スカイ サーベイによる100万個の銀河で
07:01
So there's a dot on here for every galaxy.
一つひとつの点が銀河の位置を示しています
07:07
They go out and point a telescope at the sky, take a picture,
調査では望遠鏡を空に向けて写真を撮り
07:09
identify what are stars and throw them away, look at the galaxies,
銀河に注目するので恒星は除外して
07:12
estimate how far away they are, and plot them up.
距離を推定して作図すると
07:15
And just put radially they're going out that way.
放射状にこのようなものができます
07:18
And you see these structures, this thing we call the Great Wall,
宇宙の大規模構造である グレートウォールが見えます
07:20
but there are voids and those kinds of stuff, and they kind of fade out
一方で空洞の部分や暗くなっている部分もあります
07:23
because the telescope isn't sensitive enough to do it.
望遠鏡の性能によるものです
07:26
Now I'm going to show you this in 3D.
3Dで見てみましょう
07:28
What happens is, you take pictures
どうするのかというと
07:31
as the Earth rotates, you get a fan across the sky.
地球の自転に合わせて扇形に宇宙を撮影します
07:32
There are some places you can't look because of our own galaxy,
我々の銀河に邪魔されて見えない場所や
07:35
or because there are no telescopes available to do it.
望遠鏡の制約により見えない場所もあります
07:37
So the next picture shows you the three-dimensional version of this rotating around.
次の映像では 3D 版をくるくる回して見せます
07:41
Do you see the fan-like scans made across the sky?
宇宙が扇形に映し出されているのがわかりますか?
07:45
Remember, every spot on here is a galaxy, and you see the galaxies,
ひとつひとつの点が銀河を現しています
07:48
you know, sort of in our neighborhood, and you sort of see the structure.
比較的我々の銀河から近い場所に先ほどの
07:54
And you see this thing we call the Great Wall,
グレートウォールが見えます
07:58
and you see the complicated structure, and you see these voids.
複雑な構造もあれば空洞もあります
08:00
There are places where there are no galaxies and there are places
銀河のない場所もあれば
08:03
where there are thousands of galaxies clumped together, right.
何千もの銀河が密集している場所もあります
08:05
So there's an interesting pattern,
面白いパターンがありそうですが
08:08
but we don't have enough data here to actually see the pattern.
それを調べるにはデータが不足しています
08:10
We only have a million galaxies, right?
たった100万の銀河についてのデータしかないのです
08:12
So we're keeping, like, a million balls in the air
空にある100万のボールを見ているようなものです
08:14
but, what's going on?
ではどうするか?
08:16
There's another survey which is very similar to this,
これとよく似た調査結果があります
08:18
called the Two-degree Field of View Galaxy Redshift Survey.
2度視野銀河赤方偏移観測です
08:20
Now we're going to fly through it at warp a million.
2度の視野の中で遥か遠くまで観測します
08:26
And every time there's a galaxy -- at its location there's a galaxy --
銀河を見つける度に
08:29
and if we know anything about the galaxy, which we do,
赤色偏移などを観測し
08:33
because there's a redshift measurement and everything,
銀河の種類や色を
08:35
you put in the type of galaxy and the color,
記録していくのです
08:37
so this is the real representation.
これは実際の観測結果を表したものです
08:39
And when you're in the middle of the galaxies
銀河の真ん中にいるときは
08:41
it's hard to see the pattern; it's like being in the middle of life.
パターンが見えづらくなります 人生の真ん中のようなものです
08:42
It's hard to see the pattern in the middle of the audience,
観客の真ん中にいると
08:45
it's hard to see the pattern of this.
パターンは見えにくいものです
08:46
So we're going to go out and swing around and look back at this.
外に出てから見てみましょう
08:48
And you'll see, first, the structure of the survey,
まず調査の構造がわかります
08:53
and then you'll start seeing the structure of the galaxies
そして銀河の構造が見えてくるようになります
08:57
that we see out there.
外にいるから見えるのです
09:00
So again, you can see the extension of this Great Wall of galaxies showing up here.
グレートウォールがそそり立っているのが見えます
09:06
But you can see the voids,
空洞があるのもわかります
09:09
you can see the complicated structure, and you say,
複雑な構造です
09:11
well, how did this happen?
どうしてこうなったのでしょう?
09:15
Suppose you're the cosmic designer.
自分が宇宙のデザイナーだと思ってください
09:17
How are you going to put galaxies out there in a pattern like that?
どうやって銀河をこんな模様に作りますか?
09:19
It's not just throwing them out at random.
ただランダムに放り投げただけではありません
09:21
There's a more complicated process going on here.
もっと複雑なプロセスがあります
09:23
How are you going to end up doing that?
どうやってそれを作り上げるのでしょうか?
09:25
And so now we're in for some serious play.
このカンファレンスの題名でもある"serious play"の出番です
09:27
That is, we have to seriously play God,
私たちは神の役割を真面目に演じなければいけないのです
09:30
not just change people's lives, but make the universe, right.
人々の生活を変えるだけでなく、宇宙を作ることについても
09:32
So if that's your responsibility, how are you going to do that?
その責任を負うとしたらどのように行いますか?
09:35
What's the kind of technique?
どんな方法を使いますか?
09:38
What's the kind of thing you're going to do?
どんなことを行いますか?
09:39
So I'm going to show you the results of a very large-scale simulation
大規模なシミュレーションの結果をお見せします
09:41
of what we think the universe might be like, using, essentially,
我々が考える宇宙のあり方について
09:45
some of the play principles and some of the design principles that,
人間が必死になって学んできたけれど
09:49
you know, humans have labored so hard to pick up,
自然は最初から知っている
09:52
but apparently nature knew how to do at the beginning.
遊びとデザインの原則を使ったものです
09:55
And that is, you start out with very simple ingredients
とても単純な材料とルールから
09:58
and some simple rules,
始めますが
10:02
but you have to have enough ingredients to make it complicated.
複雑にするために材料の量は十分に必要です
10:04
And then you put in some randomness,
そこにいくらかのランダムさと
10:07
some fluctuations and some randomness,
ゆらぎを加えます
10:11
and realize a whole bunch of different representations.
さまざまな形が現れます
10:13
So what I'm going to do is show you
これからお見せするのは
10:16
the distribution of matter as a function of scales.
スケールに応じて定まる物質の分布です
10:18
We're going to zoom in, but this is a plot of what it is.
ズームインしましょう
10:20
And we had to add one more thing to make the universe come out right.
適正な宇宙にするために もう一種の素材を加えなければなりません
10:23
It's called dark matter.
暗黒物質です
10:27
That is matter that doesn't interact with light
私やこのステージなどの
10:29
the typical way that ordinary matter does,
通常の物質とは違い
10:30
the way the light's shining on me or on the stage.
光との相互作用をしない物質です
10:32
It's transparent to light, but in order for you to see it,
暗黒物質は光に対して透明ですが
10:35
we're going to make it white. OK?
ここでは 白く表現します
10:37
So the stuff that's in this picture that's white, that is the dark matter.
図で白く見える部分が暗黒物質です
10:39
It should be called invisible matter,
目に見えない物質と呼ぶべきですが
10:42
but the dark matter we've made visible.
私たちが目に見えるようにしたのです
10:44
And the stuff that is in the yellow color,
黄色の部分は
10:46
that is the ordinary kind of matter that's turned into stars and galaxies.
星や銀河になる通常の物質です
10:49
So I'll show you the next movie.
動画を見てみましょう
10:53
So this -- we're going to zoom in.
ズームインします
10:55
Notice this pattern and pay attention to this pattern.
この模様に注目して下さい
10:58
We're going to zoom in and zoom in.
もっとズームインしていきます
11:00
And you'll see there are all these filaments and structures and voids.
フィラメント(糸状の構造)や空洞が見えますね
11:04
And when a number of filaments come together in a knot,
たくさんのフィラメントがまとまって結び目のようになると
11:08
that makes a supercluster of galaxies.
超銀河団ができます
11:11
This one we're zooming in on
今ズームインしているものは
11:13
is somewhere between 100,000 and a million galaxies in that small region.
狭い範囲に10万から100万の銀河があります
11:15
So we live in the boonies.
私たちはど田舎にいるのです
11:18
We don't live in the center of the solar system,
私たちは太陽系の中心にはいません
11:19
we don't live in the center of the galaxy
銀河の中心にもいません
11:22
and our galaxy's not in the center of the cluster.
そして我々の銀河は銀河集団の中心ではありません
11:23
So we're zooming in.
ズームインを続けます
11:26
This is a region which probably has more than 100,000,
10万以上の銀河がある場所です
11:28
on the order of a million galaxies in that region.
そのエリアには約100万の銀河があります
11:30
We're going to keep zooming in. OK.
もっとズームインしましょう
11:33
And so I forgot to tell you the scale.
スケールを言い忘れていました
11:36
A parsec is 3.26 light years.
1パーセクは3.26光年です
11:38
So a gigaparsec is three billion light years -- that's the scale.
1ギガパーセクは30 億光年ほどになります
11:41
So it takes light three billion years to travel over that distance.
光がその距離を行くのに30億年かかるということです
11:44
Now we're into a distance sort of between here and here.
この2点の距離を考えましょう
11:47
That's the distance between us and Andromeda, right?
これが私たちとアンドロメダの距離です
11:50
These little specks that you're seeing in here, they're galaxies.
ここに見える小さなしみは銀河です
11:53
Now we're going to zoom back out,
ズームバックして戻ると
11:58
and you can see this structure that,
構造を見ることができます
12:02
when we get very far out, looks very regular,
遠くからだと規則正しく見えますが
12:05
but it's made up of a lot of irregular variations.
たくさんの不規則な濃淡からできています
12:07
So they're simple building blocks.
構成部品は単純です
12:10
There's a very simple fluid to begin with.
最初は非常に単純な流体です
12:12
It's got dark matter, it's got ordinary matter,
普通の物質も暗黒物質もあります
12:14
it's got photons and it's got neutrinos,
光子やニュートリノもありますが
12:18
which don't play much role in the later part of the universe.
初期を除いてはたいした役割はありません
12:21
And it's just a simple fluid and it, over time,
単純な流体が時を経て
12:24
develops into this complicated structure.
この複雑な構造に発展するのです
12:28
And so you know when you first saw this picture,
最初にこの図をご覧になったときは
12:31
it didn't mean quite so much to you.
大した意味を持たなかったことでしょう
12:35
Here you're looking across one percent of the volume of the visible universe
ここで見えるのは目に見える宇宙の1%ほどです
12:37
and you're seeing billions of galaxies, right, and nodes,
それでも何十億もの銀河 つまりノードを見ています
12:42
but you realize they're not even the main structure.
でもそれらは主要な構造ではないのです
12:45
There's a framework, which is the dark matter, the invisible matter,
目に見えない暗黒物質が枠組みのように作用して
12:47
that's out there that's actually holding it all together.
全てをつなぎ合わせているのです
12:50
So let's fly through it, and you can see how much harder it is
何かの中にいながらその全体像をつかむのが
12:53
when you're in the middle of something to figure this out.
いかに難しいかがおわかりでしょう
12:57
So here's that same end result.
同じ結果になります
12:59
You see a filament,
フィラメントがあります
13:01
you see the light is the invisible matter,
明るい部分は目に見えない物質で
13:03
and the yellow is the stars or the galaxies showing up.
黄色は現れつつある銀河か恒星です
13:06
And we're going to fly around, and we'll fly around,
ずっと先へ進むと
13:10
and you'll see occasionally a couple of filaments intersect,
時折フィラメント同士が交わっているところがあります
13:12
and you get a large cluster of galaxies.
巨大な銀河団もあります
13:15
And then we'll fly in to where the very large cluster is,
非常に大きな銀河団があるところにいきましょう
13:17
and you can see what it looks like.
どんな風に見えるかわかります
13:20
And so from inside, it doesn't look very complicated, right?
内側からはあまり複雑には見えませんね?
13:23
It's only when you look at it at a very large scale,
縮尺を上げて見た時に初めて
13:26
and explore it and so forth, you realize it's a very intricate,
とても複雑なデザインだということが
13:29
complicated kind of a design, right?
わかるのです
13:32
And it's grown up in some kind of way.
何らかの方法でここまで発展してきました
13:35
So the question is,
知りたいのはこういうことです
13:39
how hard would it be to assemble this, right?
これを組み立てるのはどれ程大変なのか?
13:41
How big a contractor team would you need
この宇宙を組み立てるとしたら
13:46
to put this universe together, right?
どれ程大きな建設チームが必要なのか?
13:48
That's the issue, right?
それが大事なのです
13:50
And so here we are.
さあ 着きました
13:53
You see how the filament --
どのようにフィラメントが
13:55
you see how several filaments are coming together,
幾つかまとまって
13:57
therefore making this supercluster of galaxies.
超銀河団になるのかがわかるでしょう
13:59
And you have to understand, this is not how it would actually look
でも実際にこう見えるわけではありません
14:03
if you -- first, you can't travel this fast,
まず こんなに速くは動けません
14:06
everything would be distorted,
全てが破壊されてしまいます
14:08
but this is using simple rendering and graphic arts kind of stuff.
ここでは簡単なレンダリングと映像ソフトを使っています
14:09
This is how, if you took billions of years to go around,
数十億年を旅すると
14:15
it might look to you, right?
もし見えない物質が見えれば
14:18
And if you could see invisible matter, too.
このように見えるはずです
14:19
And so the idea is, you know, how would you put together the universe
こういうことです どのようにして宇宙を
14:22
in a very simple way?
シンプルにまとめるのか?
14:28
We're going to start and realize that the entire visible universe,
目に見える宇宙全体
14:29
everything we can see in every direction with the Hubble Space Telescope
ハッブル宇宙望遠鏡で見えるものと
14:34
plus our other instruments,
他の機器で見えるものも全て
14:37
was once in a region that was smaller than an atom.
かつては原子1個よりも小さな空間に収まっていたことがわかっています
14:38
It started with tiny quantum mechanical fluctuations,
はじまりは小さな量子論的ゆらぎでしたが
14:43
but expanding at a tremendous rate.
途方もない割合で拡大しました
14:45
And those fluctuations
それらのゆらぎが
14:47
were stretched to astronomical sizes, and those fluctuations
けた外れに大きなサイズに広がり
14:49
eventually are the things we see in the cosmic microwave background.
最終的には宇宙背景放射になりました
14:52
And then we needed some way to turn those fluctuations into galaxies
背景放射のゆらぎから銀河や銀河団の
14:56
and clusters of galaxies and make these kinds of structures go on.
不規則構造に到達する必要があります
14:59
So I'm going to show you a smaller simulation.
小さめのシミュレーションをお見せしましょう
15:02
This simulation was run on 1,000 processors for a month
今のシミュレーションは 1000個のCPU で 1 ヶ月計算して
15:04
in order to make just this simple visible one.
やっと今のような可視化ができるものでした
15:08
So I'm going to show you one
次の図に示すのは
15:10
that can be run on a desktop in two days in the next picture.
パソコンで2日でできるものです
15:11
So you start out with teeny fluctuations
宇宙に小さなゆらぎがあった時から
15:15
when the universe was at this point,
始めます
15:17
now four times smaller, and so forth.
今度は四分の一の大きさです
15:18
And you start seeing these networks, this cosmic web of structure forming.
そしてつながりが生まれ宇宙の構造が形成されるのがわかります
15:21
And this is a simple one, because it doesn't have the ordinary matter
これはシンプルなモデルです 通常の物質はなく
15:25
and it just has the dark matter in it.
暗黒物質だけがあります
15:28
And you see how the dark matter lumps up,
暗黒物質が塊になり
15:30
and the ordinary matter just trails along behind.
通常の物質はこれについて行くのです
15:32
So there it is.
そうなのです
15:35
At the beginning it's very uniform.
最初は均一でした
15:37
The fluctuations are a part in 100,000.
ゆらぎは10万分の1程度です
15:39
There are a few peaks that are a part in 10,000,
ところどころで1万分の1程度のゆらぎが生じ
15:41
and then over billions of years, gravity just pulls in.
何十億年もしてから重力が加わります
15:43
This is light over density, pulls the material around in.
密度の高いところは物質を引き寄せ
15:48
That pulls in more material and pulls in more material.
どんどんと引き込んでいきます
15:51
But the distances on the universe are so large
でも宇宙の距離はとても広大で
15:54
and the time scales are so large that it takes a long time for this to form.
時間の尺度も大きいので形成には長い時間がかかります
15:56
And it keeps forming until the universe is roughly about half the size it is now,
膨張ということで言えば 宇宙が今の半分ぐらいの
16:00
in terms of its expansion.
大きさになるまで形成が続きます
16:06
And at that point, the universe mysteriously starts accelerating
この段階で宇宙は不思議なことに膨張を加速し
16:08
its expansion and cuts off the formation of larger-scale structure.
より大きな構造の形成は止まります
16:12
So we're just seeing as large a scale structure as we can see,
ここで見えている構造の大きさが上限で
16:15
and then only things that have started forming already
すでに形成が始まっていた物だけが
16:18
are going to form, and then from then on it's going to go on.
どんどんと形作られていきます
16:21
So we're able to do the simulation, but this is two days on a desktop.
このシミュレーションは パソコンで2日かかります
16:24
We need, you know, 30 days on 1,000 processors
先に見せたようなシミュレーションを行うには
16:30
to do the kind of simulation that I showed you before.
1000 個の CPU で 30 日かかります
16:33
So we have an idea of how to play seriously, creating the universe
どうやって宇宙の創造をまじめに遊ぶかはわかっています
16:36
by starting with essentially less than an eyedrop full of material,
物質に満ちた 涙よりも小さなものから始めます
16:42
and we create everything we can see in any direction, right,
ほとんど何も無いところです 極めて小さく
16:47
from almost nothing -- that is, something extremely tiny,
ほぼ完璧ですが 10万分の一の単位でわずかなゆらぎがあります
16:52
extremely small -- and it is almost perfect,
そのゆらぎが私たちの目に見える
16:57
except it has these tiny fluctuations at a part in 100,000 level,
面白いパターンやデザインを
17:02
which turn out to produce the interesting patterns and designs we see,
生み出しています
17:06
that is, galaxies and stars and so forth.
つまりそれが銀河や恒星なのです
17:09
So we have a model, and we can calculate it, and we can use it
私たちにはモデルがあり 計算もでき それを使って
17:12
to make designs of what we think the universe really looks like.
我々が思うところの宇宙の姿をデザインすることができます
17:17
And that design is sort of way beyond
そのデザインは私たちが元々想像していたものを
17:20
what our original imagination ever was.
遥かに超えるものになります
17:23
So this is what we started with 15 years ago,
私はこれを15年前に始めました
17:25
with the Cosmic Background Explorer -- made the map on the upper right,
COBE(宇宙背景放射探査機)を使い地図を作りました
17:29
which basically showed us that there were large-scale fluctuations,
大規模なゆらぎがあり
17:33
and actually fluctuations on several scales. You can kind of see that.
それはいくつかの段階に分かれていることがわかりました
17:37
Since then we've had WMAP,
その後WMAP(ウィルキンソン・マイクロ波異方性探査機)による
17:40
which just gives us higher angular resolution.
探査が始まり より高角度の分解能力を得ました
17:42
We see the same large-scale structure,
同じ大規模構造の他に
17:44
but we see additional small-scale structure.
小規模構造も見えるようになりました
17:45
And on the bottom right is if the satellite had flipped upside down
右下にあるのは もし衛星の方向が逆になって地球を描いたら
17:48
and mapped the Earth, what kind of a map we would have got of the Earth.
どうなるかというイメージです
17:52
You can see, well, you can, kind of pick out
主要な大陸を
17:55
all the major continents, but that's about it.
見つけることができるでしょう
17:57
But what we're hoping when we get to Planck, we'll have resolution
今後打ち上げられるプランク衛星に期待したいのは
18:00
about equivalent to the resolution you see of the Earth there,
地球上で複雑なパターンを見ることができるのと同じように
18:02
where you can really see the complicated pattern that exists on the Earth.
高い分解能で宇宙を観測することです
18:06
And you can also tell, because of the sharp edges
鋭い境界とか ぴたりとはまる断片から
18:11
and the way things fit together, there are some non-linear processes.
非線形のプロセスの存在がわかります
18:13
Geology has these effects,
例えば 地質学では プレートの移動という
18:17
which is moving the plates around and so forth.
非線形の効果があり
18:19
You can see that just from the map alone.
これは地図だけからでもわかります
18:22
We want to get to the point in our maps of the early universe
初期宇宙の地図でもそのレベルに達したいのです
18:24
we can see whether there are any non-linear effects
何かを動かし変化させる非線形の効果の有無は
18:26
that are starting to move, to modify, and are giving us a hint about how
時空そのものが生じた始まりが
18:29
space-time itself was actually created at the beginning moments.
どのようであったかについての ヒントになります
18:34
So that's where we are today,
私たちは今ここまで来ています
18:36
and that's what I wanted to give you
a flavor of.
それをお伝えしたかったのです
18:38
Give you a different view about what the design
デザインや全てのものの見方について
18:41
and what everything else looks like.
異なる視点を伝えたかったのです
18:43
Thank you.
ありがとう
18:47
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:48
Translated by Wataru Narita
Reviewed by Natsuhiko Mizutani

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About the Speaker:

George Smoot - Astrophysicist
Astrophysicist, cosmologist and Nobel Prize winner George Smoot studies the cosmic microwave background radiation -- the afterglow of the Big Bang. His pioneering research into deep space and time is uncovering the structure of the universe itself.

Why you should listen

George Smoot looks into the farthest reaches of space to the oldest objects in the known universe: fluctuations in the remnants of creation. Using data collected from satellites such as COBE and WMAP, scanning the cosmic microwave background radiation (a relic of the heat unleashed after the Big Bang), he probes the shape of the universe. In 1992 he and his Berkeley team discovered that the universe, once thought to be smooth and uniform at the largest scale, is actually anisotropic -- or varied and lumpy.

Smoot continues to investigate of the structure of the universe at the University of California at Berkeley, mapping billions of galaxies and filaments of dark matter in hope of uncovering the secrets of the universe's origins.

More profile about the speaker
George Smoot | Speaker | TED.com