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TED2009

Nathan Wolfe: The jungle search for viruses

ネイサン・ウルフのウイルス退治

February 5, 2009

ウイルスハンターことネイサンウルフは来るべき流行病の裏をかいて撃破するために常に2歩先を行きます。最初の発生元で恐ろしい新種ウイルスを発見しました。アフリカの貧しい自給狩猟者の間では動物・ヒト間の感染があるのですが、何百万人もの犠牲者が出る前にそれを退治するのです。

Nathan Wolfe - Virus hunter
Armed with blood samples, high-tech tools and a small army of fieldworkers, Nathan Wolfe hopes to re-invent pandemic control -- and reveal hidden secrets of the planet's dominant lifeform: the virus. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
When most people think about the beginnings
大抵の人々はエイズの発生
00:12
of AIDS, they're gonna think back to the 1980s.
と言えば1980年代を思い起こします
00:14
And certainly, this was the decade in which we discovered AIDS
確かにその10年間にエイズと
00:17
and the virus that causes it, HIV.
その原因ウイルスHIVを発見しました
00:20
But in fact this virus crossed over into humans many decades before,
でもその何十年も前に人間に入り込んでいます
00:23
from chimpanzees, where the virus originated, into humans who hunt these apes.
チンパンジーから狩人に潜り込んだのです
00:27
This photo was taken before the Great Depression
この写真は世界恐慌前の
00:31
in Brazzaville, Congo.
コンゴ ブラザビルのものです
00:34
At this time, there were thousands of individuals,
この時すでに何千もの人々が
00:36
we think, that were infected with HIV.
HIVに感染していたのだと思います
00:38
So I have a couple of really important questions for you.
ここで2,3 重大な質問があります
00:40
If this virus was in thousands
何千もの人々が
00:42
of individuals at this point,
この時点で感染していたのなら
00:43
why was it the case that it took us until 1984
なぜこのウイルスを発見するのに
00:45
to be able to discover this virus?
1984年までかかったのでしょうか
00:48
OK now, more importantly,
次はもっと重要です
00:50
had we been there in the '40s and '50s, '60s,
もし我々が1940−60年代に存在し
00:52
had we seen this disease, had we understood
この病気を目撃し、正確に状況を
00:55
exactly what was going on with it, how might that have changed and completely
理解していたなら、感染性質を変え
00:58
transformed the nature of the way this pandemic moved?
全く別のものにできる方法があったのでしょうか
01:01
In fact, this is not unique to HIV. The vast majority of
これはHIVに限ったことではありません
01:06
viruses come from animals.
ウイルスの多くは動物由来です
01:09
And you can kind of think of this as a pyramid of this bubbling up of viruses
動物から人間へと感染するウイルスの
01:11
from animals into human populations.
ピラミッドと考えてもいいでしょう
01:14
But only at the very top of this pyramid do these things become completely human.
その頂点で完全にヒトウイルスとなります
01:16
Nevertheless, we spend the vast majority
ほとんどのエネルギーを費やすのは
01:19
of our energy focused on this level of the pyramid,
ピラミッドのこの階層です
01:22
trying to tackle things that are already completely adapted to human beings,
人間に完全に適応し解明が非常に困難な
01:24
that are going to be very very difficult to address --
ウイルスを研究しています
01:28
as we've seen in the case of HIV.
HIVの例でおわかりでしょう
01:30
So during the last 15 years,
ここ15年間
01:32
I've been working to actually study the earlier interface here --
初期段階の感染方法を研究してきました
01:34
what I've labeled "viral chatter," which was a term coined
「ウイルスのお喋り」は
01:37
by my mentor Don Burke.
恩師ドン・バークの造語です
01:39
This is the idea that we can study the sort of
この考えは
01:41
pinging of these viruses into human populations,
人間社会にウイルスをわざと投げ込み
01:43
the movement of these agents over into humans;
その動きを研究し
01:46
and by capturing this moment,
感染の瞬間を捉え
01:48
we might be able to move to a situation where we can catch them early.
ウイルスを早期発見できるかもしれないというものです
01:50
OK, so this is a picture, and I'm going to show you
これがその写真です
01:53
some pictures now from the field.
現場の写真です
01:55
This is a picture of a central African hunter.
中央アフリカの狩猟者です
01:57
It's actually a fairly common picture.
ごく普通の写真に見えます
01:59
One of the things I want you to note from it
1つ注意すべき点は
02:01
is blood -- that you see a tremendous amount of blood contact.
おびただしい血液接触です
02:03
This was absolutely key for us. This is a
これが決定的な鍵です
02:06
very intimate form of connection.
非常に直接的な接触です
02:08
So if we're going to study viral chatter, we need to
ウイルスのお喋りを調査するなら
02:10
get to these populations who have intensive contact with wild animals.
野生動物と接触する住民を探る必要があります
02:12
And so we've been studying people like this individual.
我々はこの方のような人々を調査してきています
02:15
We collect blood from them, other specimens.
血液や他の検体を採取します
02:19
We look at the diseases, which are in the animals as well as the humans.
人以外に動物の病気も調べます
02:22
And ideally, this is going to allow us to catch these things
これにより動物ウイルスが人間に侵入した際
02:25
early on, as they're moving over into human populations.
初期段階で捕えることが可能なのです
02:28
And the basic objective of this work is not to just
この研究の基本目的は
02:31
go out once and look at these individuals,
1回きりの調査ではなく
02:33
but to establish thousands of individuals
数千人の被験者を選び
02:35
in these populations that we would monitor
定期的に継続して
02:37
continuously on a regular basis.
観察することです
02:40
When they were sick, we would collect specimens from them.
病気なら検体を採取します
02:42
We would actually enlist them --
今進行中ですが協力を得て
02:44
which we've done now -- to collect specimens from animals.
動物の検体を採取します
02:46
We give them these little pieces of filter paper.
このような小さなろ紙を渡し
02:48
When they sample from animals,
動物の標本採取の際
02:50
they collect the blood on the filter paper
ろ紙に血液を取ります
02:52
and this allows us to identify yet-unknown viruses from exactly the right animals --
こうして対象動物から未確認ウイルスを発見します
02:54
the ones that are actually being hunted.
実際に狩猟されている動物からです
02:58
(Video) Narrator: Deep in a remote region of Cameroon,
(ビデオ)語り手:カメルーンの人里離れた山奥で
03:04
two hunters stalk their prey.
2人の狩猟者が獲物に忍び寄ります
03:06
Their names are Patrice and Patee.
パトリスとパティです
03:09
They're searching for bush meat;
家族のために食用肉となる
03:11
forest animals they can kill to feed their families.
森林動物を探しています
03:14
Patrice and Patee set out most days to go out hunting
家の近くの森に
03:18
in the forest around their homes.
ほぼ毎日狩りに出かけます
03:20
They have a series of traps, of snares that they've set up
わなを仕掛け
03:23
to catch wild pigs, snakes, monkeys,
ブタ、ヘビ、サル
03:25
rodents -- anything they can, really.
ネズミ等を捕獲します
03:29
Patrice and Patee have been out for hours but found nothing.
この日は何時間も探しましたが、収穫はありませんでした
03:33
The animals are simply gone.
動物がいないのです
03:39
We stop for a drink of water.
水を飲もうと立ち止ります
03:43
Then there is a rustle in the brush.
するとやぶからサラサラと音が聞こえます
03:48
A group of hunters approach,
狩猟者がそこに近づきます
03:53
their packs loaded with wild game.
なんと獲物でいっぱいです
03:58
There's at least three viruses
このサルには少なくとも
04:02
that you know about, which are in this particular monkey.
3種類の既知ウイルスがいます
04:04
Nathan Wolfe: This species, yeah. And there's many many more pathogens
ネイサン・ウルフ:この動物にはかなり多くの
04:07
that are present in these animals.
病原体が存在します
04:09
These individuals are at specific risk,
この狩猟者たちは危険な状態です
04:11
particularly if there's blood contact, they're at risk for transmission
特にもし血液接触があれば
04:14
and possibly infection with novel viruses.
新種ウイルス感染の危険もあります
04:17
Narrator: As the hunters display their kills, something surprising happens.
獲物を誇示する際驚くべき事実が判明します
04:22
They show us filter paper they've used to collect the animals' blood.
動物の血液採取のろ紙を見せてくれます
04:25
The blood will be tested for zoonotic viruses,
血液は人畜共通性感染ウイルス陽性で
04:29
part of a program Dr. Wolfe has spent years setting up.
博士が何年も探し求めているものです
04:32
NW: So this is from this animal right here,
これはここにいる動物
04:35
Greater Spot-Nosed Guenon.
大鼻オナガザルのものです
04:37
Every person who has one of those filter papers has at least,
どのろ紙の使用者も
04:39
at a minimum, been through our basic health education
最低限の基礎健康教育を受けています
04:41
about the risks associated with these activities,
この研究の危険性についての教育で
04:44
which presumably, from our perspective,
それは我々の観点から見れば
04:47
gives them the ability to decrease their own risk,
自らの危険だけではなく
04:49
and then obviously the risk to their families,
明らかに家族や
04:51
the village, the country, and the world.
村、国、世界に対する危険を減少させるものです
04:54
NW: OK, before I continue, I think it's important to take just a moment
先に進む前に食用肉の話を少しします
04:58
to talk about bush meat. Bush meat is the hunting of wild game.
食用肉は野生鳥獣の獲物です
05:01
OK? And you can consider all sorts of different bush meat.
様々な食用肉が考えられます
05:04
I'm going to be talking about this.
それについてお話しましょう
05:06
When your children and grandchildren
子供や孫がこの賞味期限
05:08
sort of pose questions to you about this period of time,
について質問をする際
05:10
one of the things they're gonna ask you,
その1つはこうです
05:12
is how it was they we allowed some of our closest living relatives,
人間に最も近い生物
05:14
some of the most valuable and endangered species
最も貴重な絶滅危惧種が
05:17
on our planet, to go extinct because we
なぜ絶滅したのか
05:19
weren't able to address some of the issues
これらの地域で貧困問題に
05:22
of poverty in these parts of the world.
取り組まなかったからなのか
05:24
But in fact that's not the only question they're going to ask you about this.
でもそれが唯一の質問ではありません
05:26
They're also going to ask you the question
こういう質問もします
05:29
that when we knew that this was the way that HIV entered
このようにしてHIVが
05:31
into the human population,
人間社会に入り込み
05:33
and that other diseases had the potential to enter like this,
他の病気の潜在性を知っていたのなら
05:35
why did we let these behaviors continue?
なぜ放っておいたのか
05:37
Why did we not find some other solution to this?
解決法を見つけなかったのか
05:39
They're going to say, in regions of profound
きっとこう言います。世界中の
05:41
instability throughout the world,
生活不安定な地域では
05:44
where you have intense poverty, where populations are growing
厳しい貧困、人口増大、持続可能な資源
05:46
and you don't have sustainable resources like this,
の欠乏に苦しんでおり
05:49
this is going to lead to food insecurity.
今の状態では食料不足になります
05:51
But they're also going to ask you probably a different question.
しかし別の質問もあるでしょう
05:56
It's one that I think we all need to ask ourselves,
我々は皆自問する必要があります
05:58
which is, why we thought the responsibility rested with this individual here.
なぜこの狩猟者に責任があると思うのか、です
06:00
Now this is the individual -- you can see just right up over his right shoulder --
狩猟者です。右肩越しに見えますね
06:04
this is the individual that hunted the monkey
最後にお見せした写真の
06:07
from the last picture that I showed you.
サルを捕まえた狩猟者です
06:09
OK, take a look at his shirt.
シャツを見てください
06:11
You know, take a look at his face.
顔も見てください
06:13
Bush meat is one of the central crises,
食用肉は最大危機の1つで
06:16
which is occurring in our population right now,
今まさに進行中です
06:19
in humanity, on this planet.
地球上の人間社会で
06:21
But it can't be the fault of somebody like this.
でもこのように誰かの責任ではありません
06:23
OK? And solving it cannot be his responsibility alone.
解決するのも誰か1人だけの問題ではありません
06:26
There's no easy solutions,
簡単な解決策はありませんが
06:30
but what I'm saying to you is that we neglect this problem
我々はこの問題を放置して
06:32
at our own peril.
自らを危険にさらしているのです
06:34
So, in 1998, along with my mentors
1998年に恩師ドン・バークと
06:36
Don Burke and Colonel Mpoudi-Ngole,
ムポーディ・ヌゴーリ大佐と共に
06:39
we went to actually start this work
この研究を始めるために
06:41
in Central Africa, to work with hunters
中央アフリカに行き
06:43
in this part of the world.
狩猟者と行動しました
06:45
And my job -- at that time I was a post-doctoral fellow,
私は当時博士研究員で
06:47
and I was really tasked with setting this up.
この研究の準備を任せられました
06:50
So I said to myself, "OK, great --
心の中で誓いました
06:52
we're gonna collect all kinds of specimens. We're gonna go to all these
「全標本を採集するぞ
06:54
different locations. It's going to be wonderful."
どこでも行ってやる。最高だ」
06:56
You know, I looked at the map; I picked out 17 sites;
地図で17ヵ所選びました
06:59
I figured, no problem.
問題ないと思ったんですよ
07:01
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:03
Needless to say, I was drastically wrong.
もちろん全く勘違いです
07:05
This is challenging work to do.
これは大変な仕事です
07:07
Fortunately, I had and continue to have
幸い、私のチームには
07:09
an absolutely wonderful team of colleagues and collaborators in my own team,
最高の同僚と協力者がおり
07:11
and that's the only way that this work can really occur.
だからこそ研究が可能なのです
07:14
We have a whole range of challenges about this work.
この研究には様々な困難があります
07:16
One of them is just obtaining trust
1つは行動を共にする
07:19
from individuals that we work with in the field.
狩猟者から信頼を得ることです
07:21
The person you see on the right hand side is Paul DeLong-Minutu.
右の方はポール・デロング=ミヌテュ氏です
07:23
He's one of the best communicators that I've really ever dealt with.
最高のコミュニケーターです
07:27
When I arrived I didn't speak a word of French,
当時私のフランス語力は0でした
07:29
and I still seemed to understand what it was he was saying.
でも言うことがわかる気がしました
07:31
Paul worked for years
ポールは何年もの間
07:34
on the Cameroonian national radio and television,
カメルーンのラジオやテレビで働き
07:36
and he spoke about health issues. He was a health correspondent.
健康問題に詳しい助言者でした
07:38
So we figured we'd hire this person -- when we got there he could
彼を雇えば、現地に到着したとき
07:41
be a great communicator.
橋渡し役になると考えました
07:43
When we would get to these rural villages, though, what we found out
でもこの田舎村に到着すると
07:45
is that no one had television,
なんとテレビがないのです
07:47
so they wouldn't recognize his face.
だから彼の顔がわかりません
07:49
But -- when he began to speak
しかし彼が話し始めると
07:52
they would actually recognize his voice from the radio.
ラジオの声でわかったのです
07:55
And this was somebody who had incredible
我々のメッセージを伝えてくれる
07:57
potential to spread aspects of our message,
可能性のある人物でした
07:59
whether it be with regards to wildlife conservation
野生生物保護であろうと
08:01
or health prevention.
健康予防であろうとです
08:04
Often we run into obstacles. This is us coming back from
障害にもよく遭います
08:07
one of these very rural sites,
これは調査地から帰路で
08:09
with specimens from 200 individuals
200人の検体を運んでおり
08:11
that we needed to get back to the lab within 48 hours.
48時間以内に研究室直行です
08:13
I like to show this shot -- this is
これをご覧下さい
08:15
Ubald Tamoufe, who's the lead
ウーボルド・タムーフィで
08:17
investigator in our Cameroon site.
カメルーンでの調査主任です
08:19
Ubald laughs at me when I show this photo
この写真を見せると笑います
08:21
because of course you can't see his face.
顔が見えないからです
08:23
But the reason I like to show the shot
しかしお見せする理由は
08:25
is because you can see that he's about to solve this problem.
彼がこの問題を解決しようとしているからです
08:27
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:30
Which -- which he did, which he did.
実際に解決したんですよ。本当に
08:31
Just a few quick before and after shots.
過去と今の写真を紹介します
08:34
This was our laboratory before.
以前の研究所です
08:36
This is what it looks like now.
これが現在の外観です
08:39
Early on, in order to ship our specimens,
以前は検体を送るのに
08:41
we had to have dry ice. To get dry ice we had to go
ドライアイスが必要で醸造所で
08:43
to the breweries -- beg, borrow, steal to get these folks to give it to us.
人に頼んで何とか入手していました
08:45
Now we have our own liquid nitrogen.
今は液体窒素を持参します
08:48
I like to call our laboratory the coldest place in Central Africa -- it might be.
研究所は中央アフリカ一寒い所かもしれません
08:51
And here's a shot of me, this is the before shot of me.
私の写真です。以前の写真です
08:56
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:00
No comment.
ノーコメントです
09:02
So what happened? So during the 10 years that we've been doing
現状は、この10年間
09:04
this work, we actually surprised ourselves.
研究をしてきて、驚いています
09:06
We made a number of discoveries.
多くの発見をしました
09:09
And what we've found is that if you look in the right place,
適切な場所を調査すれば
09:12
you can actually monitor the flow
ウイルスが侵入する様子を
09:14
of these viruses into human populations.
捉えることができるのです
09:16
That gave us a tremendous amount of hope.
非常に大きな希望の光です
09:18
What we've found is a whole range of new viruses in these individuals,
発見したのは住人体内の新種ウイルスです
09:20
including new viruses in the same group
HIVと同じグループのものを含む
09:23
as HIV -- so, brand new retroviruses.
新種レトロウイルスです
09:25
And let's face it, any new retrovirus in the
現実を見て、人間社会の
09:28
human population -- it's something we should be aware of.
新種レトロウイルスを全て識別するべきです
09:30
It's something we should be following. It's not something
我々はそれを探し求めているのです
09:33
that we should be surprised by.
驚くことはありません
09:35
Needless to say in the past
勿論過去にこの農村地域に
09:37
these viruses entering into these rural communities
侵入したウイルスは
09:39
might very well have gone extinct.
絶滅しているかもしれません
09:41
That's no longer the case. Logging roads provide access to urban areas.
今は違います。道路が都市への通路となります
09:43
And critically, what happens in central Africa
危険なことに中央アフリカの状況は
09:47
doesn't stay in Central Africa.
その地域だけにとどまりません
09:51
So, once we discovered that it was really possible
このウイルス監視が
09:54
that we could actually do this monitoring,
可能だとわかると
09:56
we decided to move this from research, to
研究を更に拡張し
09:58
really attempt to phase up to a global monitoring effort.
全世界の監視体制確立を決めました
10:00
Through generous support and partnership
グーグル及びスコール財団からの
10:04
scientifically with Google.org and the Skoll Foundation,
手厚いご支援と科学的提携により
10:06
we were able to start the Global Viral Forecasting Initiative
グローバルウイルス予測計画を立ち上げ
10:09
and begin work in four different sites
アフリカとアジアの
10:13
in Africa and Asia.
4地点で研究を始めました
10:15
Needless to say, different populations from different parts of the world
勿論ウイルスとの接触過程は
10:18
have different sorts of contact.
住民によってそれぞれ異なります
10:20
So it's not just hunters in Central Africa.
中央アフリカの狩猟者というだけではなく
10:22
It's also working in live animal markets --
野生動物市場等でも見られます
10:25
these wet markets -- which is exactly the place where
湿地帯市場で活動しており
10:27
SARS emerged in Asia.
アジアにて発祥した所です
10:29
But really, this is just the beginning from our perspective.
でも研究計画の単なる始まりです
10:31
Our objective right now, in addition to
現時点の目的は
10:33
deploying to these sites and getting everything moving,
人員を配置し、研究を開始して
10:35
is to identify new partners
新たな協力者を得ることです
10:37
because we feel like this effort needs to be extended
世界の20以上のウイルスの温床に
10:39
to probably 20 or more sites throughout the world -- to viral hotspots --
研究を拡張する必要性を感じているからです
10:42
because really the idea here is to cast an incredibly wide net
この考えは途方もなく広い網を投げ
10:46
so that we can catch these things, ideally,
理想的にはウイルスを捕えることです
10:49
before they make it to blood banks,
血液バンク、性生活
10:51
sexual networks, airplanes. And that's really our objective.
航空機への侵入を未然に防ぐのが目的です
10:53
There was a time not very long ago
少し前の時代には
10:57
when the discovery of unknown organisms
未確認生物の発見に
10:59
was something that held incredible awe for us.
畏怖を感じた時がありました
11:01
It had potential to really change the way that we saw ourselves,
我々自身の見方や考え方を変える
11:04
and thought about ourselves.
可能性があったということです
11:07
Many people, I think, on our planet right now
多くの人々が今地球上で
11:09
despair, and they think
絶望して人間はもうほとんどの事象を
11:11
we've reached a point where we've discovered most of the things.
発見してしまったと考えます
11:14
I'm going tell you right now: please don't despair.
絶望することはありません
11:17
If an intelligent extra-terrestrial
もし知的地球外生命体が
11:20
was taxed with writing the encyclopedia of life on our planet,
生物百科事典を編纂するなら
11:22
27 out of 30 of these volumes
全30巻のうち27巻が
11:25
would be devoted to bacteria and virus,
細菌とウイルスに割かれ
11:27
with just a few of the volumes left
残りの数少ない部分が
11:30
for plants, fungus and animals,
植物や菌類、動物です
11:32
humans being a footnote;
人間は脚注扱いで
11:34
interesting footnote but a footnote nonetheless.
興味深いですが、でも所詮脚注です
11:37
This is honestly the most exciting period
現在は地球上の未確認生命体の
11:40
ever for the study of unknown life forms on our planet.
研究にとって最も躍動的な時です
11:43
The dominant things that exist here
地上で優位な存在でも
11:47
we know almost nothing about.
未解明の生命体も存在します
11:49
And yet finally, we have the tools, which will allow us to actually explore that world
しかし素晴らしい手段を手に入れ
11:51
and understand them.
未知の世界の探究理解が可能となるのです
11:54
Thank you very much.
ご清聴ありがとうございました
11:58
(Applause)
(拍手)
12:00
Translator:Hideki Kamiya
Reviewer:Takahiro Shimpo

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Nathan Wolfe - Virus hunter
Armed with blood samples, high-tech tools and a small army of fieldworkers, Nathan Wolfe hopes to re-invent pandemic control -- and reveal hidden secrets of the planet's dominant lifeform: the virus.

Why you should listen

Using genetic sequencing, needle-haystack research, and dogged persistence (crucial to getting spoilage-susceptible samples through the jungle and to the lab), Nathan Wolfe has proven what was science-fiction conjecture only a few decades ago -- not only do viruses jump from animals to humans, but they do so all the time. Along the way Wolfe has discovered several new viruses, and is poised to discover many more.

Wolfe's research has turned the field of epidemiology on its head, and attracted interest from philanthropists at Google.org and the Skoll foundation. Better still, the research opens the door to preventing epidemics before they happen, sidelining them via early-warning systems and alleviating the poverty from which easy transmission emerges.

The original video is available on TED.com
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