07:31
TED2009

Jacqueline Novogratz: An escape from poverty

ジャクリン・ノヴォグラッツ「貧困からの避難」

Filmed:

ジャクリン・ノヴォクラッツがナイロビのスラム街で出会ったジェーンという女性との感動的なストーリーを語ります。ジェーンは元売春婦で、彼女の夢は貧困から避難し、医者になり、幸せな結婚をすることでしたが、予想しないかたちで夢が実現します。

- Social entrepreneur
Jacqueline Novogratz founded and leads Acumen, a nonprofit that takes a businesslike approach to improving the lives of the poor. In her book "The Blue Sweater" she tells stories from the philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid. Full bio

I've been working on issues of poverty for more than 20 years,
私は20年以上、貧困の問題に取り組んでいます
00:12
and so it's ironic that the problem that and question that I most grapple with
でも矛盾していることに私が取り組んでいるのは
00:16
is how you actually define poverty. What does it mean?
「貧困」とは何か?どう「貧困」を定義するか?という問題です
00:21
So often, we look at dollar terms --
よく私たちは貧困をお金の観点で考えて
00:24
people making less than a dollar or two or three a day.
1日に1~3ドル以下しか稼げない人々を指したりします
00:26
And yet the complexity of poverty really has to look at
しかし貧困は複雑で
00:28
income as only one variable.
収入は単なる1つの変数でしかありません
00:33
Because really, it's a condition about choice,
なぜなら、貧困とは選択と自由が
00:35
and the lack of freedom.
欠如した状態を指すからです
00:37
And I had an experience that really deepened and elucidated for me
そして私はケニアで、ある経験をしました
00:39
the understanding that I have.
自分の理解していることを深め、そして明瞭にしてくれる経験を
00:42
It was in Kenya, and I want to share it with you.
その体験を話します
00:44
I was with my friend Susan Meiselas, the photographer,
私は写真家の友達、スーザン・マイゼラスと
00:46
in the Mathare Valley slums.
マサリ・バレーのスラム街にいました
00:48
Now, Mathare Valley is one of the oldest slums in Africa.
マサリ・バレーはアフリカで最も古いスラム街の1つです
00:50
It's about three miles out of Nairobi,
ナイロビからおよそ5kmのところで
00:53
and it's a mile long and about two-tenths of a mile wide,
大きさは、縦に1.6km、横に約0.3km
00:55
where over half a million people
そして50万人以上の人々が
00:58
live crammed in these little tin shacks,
トタン造りの小屋でぎゅうぎゅう詰めで生活し
01:00
generation after generation, renting them,
代々、それらの家に賃借払いで
01:02
often eight or 10 people to a room.
1つの部屋に8~10人で住んでいます
01:05
And it's known for prostitution, violence, drugs:
そこは、売春、暴力、ドラッグで染まっています
01:07
a hard place to grow up.
とても大人になるには大変な環境です
01:13
And when we were walking through the narrow alleys,
私たちが歩いた細い路地は
01:15
it was literally impossible not to step in the
文字通り足の踏み場がないくらい
01:17
raw sewage and the garbage alongside the little homes.
小さな家々に沿って、未処理の下水やゴミがありました
01:20
But at the same time it was also
しかし、同時に
01:24
impossible not to see the human vitality,
そこに人のバイタリティがあったのです
01:26
the aspiration and the ambition of the people who live there:
そこに住んでいる人々の、強い願望や野心が
01:29
women washing their babies, washing their clothes, hanging them out to dry.
赤ちゃんの体や洋服を洗い、洗濯物を干している女性たち
01:32
I met this woman, Mama Rose,
私はママ・ローズという女性に出会いましたが
01:35
who has rented that little tin shack for 32 years,
彼女は32年間、小さいトタン造りの小屋を借りて
01:37
where she lives with her seven children.
今は7人の子供たちと一緒に生活しています
01:40
Four sleep in one twin bed,
4人は、1つのツインのベッドで寝て
01:42
and three sleep on the mud and linoleum floor.
3人は、泥まみれのリノリウムの床に寝るのです
01:44
And she keeps them all in school by selling water from that kiosk,
彼女はキオスクからの水を売ったり小さなお店で
01:47
and from selling soap and bread from the little store inside.
石鹸やパンを販売することによって子供たち全員を学校に行かせています
01:51
It was also the day after the inauguration,
これはオバマ大統領の就任式の翌日で
01:55
and I was reminded how Mathare is still connected to the globe.
私は、今もマサリ・バレーが世界とつながっていることを気づかされたのでした
01:57
And I would see kids on the street corners,
街角にいる子供たちと話すと
02:01
and they'd say "Obama, he's our brother!"
彼らは「オバマは、私たちの兄弟なんだ!」と言っていました
02:03
And I'd say "Well, Obama's my brother, so that makes you my brother too."
そして私は、「オバマは私の兄弟でもあるから、あなたも私の兄弟ね。」と答えました
02:05
And they would look quizzically, and then be like, "High five!"
彼らは首をかしげて、そしてそれから「ハイ・ファイブ!」と彼らの手を差し出してきました
02:08
And it was here that I met Jane.
そして、私はここでジェーンという女性に会いました
02:12
I was struck immediately by the kindness and the gentleness in her face,
私は彼女の顔に浮かぶ思いやりや優しさに、すぐに感銘を受け
02:15
and I asked her to tell me her story.
彼女自身の話をしてくれるようお願いしたのです
02:18
She started off by telling me her dream. She said, "I had two.
彼女はまず夢の話を始めました。 彼女は、「私は(夢が)2つありました
02:21
My first dream was to be a doctor,
私の最初の夢は、医者になることでした
02:24
and the second was to marry a good man
そして2つ目は、私と家族と一緒にいてくれる
02:26
who would stay with me and my family,
いい男性と結婚することでした
02:28
because my mother was a single mom,
しかし、私の母はシングルマザーで
02:30
and couldn't afford to pay for school fees.
そして学費を払う余裕がなかったので、
02:32
So I had to give up the first dream, and I focused on the second."
私は最初の夢を諦めなければならず、2つ目の夢に集中したのです。」
02:34
She got married when she was 18, had a baby right away.
彼女は18歳のときに結婚し、すぐに子供をもうけました
02:38
And when she turned 20, found herself pregnant with a second child,
しかし20歳になったとき、2番目の子供を妊娠し
02:41
her mom died and her husband left her -- married another woman.
彼女の母親が亡くなり、さらに彼女の夫が彼女のもとを去り・・ 他の女性と結婚したのです
02:45
So she was again in Mathare, with no income, no skill set, no money.
彼女は再びマサリ・バレーで収入も、職も、お金もない状態になりました
02:49
And so she ultimately turned to prostitution.
そして彼女は売春を始めたのです
02:53
It wasn't organized in the way we often think of it.
それは私たちが考えるような組織化されたものではありませんでした
02:56
She would go into the city at night with about 20 girls,
彼女はおよそ20人の女の子たちと一緒に夜に都会に行き
02:58
look for work, and sometimes come back with a few shillings,
仕事を探し、そして時には、少しばかりのシリング硬貨とともに 戻り
03:01
or sometimes with nothing.
また、時にはお金を稼げずに戻るのです
03:04
And she said, "You know, the poverty wasn't so bad. It was the humiliation
彼女は「貧困そのものはそんなに辛くありません。辛いのは貧困に対する辱めや
03:06
and the embarrassment of it all."
恥ずかしさなのです。」と言ってました
03:09
In 2001, her life changed.
しかし、2001年に、彼女の人生は変わりました。
03:11
She had a girlfriend who had heard about this organization, Jamii Bora,
彼女は友達を通して、ジャミ・ボラという
03:15
that would lend money to people no matter how poor you were,
どんなに貧しい人にでも、貯金額と同等の金額ならば
03:19
as long as you provided a commensurate amount in savings.
必ず融資してくれる組織があることを知りました
03:22
And so she spent a year to save 50 dollars,
そして彼女は50ドルを貯めるのに1年の歳月を費やし
03:26
and started borrowing, and over time she was able to buy a sewing machine.
お金を借りて、後に彼女は1台のミシンを買うことができたのです
03:29
She started tailoring.
そこで彼女は洋服の仕立てを始めました
03:34
And that turned into what she does now,
そしてそれが現在の仕事になっているのです
03:35
which is to go into the secondhand clothing markets,
彼女は古着市場に行き
03:38
and for about three dollars and 25 cents she buys an old ball gown.
およそ3ドル25セントで、ボールガウンを買ってきます
03:40
Some of them might be ones you gave.
そのうちいくつかの服は皆さんが提供したものかもしれませんね
03:44
And she repurposes them with frills and ribbons,
そして彼女はフリルとリボンをつけて、仕立て直し
03:46
and makes these frothy confections that she sells to women
女性用のふわふわの洋服を作るのです
03:50
for their daughter's Sweet 16 or first Holy Communion --
娘の16歳の誕生日や、最初の神聖な正餐式など
03:54
those milestones in a life that people want to celebrate
あらゆる経済状況の人々のそういった人生の節目を
03:58
all along the economic spectrum.
祝うために
04:01
And she does really good business. In fact, I watched her
そして彼女の仕事は本当に繁盛しています
04:03
walk through the streets hawking. And before you knew it,
実際に私は彼女が道で売り歩いているところを見ました
04:06
there was a crowd of women around her, buying these dresses.
そして気がつけばドレスを買いにたくさんの女性が集まっていました
04:08
And I reflected, as I was watching her sell the dresses,
彼女が作ったドレスや
04:12
and also the jewelry that she makes,
ジュエリーを売る姿を見ながら気付いたのは
04:15
that now Jane makes more than four dollars a day.
ジェーンは1日に4ドル以上稼いでいるということです
04:17
And by many definitions she is no longer poor.
あらゆる定義において、彼女はもはや貧しくありません
04:20
But she still lives in Mathare Valley.
しかし彼女は未だにマサリ・バレーに住んでいるのです
04:23
And so she can't move out.
そして彼女はそこから出ることができません
04:25
She lives with all of that insecurity,
彼女はそういった不安定な状況とともに暮らしています
04:28
and in fact, in January, during the ethnic riots,
そして実際1月に、部族間暴動によって
04:30
she was chased from her home and had to find a new shack
彼女は家から追いやられ、見つけなくてはならなくなったのです
04:33
in which she would live.
彼女が住むための新しい小屋を・・
04:35
Jamii Bora understands that and understands
ジャミ・ボラはこのことをよく理解していました
04:37
that when we're talking about poverty,
私たちが貧困について話すとき
04:39
we've got to look at people all along the economic spectrum.
全ての経済領域から人々を見なくてはいけないことを
04:41
And so with patient capital from Acumen and other organizations,
そしてベンチャーキャピタルのアキュメンと他組織からの我慢強い資本
04:44
loans and investments that will go the long term with them,
長期的な融資と投資によって
04:47
they built a low-cost housing development,
ナイロビの中心地から約1時間くらい離れた場所に
04:50
about an hour outside Nairobi central.
ジャミ・ボラは低コストな住宅団地を建設したのです
04:54
And they designed it from the perspective of
そして彼らはジェーン自身のような顧客の観点から
04:58
customers like Jane herself,
義務感や責任感を要求するかたちで
05:00
insisting on responsibility and accountability.
設計をしました
05:02
So she has to give 10 percent of the mortgage --
なので、彼女は住宅ローンの総資産価値の10%、
05:04
of the total value, or about 400 dollars in savings.
もしくは貯金のうちの約400ドルを提供しなくてはいけません。
05:08
And then they match her mortgage to what she paid in rent for her little shanty.
そしてジャミ・ボラは、彼女の住宅ローン金額を小屋の賃貸額に合わせて請求するのです
05:12
And in the next couple of weeks, she's going to be
彼女は数週間後には
05:17
among the first 200 families to move into this development.
この住宅団地に入居する最初の200家族の1つになります
05:19
When I asked her if she feared anything,
ジェーンが何か怖いものがあるか
05:22
or whether she would miss anything from Mathare,
もしくはマサリ・バレー恋しく思うかどうか聞いてみたときに、
05:26
she said, "What would I fear
彼女は「まだ直面していない
05:28
that I haven't confronted already?
何を恐れるのかしら?
05:30
I'm HIV positive. I've dealt with it all."
私はHIV感染患者なの。私は全てと向き合ってきたのよ。」
05:32
And she said, "What would I miss?
「私は何を恋しく思うのかしら?
05:36
You think I will miss the violence or the drugs? The lack of privacy?
私が暴力やドラッグが恋しくなると思う? プライバシーがないこと?
05:39
Do you think I'll miss not knowing if my children are going to come home
1日の終わりに子供たちが無事に帰って来れるか分からないことを
05:42
at the end of the day?" She said "If you gave me 10 minutes
恋しく思うと思いますか?もしあなたが 10分私にくれたら
05:44
my bags would be packed."
引っ越しの準備はできるのよ。」と言いました
05:46
I said, "Well what about your dreams?"
そこで、「あなたの夢はどうなったの?」と聞くと
05:48
And she said, "Well, you know,
彼女は言いました。「そうね
05:51
my dreams don't look exactly like I thought they would when I was a little girl.
私が小さかった時に思い描いていた夢と、今は全く同じではないのよ
05:53
But if I think about it, I thought I wanted a husband,
私はあの頃、夫が欲しかったのね
05:57
but what I really wanted was a family
でも私が本当に欲しかったものは、愛情あふれる家族だったのよ
06:01
that was loving. And I fiercely love my children, and they love me back."
そして私は物凄く子供たちを愛していて、彼らも同じく私を愛してくれているの。」
06:04
She said, "I thought that I wanted to be a doctor,
そして「私は医者になりたいと思っていたわ
06:08
but what I really wanted to be was somebody
だけど私が本当になりたかったのは
06:11
who served and healed and cured.
人に役に立って、癒したり、病を治したりする人だったのよ
06:13
And so I feel so blessed with everything that I have,
だから私は、今の私を環境に恵まれていると思うわ
06:16
that two days a week I go and I counsel HIV patients.
1週間に2日、私はHIV患者のカウンセリングを実施しているのよ
06:19
And I say, 'Look at me. You are not dead.
そして私は言うのよ、「私を見て、あなたは死んでないのよ
06:23
You are still alive. And if you are still alive you have to serve.'"
あなたはまだ生きているのよ。だからあなたは人のために役立たなくちゃ。]
06:26
And she said, "I'm not a doctor who gives out pills.
そして彼女は続けたのです。「私は薬を与える医者じゃないわ
06:29
But maybe me, I give out something better
でも私はもっと素晴らしいものを与えているかもしれない
06:33
because I give them hope."
なぜなら私は彼らに希望を与えているのだから。」
06:35
And in the middle of this economic crisis,
そしてこの経済危機の真っ最中
06:37
where so many of us are inclined to pull in
多くの人が、怖がって引っ込みがちな傾向にあるけれど
06:41
with fear, I think we're well suited to
私たちはジェーンから学んで
06:44
take a cue from Jane and reach out,
貧しいことが当たり前ではないということを認識し
06:48
recognizing that being poor doesn't mean being ordinary.
救いの手を差し伸べていく必要があるのです
06:51
Because when systems are broken,
なぜなら、システムが崩壊しているときは
06:55
like the ones that we're seeing around the world,
例えば、私たちが現在世界中で経験しているようなときは
06:57
it's an opportunity for invention and for innovation.
発明と革新の良い機会だからです
06:59
It's an opportunity to truly build a world
私たちがサービスや商品を
07:02
where we can extend services and products
全ての人類に対して広げて
07:05
to all human beings, so that they can
その結果、皆自分自身で意思決定をし、そして選択することができる
07:08
make decisions and choices for themselves.
新しい世界を築く良い機会です
07:11
I truly believe it's where dignity starts.
ここで、本当の意味での尊厳が始まると私は信じています
07:13
We owe it to the Janes of the world.
それは世界中のジェーンのような人々のおかげですし
07:15
And just as important, we owe it to ourselves.
そして同様に、私たち自身の恩恵でもあるのです
07:18
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
07:21
(Applause)
(拍手)
07:23
Translated by Muneaki Goto
Reviewed by Yusuke Takada

▲Back to top

About the Speaker:

Jacqueline Novogratz - Social entrepreneur
Jacqueline Novogratz founded and leads Acumen, a nonprofit that takes a businesslike approach to improving the lives of the poor. In her book "The Blue Sweater" she tells stories from the philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid.

Why you should listen

One of the most innovative players shaping philanthropy today, Jacqueline Novogratz is redefining the way problems of poverty can be solved around the world. Drawing on her past experience in banking, microfinance and traditional philanthropy, Novogratz has become a leading proponent for financing entrepreneurs and enterprises that can bring affordable clean water, housing and healthcare, energy, agriculture and education to poor people so that they no longer have to depend on the disappointing results and lack of accountability seen in traditional charity and old-fashioned aid.

Acumen, which she founded in 2001, has an ambitious plan: to change the way the world tackles poverty. Indeed, Acumen has more in common with a venture capital fund than a typical nonprofit. Rather than handing out grants, Acumen invests in early stage companies and organizations that bring critical -- often life-altering -- products and services to the world's poor. Like VCs, Acumen offers not just money, but also infrastructure and management expertise. From drip-irrigation systems in India to high quality solar lighting solutions in East Africa to a low-cost mortgage program in Pakistan, Acumen's portfolio offers important case studies for entrepreneurial efforts aimed at the vastly underserved market of those making less than $4/day.

It's a fascinating model that's shaken up philanthropy and investment communities alike. Acumen manages more than $80 million in investments aimed at serving the poor. And most of their projects deliver stunning, inspiring results. Their success can be traced back to Novogratz herself, who possesses that rarest combination of business savvy and cultural sensitivity. In addition to seeking out sound business models, she places great importance on identifying solutions from within communities rather than imposing them from the outside. “People don't want handouts," Novogratz said at TEDGlobal 2005. "They want to make their own decisions, to solve their own problems.”

In her book, The Blue Sweater, she tells stories from the new philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid.

More profile about the speaker
Jacqueline Novogratz | Speaker | TED.com